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Earth Science

vocabulary, LOOK ON TEST FOR picture names
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element
a pure broken substance that cannot be broken down by physical or chemical means
heterogeneous mixture
a mixture that is unevenly mixed
electron
atomic particle with a negative charge
mixture
2 or more substances that can be separated by physical methods
matter
anything with mass and volume
molecule
smallest part of a compound with properties of that compound (atoms held together by covalent bonding)
ore
a mineral that contains a valuable substance that can be mined by a profit
native
a mineral composed of a single element
compounds
2 or more elements chemically combined
nucleus
the center of an atom
proton
atomic particle with positive charge
ionic
an atom that gains or loses an electron (charged particle)
hardness
the measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched
homogeneous mixture
a mixture that is evenly mixed
crystal
a solid where the atoms are arranged in repeating or orderly patterns
specific gravity
the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of an equal volume of water
neutron
atomic particle with no charge
streak
the color of a minerals powder
cleavage
tendency of a mineral to split along a flat surface
gem
valuable minerals that are prized for their beauty and rarity
isotope
atoms of the same element that have the same atomic number, but a different mass number
atom
the smallest part of an element
water
H2O
carbon dioxide
CO2
NaCl
sodium cholride
rust
Fe3O2
Sio2
glass/ sand
C12H22O11
carbohydrates
Sulfuric Acid
H20SO4
air
Example of homogeneous mixture
chocolate chip cookie
Example of heterogeneous mixture
Oxygen
1 of the 2 most abundant elements in Earth's crust
Potassium
K
Hydrogen
H
Silver
Ag
Copper
Cu
Zinc
Zn
Aluminum
Al
Mercury
Hg
Carbon
C
Oxygen
O
Uranium
U
Sodium
Na
Nitrogen
N
Lead
Pb
Silicon
Si
Gold
Au
Sulfur
S
Iron
Fe
Chlorine
Cl
Magnesium
Mg
Calcium
Ca
outer core
the liquid layer of the Earth's core
magnetometer
the instrument to detect small changes in the Earth's magnetic field
Pangaea
the name of the super continent that broke apart 2 million years ago
Mesosphere
the strong lower mantle
Paleomagnetism
the study of the history of the Earth's magnetic field
Magnetic reversals
caused by the changes in the flow of the outer core
Isochron
lines on a map that show points of equal age
Paleoclimates
evidence of Earth's ancient climates
Continental Drift
the hypothesis that stated the Earth's continents were once combined in one large super continent
Sea Floor Spreading
the theory that explains how new ocean crust is formed at ocean ridges
Diverging
the type of boundary where 2 tectonic plates move apart
Lithosphere
the outer most, solid layer of the Earth that is made up of crust and upper mantle
Rift Valley
a long narrow depression that forms at diverging boundaries
Ridge Push
movement of plates caused by uplift at ridge systems pushing plates toward subduction zones
Transform
the type of boundary where plates move horizontally past each other
Plate tectonics
the theory that explains the movement and formation of the lithospheric plates
asthenosphere
the partially melted (plastic) layer of the upper mantle
Converging
the type of boundary where plates move towards each other
Tectonic Plates
huge pieces of the Earth's crust and rigid upper mantle that fit together and cover the Earth's surface
Subduction
the process where one tectonic plate slides under another plate
Slab Pull
movement of plates caused by the weight of a subducting plate pulling the slab behind it
Inner Core
the solid dense center of the planet
Paleontology
the study of ancient life (fossils)
Panthalassa
the name given to the ocean that surrounded Wegner's supercontinent
Convection
What is the name given to the process that causes warm liquids or gases to rises and cooler liquids and gas to sink?
Fossils or Rock types
List 1 of the 4 pieces of evidence to support the continental drift hypothesis?
Urals, Alps
Give 2 examples of fold mountains.
Cascades, Andes, Appalachians
Name 3 examples of volcanic mountains.
colder, lower, softer, or gets deeper
List 3 things that happen to the sea floor rock as you move away from a spreading center.
Mesosphere, Lithosphere
There are 2 plates in the Earth's interior, where are they and why are they significant?
Paleomagnetism, Hot SpotsList
1 of the 5 pieces of evidence to support the plate tectonics theory?
plastic
the type of strain that produces permanent deformation
moment magnitude scale
an earthquake measurement scale that combines the energy released, size of the fault, the amount of movement that occurs and stiffness of the rock
soil liquefaction
when the ground or soil behaves like a liquid during an earthquake
stress
the amount of force acting on crystal rocks per unit area
magnitude
a measure of the energy released during an earthquake
seismogram
the record of the seismic waves passing a certain point
seismic wave
causes vibration of the ground produced during an earthquake
primary
the type of seismic waves that squeezes and push rock in the direction the waves are traveling
focus
the point where the earthquake originates
seismology
the study of earthquakes
strain
the deformation of materials in response to stress
amplitude
the size or height of seismic waves
elastic
the type of deformation where rock will move back to its original shape
fault
a fracture of the rock where movement occurs
seismometer
an instrument to detect earthquakes
Paleoseismology
the study of ancient earthquakes
Richter Scale
an earthquake scale that uses a numerical rating system that measures the energy of the largest seismic wave
earthquake
a vibration f the earth cause by a rapid release of energy
secondary
the type of wave that moves similar to a jump rope that is jerked up and down at one end
epicenter
the point of the earth's surface directly above above the focus
reverse
the type of fault that forms due to compression
modified Mercalli
an earthquake scale that measures the intensity of an earthquake based on damage and other effects
tsunami
a large ocean wave generate by a vertical movement of the ocean floor during an earthquake
normal
the type of fault forms due to tension
seismic gap
a section of an active fault zone that has not experienced a significant earthquake over a large period of time
hot spots
hot regions of the Earth's mantle where high- temperature plumes of magma rise
volcanism
describes all the processes associated with the discharge of magma, hot fluids, and gases
cinder cone
small, steep- sided volcanoes that are built by the accumulative of tephra
fissure
long cracks in the Earth's crust
crater
a bowl shaped depression around the vent of the volcano
conduit
the tube- like structure in a volcano that carries lava to the surface
shield volcano
a large volcano with broad, gently sloping sides built by non explosive eruptions
vent
the opening at the top of the volcano
composite volcano
explosive volcanos made from layers of lava and ash
flood basalts
forms when lava flows out of long cracks in Earth's surface
caldera
large depressions formed when volcanoes collapses after the magma chamber is emptied
plutons
the name given to the igneous rock bodies
st. helens, Vesuvius, Krakatoa, Fujiyama
list 4 composite volcanoes
Kilauea
list 1 shield volcano
Paricutin
list 1 cinder cone volcano
Chile 1960; 9.2
Where was largest Earthquake ever recorded? What was the size of it?
Alaska; 8.7
Where was the largest Earthquake ever recorded in North America?
What was the size of it?
a place where no waves are received.
the outer core
What is a shadow zone? Explain what causes it.
Elastic Rebound
what is the name of the theory that explains earthquakes called?
How many times has Yellow Stone erupted in the last 2 million years?
3
Olympus Mons
What is the name of the largest volcano in the solar system?
Pyroclastic Flow
Mt. Pelee (volcano)
Tsunami
Krakatoa
Tambora
Starvation
Lahar (mudflow
Nevado del Ruiz
Viscosity
Materials resistant to flow?
Tephra
the general name for rusted materials when a volcano explodes?
Stock
A pluton similar to batholith, but much smaller?
Pyroclastic Flow
A rapidly moving cloud of hot gases and ash caused by a volcanic eruption?
V.E.I (volcanic eruption index)
The index used to categorize volcanoes based on material ejected?
biosphere
all organisms (life) of Earth
SI system
the system that replaced the metric system; based on a decimal system using the number 10
environmental science
the study of the interactions of organisms and their surroundings
scientific law
the principle that describes the behavior of a natural phenomenon
geosphere
the area from the Earth's surface to its center
hydrosphere
all of the water on Earth
control
shows the results of an experiment are a result of the conditions of the experiment being tested
meteorology
the study of the earth's atmosphere
geology
the study of the Earth, the processes that change it, and the history of the planet and its life form since its origin
atmosphere
the blanket of gases that surrounds our planet
scientific theory
an explanation based on many observations during repeated investigations
independence variable
the factor in a experiment that is changed by the experimenter
hypothesis
an educated guess or a testable explanation of a situation
Kilograms
Si units for mass
Scientific Method
an an organized series of steps used by a scientist to solve a problem
Earth Science
what can be broken down into 5 major areas of study, astronomy, geology, meteorology, oceanography, and environmental science?
graduated cylinder
the scientific instrument used to determine the volume of a liquid.
astronomy
the study of the universe
atmosphere
represents 2.5% of all the world's water
oceanography
the study of the oceans
crust
the smallest layer of the Earth (by %)
density
the ratio of mass and volume in a substance (formula=m/v)?
nitrogen
represents 78% of the atmosphere
area
length x width is the formula for
scale
used to measure the weight of an object
meters
SI units for length
newtons
SI units for weight
magma
molten rock below the Earth's surface.
vesicular
a spongy appearance in igneous rocks.
sediments
pieces of rock that are moved by agents of erosion.v
foliation
bands or layer of minerals in metamorphic rock.
lava
molten rock (magma) that flows onto the Earth's surface.
texture
refers to the size, shape, and distribution of crystals in igneous rock.
regional
the type of metamorphism that occurs over large areas.
Porosity
the percentage of open space between grains in a rock.
contact
the type of metamorphism where magma moves through solid rock.
Porphyritic
well formed crystals surrounded by fine grained crystals in a igneous rock.
Kimberlites
rare, ultrabasic rock where diamonds are formed.
Petrology
the study of the origin and composition of rocks.
water, ice wedging
name 1 type of weathering and give an example
Petrologist
What type of geologist study rocks and their composition.
Iron Oxide, Silica
2 natural cements
Earth's History, Mineral Resources
Give 2 reasons why rocks are important.
meteorite
What is the oldest object found on the Earth's surface?
Greenland, South Africa
Name 2 places on Earth where we find the oldest terrestrial rock?
Ernest Rutherford
In 1904, What discovery revolutionized the science geology?
Limestone
What is TN state rock?
James Hutton
Who is the scottish geologist who is sometimes referred to the "Father of Genetics"?
Igneous
Andesite
Igneous
Rhyolite
Igenous
Obsidian (Rock type)
Sedimentary
Coal (Bituminous)
Metamorphic
Marble
Igneous
Granite
Sedimentary
Shale
Metamorphic
Quartzite
Metamorphic
Schist
Sedimentary
Fossiliferous Limestone
Igneous
Basalt
Sedimentary
Conglomerate
Sedimentary
Limestone
Igneous
Gabbro
Metamorphic
Gneiss
Sedimentary
Sandstone
Igneous
Pumice
Metamorphic
Slate
Igneous
Scoria
Sedimentary
Rock Salt