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cell test review

review
STUDY
PLAY
Robert Hooke
Named the cell when looking at dead cork wood.
Cell Theory
(1)All living things are made up of cells (basic unit of life)
(2)All cells come from other living cells
ocular
eyepiece: looks through and magnifies by ten
objective lens
one of three lenses that magnify the image 4X,10X, or 40X
nose
part of microscope that holds and allows you to rotate the objective lenses
diaphram
Regulates the amount of light passing through the stage opening
fine focus
moves the stage to get the image in detailed focus
coarse focus
moves the slide to get the image in general focus
Resolution
How sharp or detailed the image is. The closer you zoom in, the lower the resolution
FOV
how large of an area you can see/focus on at once through a lense
Depth of field
how far the microscope is focusing in on different levels of the object
micrometer
a metric unit equal to one millionth of a meter
prokaryotic
a cell with which operates without a nucleus (bacteria only)
eukaryotic
a cell which has a nucleus (everything but bacteria)
Nucleus
holds DNA(cell instructions), controls cell activity
chloroplast
creates sugar through photosynthesis "sugar factories", plant only
ribosome
protein factory, makes proteins for cell
cell wall
plant only, supports and protects plant cell, gives shape to cell, made of cellulose which animals can't digest (fiber)
cell or plasma membrane
gatekeeper, controls what enters and leaves the cell, phospholipid/protein sandwich
nucleolus (one or more)
little nucleus, produces ribosomes
mitochondria
powerhouse of the cell, produces energy (ATP) from oxygen and sugar(Cellular respiration)
golgi apparatus
stack of membranes that packages molecules and sends them out of the cell
vacuole
larger in plant cells, used for storage of water, food, waste, ect. May carry out digestion or water balance
chromosome (chromatin)
contain DNA and protein, found in the nucleus
cytoplasm
a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are found, chemical reactions (metabolism) occurs here
centrioles
animal only, involved in cell division
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
System of internal tunnel) within the cytoplasm. Membranes are rough due to the presence of ribosomes. functions in transport proteins within the cytoplasm
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
System of internal tunnel) within the cytoplasm. Produce and transport materials like lipids(fats)
Nuclear membrane
controls what goes in and out of the nucleus
lysosome
an organelle found in the cytoplasm of most cells when broken "eats" cell and recycles material
peroxisome
breaks down some toxins in the cell
secretory vesicle
small, membrane bound sacs that transport packaged chemicals from golgi apparatus to exterior of the cell.
cytoskeleton
network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement
flagella
whip-like structure used for cell movement
cilia
short hair-like structures projecting from a cell that move a cell through its surroundings
animal cell
have no cell wall, use have centrioles for reproduction
plant cells
have a cell wall as well as a cell membrane, do not have centrioles for reproduction.
active transport
transport of (usually) larger particles across the cell membrane, using energy from the cell. i.e. diffusion of starch through the membrane.
passive transport
movement of particles across the cell semipermiable cell membrane without the use of energy from the cell. i.e. osmosis of water through the cell membrane.
Diffusion
the spread of molecules around a solution
osmosis
A kind of diffusion which is the distribution of water through a cell membrane
Hypertonic Solution
when the solution has a higher concentration of water molecules than the cell (flows in)
isotonic solution
when the solution and the cell have an equal concentration of water molecules
hypotonic solution
when the solution has a lower concentration of water than the cell (flows out)
plasmolysis
plasmolysis is when a cell loses water
cytolysis
the disintegration of a cell
turgor pressure
Water pressure
Semipermeable
Something which only some things can pass through
telophase
Two nuclei begin to form around the new bundles of chromosomes. A cleavage furrow(pinching in of membrane) forms in animal cells and a cell plate (new cell wall) in plant cells
metaphase
Sister chromatids line up at the middle of the cell (equator). They are attached to spindle fibers which help get them in place.
anaphase
The sister chromatids separate at the centromere and pull apart bringing identical DNA to each side of the cell
prophase
Chromosomes begin to condense and become visable as two chromatids connected by a centromere. Nuclear membrane is disappearing. Spindle fibers begin to form.
cytokinesis
In animal cells the cleavage furrow pinches in until the cells separate into two daughter cells.
interphase
The stage of the cell cycle when the cell is: growing, engaged in metabolic activity, carrying out its normal functions, and DNA replicates (makes a copy of itself) at the end of this phase.
Plasma Membrane
The gatekeeper of the cell (Cell Membrane). Controls what goes in and out
solution
Water with a substance which is dissolved in it
solute
the substance dissolved in a solution
solvent
the substance which dissolves the solute
osmotic equilibrium
osmotic equilibrium occurs when osmosis is happening at the same rate both in and out through the cell membrane, if osmosis is still occurring at all
homeostasis
the process by which organisms maintain a stable internal environment
mitosis
the process of mitosis is important to complex biological organisms like us because it is why we grow, and if we didn't grow, we would only have the lifetime of a single cell. It is important to single cellular organisms because if it could not reproduce, there would be no way for the organism to pass on it's genes and it would die out as soon as it came to be.