Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads


Robert Hooke

Named the cell when looking at dead cork wood.

Cell Theory

(1)All living things are made up of cells (basic unit of life)
(2)All cells come from other living cells


eyepiece: looks through and magnifies by ten

objective lens

one of three lenses that magnify the image 4X,10X, or 40X


part of microscope that holds and allows you to rotate the objective lenses


Regulates the amount of light passing through the stage opening

fine focus

moves the stage to get the image in detailed focus

coarse focus

moves the slide to get the image in general focus


How sharp or detailed the image is. The closer you zoom in, the lower the resolution


how large of an area you can see/focus on at once through a lense

Depth of field

how far the microscope is focusing in on different levels of the object


a metric unit equal to one millionth of a meter


a cell with which operates without a nucleus (bacteria only)


a cell which has a nucleus (everything but bacteria)


holds DNA(cell instructions), controls cell activity


creates sugar through photosynthesis "sugar factories", plant only


protein factory, makes proteins for cell

cell wall

plant only, supports and protects plant cell, gives shape to cell, made of cellulose which animals can't digest (fiber)

cell or plasma membrane

gatekeeper, controls what enters and leaves the cell, phospholipid/protein sandwich

nucleolus (one or more)

little nucleus, produces ribosomes


powerhouse of the cell, produces energy (ATP) from oxygen and sugar(Cellular respiration)

golgi apparatus

stack of membranes that packages molecules and sends them out of the cell


larger in plant cells, used for storage of water, food, waste, ect. May carry out digestion or water balance

chromosome (chromatin)

contain DNA and protein, found in the nucleus


a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are found, chemical reactions (metabolism) occurs here


animal only, involved in cell division

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

System of internal tunnel) within the cytoplasm. Membranes are rough due to the presence of ribosomes. functions in transport proteins within the cytoplasm

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

System of internal tunnel) within the cytoplasm. Produce and transport materials like lipids(fats)

Nuclear membrane

controls what goes in and out of the nucleus


an organelle found in the cytoplasm of most cells when broken "eats" cell and recycles material


breaks down some toxins in the cell

secretory vesicle

small, membrane bound sacs that transport packaged chemicals from golgi apparatus to exterior of the cell.


network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement


whip-like structure used for cell movement


short hair-like structures projecting from a cell that move a cell through its surroundings

animal cell

have no cell wall, use have centrioles for reproduction

plant cells

have a cell wall as well as a cell membrane, do not have centrioles for reproduction.

active transport

transport of (usually) larger particles across the cell membrane, using energy from the cell. i.e. diffusion of starch through the membrane.

passive transport

movement of particles across the cell semipermiable cell membrane without the use of energy from the cell. i.e. osmosis of water through the cell membrane.


the spread of molecules around a solution


A kind of diffusion which is the distribution of water through a cell membrane

Hypertonic Solution

when the solution has a higher concentration of water molecules than the cell (flows in)

isotonic solution

when the solution and the cell have an equal concentration of water molecules

hypotonic solution

when the solution has a lower concentration of water than the cell (flows out)


plasmolysis is when a cell loses water


the disintegration of a cell

turgor pressure

Water pressure


Something which only some things can pass through


Two nuclei begin to form around the new bundles of chromosomes. A cleavage furrow(pinching in of membrane) forms in animal cells and a cell plate (new cell wall) in plant cells


Sister chromatids line up at the middle of the cell (equator). They are attached to spindle fibers which help get them in place.


The sister chromatids separate at the centromere and pull apart bringing identical DNA to each side of the cell


Chromosomes begin to condense and become visable as two chromatids connected by a centromere. Nuclear membrane is disappearing. Spindle fibers begin to form.


In animal cells the cleavage furrow pinches in until the cells separate into two daughter cells.


The stage of the cell cycle when the cell is: growing, engaged in metabolic activity, carrying out its normal functions, and DNA replicates (makes a copy of itself) at the end of this phase.

Plasma Membrane

The gatekeeper of the cell (Cell Membrane). Controls what goes in and out


Water with a substance which is dissolved in it


the substance dissolved in a solution


the substance which dissolves the solute

osmotic equilibrium

osmotic equilibrium occurs when osmosis is happening at the same rate both in and out through the cell membrane, if osmosis is still occurring at all


the process by which organisms maintain a stable internal environment


the process of mitosis is important to complex biological organisms like us because it is why we grow, and if we didn't grow, we would only have the lifetime of a single cell. It is important to single cellular organisms because if it could not reproduce, there would be no way for the organism to pass on it's genes and it would die out as soon as it came to be.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording