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(1)All living things are made up of cells (basic unit of life)
(2)All cells come from other living cells
plant only, supports and protects plant cell, gives shape to cell, made of cellulose which animals can't digest (fiber)
cell or plasma membrane
gatekeeper, controls what enters and leaves the cell, phospholipid/protein sandwich
powerhouse of the cell, produces energy (ATP) from oxygen and sugar(Cellular respiration)
larger in plant cells, used for storage of water, food, waste, ect. May carry out digestion or water balance
a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are found, chemical reactions (metabolism) occurs here
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
System of internal tunnel) within the cytoplasm. Membranes are rough due to the presence of ribosomes. functions in transport proteins within the cytoplasm
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
System of internal tunnel) within the cytoplasm. Produce and transport materials like lipids(fats)
an organelle found in the cytoplasm of most cells when broken "eats" cell and recycles material
small, membrane bound sacs that transport packaged chemicals from golgi apparatus to exterior of the cell.
network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement
transport of (usually) larger particles across the cell membrane, using energy from the cell. i.e. diffusion of starch through the membrane.
movement of particles across the cell semipermiable cell membrane without the use of energy from the cell. i.e. osmosis of water through the cell membrane.
when the solution has a higher concentration of water molecules than the cell (flows in)
Two nuclei begin to form around the new bundles of chromosomes. A cleavage furrow(pinching in of membrane) forms in animal cells and a cell plate (new cell wall) in plant cells
Sister chromatids line up at the middle of the cell (equator). They are attached to spindle fibers which help get them in place.
The sister chromatids separate at the centromere and pull apart bringing identical DNA to each side of the cell
Chromosomes begin to condense and become visable as two chromatids connected by a centromere. Nuclear membrane is disappearing. Spindle fibers begin to form.
In animal cells the cleavage furrow pinches in until the cells separate into two daughter cells.
The stage of the cell cycle when the cell is: growing, engaged in metabolic activity, carrying out its normal functions, and DNA replicates (makes a copy of itself) at the end of this phase.
osmotic equilibrium occurs when osmosis is happening at the same rate both in and out through the cell membrane, if osmosis is still occurring at all
the process of mitosis is important to complex biological organisms like us because it is why we grow, and if we didn't grow, we would only have the lifetime of a single cell. It is important to single cellular organisms because if it could not reproduce, there would be no way for the organism to pass on it's genes and it would die out as soon as it came to be.
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