194 terms

NC General Curriculum: Social Studies 2

Montezuma II
the last Aztec emperor in Mexico who was overthrown and killed by Hernando Cortes (1466-1520)
Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain
Hernando Cortez
Spanish conquistador who kidnapped Montezuma II, looted their gold, defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico City(previously Tenochtitlan) (1522)
Great Lakes
a group of five freshwater lakes of the central North America between the United States and Canada, discovered by Jacques Cartier; the lakes are Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie and Superior
a 16th century British writer of many plays and sonnets--perhaps the most important writer the world has ever known
founded under the patent of the London Company; first permanent colony for the British, original settlers (incl. John Smith) suffered from disease, economy stabled after tobacco was cultivated; this colony was burnt to the ground twice
Mayflower Compact
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
American Indian Wars
European settlers and colonists defeated Native American tribes in order to expand ownership of land and it resulted in the placement of Native Americans on land specified for reservation
Manifest Destiny
the belief that the United States was destined to stretch across the continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean
Poor Richard's Almanac
The most famous almanac of the 18th century published by Enlightenment thinker Benjamin Franklin. Besides the Bible, Almanacs were the most wide-spread literature in the colonies as they covered medical advice, navigational and agricultural information. Most importantly they included weather predictions which farmers used in printing crops.
The Currency Act
forbade colonists from issuing paper money.
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
The Sugar Act
A law passed by Parliament in 1764 thatplaced a taxon sugar, molasses, and other products shippped to the colonies, also called harsh punishment of smugglers.
The Stamp Act
Put a tax on legal documents and taxed newspapers, almanacs, playing cards, and even dice. All of those items had to carry a stamp that the tax had been paid. This act led to riots in NYC, Newport, and Charleston.
The Sons of Liberty
During the Parliamentary debate over the Stamp Act (1765), Isaac Barré referred to the American opponents of the new tax as the "Sons of Liberty*." Secret radical groups in the colonies adopted this name and worked to oppose the stamp tax
Townshend Revenue Act
tax to be placed on tea, glass, and paper. revenues raised be used to pay crown officials in the colonies. The writ of assistance was a general license to search anywhere, rather than a judge's warrant permitting a search only of a specifically named property. Lord Frederick North as the new prime minister urged Parliament to repeal the townshend acts because of their effect. A small tax on tea was retained as a symbol of Parliament's right to tax the colonies
The Intolorable Acts
Boston Port Act, Administration of Justice Act, Massachusetts Government Act, Quartering Act (Act requires colonists to house British troops and supply them with food.), Quebec Act.
American Revolutionary War (War for Independence)
war between colonies and Great Britain to determine whether or not the colonies would be free from Great Britain (1775-1783)
Lexington and Concord
first "battles"; meant to get suppies from militia, but shots exchanged between minutemen and the british as the british continued to concord; Americans ambushed british, killing 300
Delaware River
river crossed by George Washington to surprise the Hessians at Trenton, NJ
Articles of Confederation
an agreement among the 13 founding states that legally established the United States of America as a confederation of sovereign states and served as its first constitution.
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
Battle at Bunker Hill
A Battle taking place on BREED's Hill. Militia Minutemen under Cornel Prescott, were defending another Hill. The British charged the hill 3 times. The first two times, the Colonists did not fire until the saw the "White's of the men's eyes." They also fired at Officers first. On the third attempt to take Breed's Hill, the British succeed. They succeed because the Colonists had little supplies to continue fighting and were cut-off from any help.
Alien and Sedation Acts
series of acts signed by John Adams, designed to suppress percieved French agents working against American neutrality; the acts gave the president power to deport "dangerous" aliens, lengthen the residencey requirement for citizenship, and restrict freedoms of speech and press.
War of 1812
A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
Treaty of Ghent
a treaty signed in Belgium that ends the War of 1812; it is signed in 1814 but since news took over six weeks to get across, the Battle of New Orleans was still fought in 1815
Battle of Waterloo
June 18, 1815 Britian, Russia, Prussia, Austria defeat Napoleon & exile him to island of St. Helena
Underground Railroad
1830, Harriet Tubman, a system that helped enslaved African Americans follow a network of escape routes out of the South to freedom in the North
Battle of the Alamo
1836 battle during the Texas Revolution that resulted in the massacre of about 200 Americans who were defending this fort (including frontiersman Davy Crockett); vengeful Americans rallied to the cry "Remember the ___" when they eventually defeated the Mexicans at San Jacinto.
Santa Anna
Mexican general who tried to crush the Texas revolt and who lost battles to Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War (1795-1876)
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
Karl Marx
German journalist and philosopher, founder of the Marxist branch of socialism and Communism. He is known for two books: The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (Vols. I-III, 1867-1894).
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.
Civil War
The period of warfare between the Confederate States of America (1861-1865) and the United States over the issues of states' rights and slavery.
The Emancipation Proclamation
After the battle of Antietem, President Lincoln announced that slaves in the South would be free. It didnt immediately free the slaves, but had other effects. The abolition of slavery became a goal of the war. European nations were thinking about joining the war on the Confederate side, but after this was issued, the Working Classes of the European nations began to sympathize with the North, and the governments decided not to intervene.
12th Amendment
added the seperation of the president and vice president onto two different ballots
11th Amendment
Prohibits citizens of one state or foreign country from suing another state.
9th Amendment
Citizens entitled to rights not listed in the Constitution
8th Amendment
No cruel and unusual punishments
7th Amendment
Right to a trial by jury
6th Amendment
Right to a fair, speedy trial
5th Amendment
Protects the rights of people accused of crimes
4th Amendment
No unreasonable searches or siezures
3rd Amendment
No quartering of soldiers
2nd Amendment
Right to bear arms
1st Amendment
freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition
16th Amendment
Amendment to the United States Constitution (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income.
17th Amendment
Direct election of senators
18th Amendment
Establishes Prohibition of alcohol (Repealed by Twenty-first Amendment)
19th Amendment
gave women the right to vote
20th Amendment
reduce the amount of time between the election of the President and Congress and the beginning of their terms.
21st Amendment
repeal of prohibition
22nd Amendment
limits the number of terms a president may be elected to serve
23rd Amendment
(JFK), gave residents of Washington DC the right to vote
24th Amendment
outlawed the poll tax
25th Amendment
Passed in 1951, this amendment permits the vice president to become acting president if both the vice president and the president's cabinet determine that the president is disabled. The amendment also outlines how a recuperated president can reclaim the job.
26th Amendment
lowered the voting age to 18
27th Amendment
regulates pay raises for members of Congress
National Woman Suffrage Association
militant suffragist organization founded by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony
Mao Zedong
Leader of the Chinese Communist Party (1927-1976). He led the Communists on the Long March (1934-1935) and rebuilt the Communist Party and Red Army during the Japanese occupation of China (1937-1945). (789)
Spanish American War
War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines, where the US supported Cuba. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
says a continuous revolution is necessary if the leaders of a communist state are to keep in touch with the people.
theory of socialism in which a class struggle would exist until the workers were finally victorious, creating a classless society
Vladimir Lenin
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)
secular religion constructed by Stalin in which Lenin was revered as a demigod
Treaty of Versailles
the treaty with Germany by the Allied powers which demanded huge reparations and took land from the Germans. It ended WWI.
Benito Mussolini
head of the Italian Fascist party. Mussolini was known as El Duce and was leader of Italy, the first Fascist regime, during World War II.
a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition
Black Friday
1929 Stock Market Crashed
Brought the "Roaring 20's" to a halt.
Munich Agreement
In an effort to appease German ambitions, Britain and France agreed in this in 1938 to let Germany occupy part of Czech, yet this appeasement only furthered Hitler's conquests.
Pearl Harbor
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, because the Japenese suspected the US was preparing to enter the war with an amazing pacific fleet. They attacked to scare us away, and instead "woke a sleeping giant" bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
Battle of Stalingrad
Soviet and German armies fought this war. The Red Army (Russia) was victorious and saved Stalingrad. Huge loss for the Germans.
Battle of the Bulge
Last German offensive on the Western Front in World War II. Its failure hastened German defeat.
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
nuclear attacks during World War II against the Empire of Japan by the United States of America at the order of U.S. President Harry S. Truman
The Cold War
refers to the period following WWII until the collapse of the Soviet Union in the 1990s.This was a period when much of the world was divided by the communist/non-communist battle for military and political superiority. While the USA and the USSR were unquestionably the world's two superpowers, they avoided direct military conflict. Instead, they sought to bring other countries into their fold.
African American Civil Rights Movement
Social movement; Plessy v. Ferguson (separate railroad cars); Brown v. Board of Education (segregation of school); Abolition; The Urban Institute (racial discrimination in hiring); ABC Television Prime Time Live (went looking for apartments); Jim Crow (forced segregation into the south after the Civil War); Problems: racial profiling, job opportunities.
Vietnam War
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
The world's first space satellite. This meant the Soviet Union had a missile powerful enough to reach the US.
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
Berlin Wall
In 1961, the Soviet Union built a high barrier to seal off their sector of Berlin in order to stop the flow of refugees out of the Soviet zone of Germany. The wall was torn down in 1989.
Cubin Missile Crisis
the Soviet Union set up nuclear weapons in Cuba that were aimed at the U.S. (JFK)
My Lai Massacre
1968, in which American troops had brutally massacred innocent women and children in the village of My Lai, also led to more opposition to the war.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964
made it illegal to discriminate based on race, color, or gender in education, employment, public services, and voting. (LBJ)
New Deal
term used to describe president Franklin D. Roosevelt's relief, recovery, and reform programs designed to combat the Great Depression in the 30's.
Little Rock Nine
Nine black teenagers who integrated Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1957 and became the focus of a national crisis that required the intervention of federal troops to resolve.
Northwest Passage
a water route between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans along the northern coast of North America. Europeans since the 16th century had searched for a short route to the Far East before it was successfully traversed by Roald Amundsen (1903-1906)
large groups, own language, customs, and religions
East and Midwest ancestors
hunted and gathered food in woodlands. Fished in ocean and rivers, farmed land.
lived on prairies and in mountains, hunters
dug cities into the sides of cliffs
lived in forests and on rivers/lakes
First people
hunted for bison and woolly mammoths
settlement in new land
permanent English settlement.
Middle Colonies
lived on farms, crops were wheat, rye, oats, and barley. Known as ironworks
Southern Colonies
grew tobacco, rice, and indigo
protestants who wanted to reform, or "purify", the church of England- came to Massachusetts.
House of Burgesses
the first representative of a local government, patterned after British local governments.
Mayflower Compact
agreement provided for a government and set of laws for the Pilgrims before they settled in their new home, which they named Plymouth.
Taxation Without Representation
parliament passed many taxes that the colonists had to pay.
Articles of the confederation
central government that was weaker than the state governments
The first American government
Checks and Balances
power of a branch is controlled by the other two.
Conestoga wagons
sturdier and broke down less often when traveling over great distances.
Manifest Destiny
the idea that it was the will of God for the US to extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific
Homestead Act
law that gave land to any settler who farmed it for 5 years
wanted to end slavery and free slaves
Harriet Stowe
wrote a book that convinced people slavery should end
12 year period following the Civil War. The nation faced the problems of rebuilding the South and reuniting the states. Presidents were Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson- wanted to be gentle on former Confederates
Radical Republicans
Congress wanted to make sure that freed slaves were safe and could make a living and be full citizens
Freedom's Bureau (Abraham Lincoln)
purpose was to provide food for both blacks and whites in the South, to help former slaves find jobs, and to protect them from discrimination.
Black codes
southern states passed this law to keep former slaves from voting, testifying against whites in court, serving on juries, and joining the militia
WEB DuBois
first black to receive a doctorate degree and it was from Harvard. He founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People which has because a major force for civil right for African Americans
First Industrial Revolution
before Civil War, manufacturing products changed from handmade to machine-made
Second Industrial Revolution
after Civil War the economy of the entire nation began to move away from farming and toward industry
Reciprocating steam engine
James Watt; used to run large machines, created jobs, and worked efficiently
buying of all companies competitors
group of workers who join together to bargain with the owners of companies. The rise of unions came after the Civil War when industries were expanding and needed more workers. The first union was headed by William H. Sylvis
Knights of Labor
Uriah S. Stephens; was the first to form local units, or assemblies in different area for all workers
American Federation of Labor
Samuel Gompers; gave unions the right to organize workers around a specific job or craft
Erdman Act
provided arbitration and mediation to settle disputes between unions and employers
Adamson Act
established an eight-hour day for workers on interstate railroads
National Labor Relations Act
guaranteed workers the right to organize and bargain collectively
Labor-Management Relations Act
restricted strikes that endangered the nation's safety, health, or welfare.
wanted to give working people some protection against big businesses
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
sued a railroad trust called the Northern Securities Company
amending the Constitution to grant women the right to vote; 19th Amendment
Stock Market Crash
businesses bankrupt, an era of sadness quite unlike the Roaring Twenties
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
elected president on his promise to get the ecomony back to its feet
New Deal
offered new federal programs to improve the economy and to help those in need
General Assembly
made up of all the members of the United Nations
Cold War
war of words, not guns; soviet union was ruled by a Communist dictatorship in which all its people were to share in the nation's wealth and government
Christopher Columbus
"New World" 1492
The First American's
• Came from Asia
• Asia and North America connected by bridge of land
• Came down through Canada (Native Americans)
5 reasons for European Exploration
o Find a new passage to far east for trade
o Find gold, silver, precious gems, and other valuables
o Claim new land for countries
o Convert people to Christianity
o Adventure
American Indians
live in West and have sued government to repay for land taken from them or granted to them by treaties broken.
John Smith
remaining settler. Wouldn't trade guns so Powhatans killed him.
John Rolfe
came and started to grow tobacco in 1612
New England
traded fish, lumber, and furs with other towns along the Atlantic coast
only white males who were members of the Congregational Church could vote.
Powers of the national government under the confederation:
o To declare war and make peace
o To coin and borrow money
o To deal with foreign countries and sign treaties
o To operate post offices
Weaknesses of the articles of confederation
o The national government could not force the states to obey its laws
o It did not have the power to tax
o It didn't have the power to enforce laws
o Congress lacked strong and steady leadership
o There was not national army or navy
o There was not national system of courts
o Each state could issue its own paper money
o Each state could put tariffs (a tax on goods coming in from another state or country) on trade between states
Causes- War of 1812
o Great Britain and France were taking US ships which interfered with American trade
o US made deal with France: US would stop trading with Britain if the French would stop taking US ships
o US thought the British were arming Native Americans to attack settlers in Northwest territory
o US thought Britain was still interfering with its former colonies
US wanted to take Canada from Britain and Florida from Spain
Events- War of 1812
o US tried to invade Canada- never succeeded
o British plans to invade US from Canada and were stopped
o British gained control of the seas
o British captured and burned Washington DC and then bombed Fort McHenry in Maryland
Results- War of 1812
o British recognized US boundaries and stayed out of northwest territory
o US gained national pride from its victories at sea and at New Orleans
o American industry proposed because it made more goods at home when trade stopped with Britain
o Federalist party opposed the war
Main points of Monroe Doctrine
o European countries could no longer form colonies in North or South America
o Political systems of the Americas were separate from Europe
o US would consider any attempt by Europe to influence politics in the Americas as a threat to its "peace and safety"
o US would not interfere in European governments or their existing colonies
Trail of Tears
the moving of the Cherokees and more many died
Catherine Beecher
urged women factory workers to move west to teach pioneer children. Thought this would improve women's status in society.
Immigration Waves
o To find religious freedom
o Hope of making a better life for themselves and families
o Escape governments that offered little freedom
o Adventure
o Had been sold into slavery
Causes of the Persian Gulf War
o Iraq accused Kuwait of stealing oil from Iraqi wells on the Kuwait-Iraq border
o Iraq wanted to take over the oil field of Kuwait
o Iraq wanted greater access to the Persian Gulf to transport its oil
o Iraqis had long considered Kuwait as part of their country
Results of the Persian Gulf War
o Hussein government remained in power in Iraq
o Iraq allows inspection teams to look for and destroy nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction
o Economic and trade sanctions imposed on Iraq contributed to severe economic hardship there
Causes of the Vietnam War
o President wanted to reunite North and South Vietnam under Communist rule
o US government wanted to stop the spread of communism in Vietnam and throughout all of Southeast Asia
Results of the Vietnam War
o reunited under the control of North Vietnam
o Former capital of the south renamed
o began rebuilding after much of the country was destroyed by bombing and warfare
o One million refugees left Vietnam during the years following the end of the war
Fifteenth and Sixteenth century Europe
-Uprising of criticism of organized religion because of the invention of the printing press and the widespread printing of the bible in the vernacular and not in Latin
-Renaissance: 1) women became better educated and started writing and becoming artists 2) realism in painting
-Transatlantic exploration
-Humanist period of thought
Elizabethan age in England
-The Elizabethan era of Queen Elizabeth I's reign (1558-1603)
-golden age in English history "English renaissance"
-plays reflect Greek tragedy appealing to general public - not focused on politics, religion, social, or ideologistic themes
Nineteenth century women's movement vs. twentieth century women's movement
twentieth century women were much more likely to challenge the misconception that women had to chose between being a mom and working. 19thers would not marry instead.
- Both movements focused on expanding educational opportunities for women, demanding voting rights, and sought to establish union like organizations for support
purpose of articles of confederation
Even when not yet ratified, the Articles provided domestic and international legitimacy for the Continental Congress to direct the American Revolutionary War, conduct diplomacy with Europe and deal with territorial issues and Indian relations.
purpose of U.S. Constitution
provided for a much stronger national government with a chief executive (the president), courts, and taxing powers.
Northwest Ordinanace
making territorial govenments in the west
California Gold Rush
1848-1850 when discovery of cold in california people flocked the territory, substantially increasing the population
Railroad construction in the U.S.
linked California to the eastern regions opened in 1869
The Mexican War
armed conflict between the United States of America and Mexico from 1846 to 1848 in the wake of the 1845 U.S. annexation of Texas, which Mexico considered part of its territory despite the 1836 Texas Revolution.
Chinese immigration to the U.S.
Lured by the news of gold but only formed a small fraction of the population growth during the gold rush
Red Scare in the U.S.
after WWII - claim that large number of communist had secured positions in various government agencies, particularly the state departmnet
U.S. following WWII
Economic boom in the early 70's
Senator Joseph McCarthy
Republican - Wisconsin - wanted to increase federal governments authority to limit the civil rights of U.S. citizens
Progressive Era
During the presidential administrations of Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, and Franklin D. Roosevelt, the govenment enacted a wide reform measuring dealing with abuses of corporate power, labor rights, unemployment, farm poverty. Believed Government should be used to correct social problems like inequalities of wealth distribution and immigration
The New Deal
The New Deal was a series of economic programs enacted in the United States between 1933 and 1936. They involved presidential executive orders or laws passed by Congress during the first term of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The programs were in response to the Great Depression, and focused on what historians call the "3 Rs": Relief, Recovery, and Reform. That is, Relief for the unemployed and poor; Recovery of the economy to normal levels; and Reform of the financial system to prevent a repeat depression.[
purpose of democratic government
promote general welfare by protecting individual liberties, supporting education, and providing for those in need.
Purpose of Bureaucratic initiatives
Enhance the operation of the government
Speaker of the House
Presiding officer over the house of representatives, and is second in line of succession of president
Supreme Court
It has ultimate (and largely discretionary) appellate jurisdiction over all federal courts and over state court cases involving issues of federal law, and original jurisdiction over a small range of cases.[1] The Court, which meets in the United States Supreme Court Building in Washington, D.C., consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices who are nominated by the President and confirmed by the United States Senate. Once appointed, justices have life tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed after impeachment.[2][3]
President's cabinet
The cabinet is made up of the heads of the 15 major department of the executive branch of government . The vice-president and UN ambassador are sometimes included. The departments of state, justice, treasury, defense and perhaps homeland security
The legislative branch (or Congress) is divided into two parts called the House of Representatives and the Senate. These two bodies must both approve any laws before Congress passes them. Congress also has the power to impeach the president if it so chooses.
direct democracy
people themselves - not their representative- enact laws and make all major governmental decisions
things (property, for example) are owned by people or an individual, not by a government or communities, and where people have to work for money, so they can buy things they need or want, such as food. Capitalism mostly has a "free market" economy, which means people buy and sell things by their own judgment.
Role of grand jury
review evidence presented by prosecutor to determine whether there is probable cause in a criminal case to bring an indictment and take the case to trial
Industrial Revolution
Began in Great Britain in 1830 characterized by developments in textiles, iron and steam led by Britain, to differentiate it from a 'second' revolution of the 1850s onwards, characterized by steel, electrics and automobiles led by the US and Germany.
Early civilization of Mesoamerica
-mesoamericans relied on corn, beans, and squash for protein.
-Did not domesticate animals
-used mild metal tools for imporvemnets
-used long distance trade networks
Early civilization of Near East and China
-relied on wheat, rice, millet, barley, and lentils for protein.
-did domesticate animals
-make extensive use of metal tools
-used long distance trade networks
separation of tasks within a system
process by which ideas, products, abd innovative practices spead over a geographical area
relationships in which two or more groups or societies are dependent upon one another
process by which a culture group adopts the traits of a host society to which it has immigrated
Connecticut river valley
Annual flooding gives it rich soils, created over millenia, making it known as the most productive agricultural region in MA. Recieves more rainfall than anywhere else
The Berkshires
Hilly mountains region with limited lains
southeastern Massachusetts
lowland region
Human dispersity across the globe
most people live between 20-60 degrees north latitude where the climate is mild.
Lake Quinsigamond
natural bvody of water situated between Worchester and Shrewsbury in central MA - used primarily for recreation purposes
Quabbin Reservoir
largest body of water in MA and is a mjaor physical feature and source of water for Boston and 40 other comunities in the Greater Boston area
Knightville reservoir
formed as a flood control measure by damming of the East Branch of the Westfield river in Hungington MA
Lake Cochituate
in Middlesex county did supply water to Boston for many years but was not formed for that purpose
Battle of Yorktown
led by George Washington and cornwall