182 terms

NC General Curriculum: Social Studies 1

STUDY
PLAY
The Mayflower Compact
1620 the Pilgrims wanted to separate from the Church of England. They set sail from Plymouth, England on the Mayflower, headed toward Virginia, but the ship was blown off course and landed in Provincetown, Mass.
-Here the Pilgrims signed the Mayflower Compact, an agreement provided for a government and set of laws for the pilgrims before they settled in their new home, which they called Plymouth.
The French & Indian War
1754-1763 Fought by French soldiers together with Native Americans against British soldiers and American colonists. France was defeated and lost most of its territory in N. America. Britain placed all its colonies under strict control and began taxing them to help pay for the cost of the war.

Causes:
1. In the 1750s, France and Britain were fighting in Europe. Tension grew between their colonies in the New World.
2. The British colonists wanted to take over French lands to make money in the fur trade.
The American Revolution
1775 -1783 the Parliament passed many taxes that the colonists had to pay. Colonists called this taxation without representation.
-The British did not understand the hardships brought to colonists by heavy taxation.
-War broke out and the 13 colonies successfully revolted against the British, and the USA was born.
The Boston Tea Party
December 1773, British ships full of tea were docked in Boston Harbor. Colonists dressed as Mohawks boarded the ships and dumped the tea in the water.
-To punish the colonists, the British passed even stricter laws. The colonists called these laws the Intolerable Acts, because they decided they would not tolerate/accept them.
The Boston Massacre
1770 colonists got in an argument with the redcoats and began throwing snowballs and ice at them. The soldiers shot into the crowd. Five Americans were killed. The soldiers were brought to court, where they were defended by John Adams. Two were found guilty, others were declared innocent.
-Revolutionaries publicized this story to build support for colonial independence.
The Declaration of Independence
July 4, 1776 The Continental Congress appointed a committee to write a document declaring independence for the 13 colonies. The committee included Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman, and Robert Livingston. Jefferson was the principal author.
The Articles of Confederation
Drafting began in 1776 completed and signed by 1781The first American government. It consisted of all 13 states.
-No monarch.
-The Continental Congress sent delegates to the government, and each state had one vote. For major laws to be passed, 9 of 13 states had to agree.
-The confederation lasted for 8 years.
-It provided for a central government that was weaker than the state governments.
The US Constitution
1787, 55 delegates from every state except Rhode Island met in Pennsylvania to write a new constitution. It took four months to write.
-George Washington served as president of the convention. James Madison took detailed notes.
-The constitution is now the highest law of the US. It provides for citizens to elect the officials who govern them. It establishes that power is shared between the national government and the state governments.
The Bill of Rights
1793 Even though the Constitution was ratified, many people feared the central government would have too much power. The Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution after opponents of the Constitution convinced the nation that a strong central government without safeguards for the people was a danger to liberty.
The Bill of Rights consists of 10 Amendments, or additions, to the Constitution. It guarantees basic liberties, such as freedom of speech, of the press, and of religion.
-It was ratified in 1793, three years after the Constitution went into effect.
The War of 1812
1812 The War of 1812 guaranteed that other nations of the world would that the US with respect.
Causes:
1. Great Britain and France were taking US ships, which interfered with trade.
2. The US states thought that Britain was still interfering with its former colonies.
3. The US made a deal with France to stop trading with Britain if the French would stop taking US ships.
4. The US wanted to take Canada from Britain and Florida from Spain.
The Monroe Doctrine
1823-The Monroe Doctrine was issued by the 5th president, James Monroe. It was one of the nation's first major foreign policy statements.
-It was written by then Secretary of State John Quincy Adams. It warned European nations not to try to establish new colonies in the Americas.

Main Points:
1. European countries could no longer form colonies in the Americas.
2. The political systems of the Americas were separate from Europe's.
3. The US would consider any attempt by Europe to influence politics in the Americas as a threat to its "peace and safety"
4. The US would not interfere in European governments or their existing colonies.
The Louisiana Purchase
1803, the US bought the Lousiana Territory from the French Emperor Napoleon.
-President Thomas Jefferson's secretary of state, James Madison, paid 15 million dollars to make the Louisiana Purchase.
-Wars broke out between settlers and Native American tribes. Most tribes were forced off the lands.
Lewis & Clark Expedition
1804 President Thomas Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark, two officers in the US Army and experienced frontiersman, on an expedition to learn more about the lands in the Louisiana Territory.
-The purpose was to follow the Mississippi River to its source and to find an all-water route to the Pacific Ocean. The explorers also planned to collect information about plants, animals, climate, and geographical features along the way.
-A Native American woman named Sacajawea helped lead their expedition.
The Mexican War
1846-1848 Causes:
1. Mexico was opposed to Texas becoming a US territory.
2. The US and Mexico both had different claims of what the southern boundary of Texas was.
3. President Polk used this border dispute to justify moving US troops into Mexican territory.

Results:
1. Mexico agreed that the Rio Grande River twas the southern boundary of Texas.
2. Mexico gave all of present-day California, Nevada, and Utah as well as parts of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming to the USA. The US paid Mexico $15 million for this land.
3. The size and influence of the US increased again.
The Abolitionist Movement
1830 people known as Abolitionists began to speak out against slavery. They wanted to free slaves and abolish slavery. They argued that slavery was against the democratic principles upon which the nation was founded, and cited the Declaration of Independence. They pointed out that "all men" included slaves.
The Civil War
-1861-1865 The American Civil War was fought between the North and the South.
1. Slavery.
2. Ways of life. (North- large cities/factories, South- plantations)
3. Free Labor vs. Slave Labor. (The Northern economy was based on free labors who received wages, the Southern economy was based off slave laborers with no wages.)
4. States' rights. (The North thought that no state had a right to leave the Union, or secede. The South argued that a state could leae the Union if it voted to do so.)
Reconstruction and the Birth of Civil Rights
1865-1877 The 12 year period after the Civil War.
-The nation faced the problems of rebuilding the South and reuniting the states.
-Many of the Southern states started passing laws that took freedom from African Americans. Congress wanted the South to accept the end of slavery and that slaves were safe and accepted as full citizens.
Jim Crow Laws
state and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965 Laws passed by Southern states to legalize segregation.
-They created separate areas for blacks and whites in public waiting rooms, restaurants, schools, and hospitals.
-The name Jim Crow comes from a popular minstrel song, "Jump, Jim Crow." Minstrels were usually white people who put on black face.
-Jim Crow laws existed until the 1960s in many places in the US.
Stamp Act
1756 an act passed by the British parliment that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
Progressive Era
1890-1920 A period of American history associated with the reform of government and electoral institutions in an attempt to reduce corruption. Many activists joined efforts to reform local government, public education, medicine, finance, insurance, industry, railroads, churches, and many other areas.
Abraham Lincoln
1860 inaugurated 16th President of the United States, opposed the spread of slavery, issued the Emancipation Proclamation, was determined to preserve the Union, by force if necessary, believed the United States was one nation, not a collection of independent states, and wrote the Gettysburg Address that said the Civil War was to preserve a government "of the people, by the people, and for the people
Emancipation Proclamation
Sept 22, 1862 Issued by Abraham Lincoln declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
US drops Atomic Bomb
August 1945 US drops first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan. Leads to Japanese surrender in WWII
Battle of Gettysburg
an 1863 battle in the Civil War in which the Union defeated the Confederacy, ending hopes for a Confederate victory in the North
Battle of Lexington and Concord
1775 First Battle of Revolution
Brown vs Board of Education
1954 decision holding that school segregation in topeka, kansas, was inherently unconstitutional because it violated the 14th amend's guarantee of equal protection. this case marked the end of he legal segregation in the US.
Civil Rights Act
In 1866 created to grant citizenship to blacks and it was an attempt to prohibit the black codes. It also prohibited racial discrimination on jury selection. The Civil Rights Act was not really enforced and was really just a political move used to attract more votes. It led to the creation and passing of the 14th amendment.
French and Indian War
1754-1763 a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
Fugitive Slave Act
1850 a law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders
Gold Rush
1848 to 1856 when thousands of people came to California in order to search for gold.Miners who rushed to California after the discovery of gold in the northern part of the territory in 1848 were called "forty-niners." By the end of 1849, the population of California had increased from about 15,000 to more than 150,000. Over the next 10 years, some $550 million was extracted from the California mines
attack on Pearl Harbor
December 7 1941. United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II.
Seneca Fall Convention
Organized by in 1848 by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott Considered the unofficial beginning of the struggle for woman's voting rights.
Treaty of Paris
Treaty signed in 1783 that officially ended the American Revolution. Great Britain recognized the United States as an independent country.
Women's Right to Vote
granted in 1919
World War II
1939-1945 War fought Between Axis powers (Germany, Italy, Japan) and Allied Powers (U.S., France, U.S.S.R., and U.K.); Single largest war in the history of U.S.; Introduced Age of Nuclear Weapons; New system of international diplomacy developed as a result; 1939 to 1945
World War I
1941- 1918 global war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. It involved all the world's great powers,which were assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies: United Kingdom, France and Russia and the Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary
Korean War
1950-1953 The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
Cold War
1947-1991The ideological struggle between communism (Soviet Union) and capitalism (United States) for world influence. The Soviet Union and the United States came to the brink of actual war during the Cuban missile crisis but never attacked one another.
13th Amendment
1865 This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slave owners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
14th Amendment
1868This amendment declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States were entitled equal rights regardless of their race, and that their rights were protected at both the state and national levels.
15th Amendement
1869 No matter your race, color, history as a slave you couldnt be barred from voting.
New Deal
1933-1936 the legislative and administrative program of President F. D. Roosevelt designed to promote economic recovery and social reform after the great depression
The Great Depression
1929-1933 began with a crash of the stock market in 1929 an economic depression notable for its duration and intensity that struck the world. Recovery was a long and difficult process.
paleolithic
Relating to the cultural period of the stone age beginning with the earliest chipped stone tools...Also known as the Old Stone Age
neolithic
Relating to the cultural period of the Stone Age around 10,000 BC in the Middle East, characterized by the development of agriculature and the making of polished stone implements. Known as the New Stone Age
Mesopotamia
3500-2350 BCE - Cuneiform and Sumerian; Bablyonians and philosophy = birthplace of first civilizations - land between Euphrates and Tigres..now Iraq
Indus River Valley
2500-1750 BCE - Civilization developed in this valley - now Pakistan - pottery; cities; animals; crops; cotton
Early China
Shang Dynasty - towns...nobility lived in cities and Zhou dynasty were rulers and nobles; peasants-lower; divination-gods
Olmec Society
1200-400: MesoAmerica - rubber people; first civilization - laid many foundations; art
Ancient Egypt
The Nile River runs to Mediterranean Sea; religious rulership; pyramids and valley of kings; hieroglyphics and rosetta stone
Greece
Low lying mountains - personal governments; city-states; mythology; social structure; citizenships; commerce; Athens; Sparta; Alexander the Great
Rome
Hills and Tiber River helped people; mythology; military dominance; stages of government; origin and spread of christianity; constantinople; reason for the fall of the empire
India
Southern Asia - Himalayas - highest mtns.; plauteau region - 3 rivers; Ganges; Indus, Bramputra; Caste System; Hinduism; Muslim Conquest
China
Mountainous - Gobi Desert; Buddhism; Confucianism; Taoism; Construction of the Great Wall
Japan
Sea of Japan;Feudalism; Shinotism; Buddhism; Samurai; Emperors; Shoguns
Central/South America
Plants and trees; Mayas; Aztecs; Incas
Sub-Saharan African
Trading empires; forest kingdoms; harsh climate; sparsely populated; sahara desert.
Rise and Expansion of Europe
Growth of Nations due to Atlantic and Mediterranean ports; long-distance trade;
Colonialism
nations engaged in this when 1 or more species populates an area
Decolonization
Undoing of colonialism - the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country (European colonies in Africa/Asia)
Democracy in Europe
There was an increase in Democracy; increase in knowledge; spread christianity - post WWII decolinization in Africa/Asia increasing democracy..
Indian-Pakistan War
2 newly independent nations (1947)
Sub-Saharan Nations
in 1960s....increased democracy because of decolonization in AFrica and Asia
Kenya, Angola, Mozambique
1960s-1970s - increased democracy because of decolonization in AFrica and Asia
Eastern Europe; Balkans; former S.U.
1980s-1990s - increased democracy because of decolonization in AFrica and Asia
Rise of Global Culture (Economy)
Technology; internet; fax machines; satellites; cable
Spread of Western Ideas
Cultures; regional economies; societies; cultures; comm. and exchange
USA
Development of people; groups and cultural regions; large landowners; farmers; artisans; women, servants; slaves
Settlement Patterns in the US
Opportunity; Industry; innovate; people were restless! in the 19th and 20th Centuries - due to Industrial Revolution in NW Europe - came a rapid rise in population...people migrated to US and chose areas/environ. similar to their European homes -
Magna Carta
a charter agreed by King John of England. Drafted to make peace between the unpopular king and a group of rebel barons; protection of church rights.
Ferdinand Magellan
Portuguese explorer who set out from Spain to find a western sear route to the Spice Islands. First European to cross the Pacific Ocean.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
English settlement on the east coast of North America in the 17th century
Roger Williams
Best remembered for being the founder of Rhode Island. Advocate of religious toleration and separation of church and state.
Anne Hutchinson
Puritan spiritual advisor and important participant in the Antinomian Controversy (schism within the Puritan community).
King Phillip's War
Last major effort by the Native Americans of Southern New England to drive out the English settlers.
Salem Witch Trials
After a group of young girls claimed to be possessed by the devil, a special court convened in Salem to hear the cases.
The Great Awakening
a period of great revivalism that spread throughout the colonies in the 1730s and 1740s. It de-emphasized the importance of church doctrine and instead put a greater importance on the individual.
Seven Years' War
Also known as the French and Indian War; this conflict was between Great Britain and France. Disputes over frontier policy and paying the war's expenses.
Sugar Act
British reduced a tax but increased the measures to enforce the tax, hoping it would help collect tax.
Currency Act
Forbid British colonies of North America from creating their own currency as legal tender.
Stamp Act
Tax imposed on all American colonists and required them to pay tax on every piece of printed paper they used
Quartering Act
Outlined the locations and conditions in which British soldiers are to find room and board in the American colonies
Declaratory Act
Repealed the Stamp Act
Townshend Act
Imposed duties on glass, lead, paints, paper and tea imported into the colonies
Boston Massacre
A street fight that occurred on March 5, 1770, between a "patriot" mob, throwing snowballs, stones, and sticks, and a squad of British soldiers.
The Intolerable Acts
In retaliation for the Tea Party, the British passed several punative acts aimed at bringing the colonies back into submission of the King.
First Continental Congress
a meeting of delegates from twelve of the thirteen colonies that met in Carpenters' Hall in Philadelphia.
Battles of Lexington and Concord
The first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War
Articles of Confederation
Served as the written document that established the functions of the national government of the United States after it declared independence.
Treaty of Paris
the first intellectual property treaty
The Great Compromise
an agreement that large and small states reached during 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the US constitution
The US Constitution
four page document, signed on September 17, 1787, established the government of the United States
Alexander Hamilton
founder of the nation's financial system and the Federalists party - the world's first voter based political party
Bill of Rights
The first 10 amendments to the Constitution
The Executive Branch
President is the head of this branch of government
Legislative Branch
also called Congress. There are two parts that make up Congress: House of Representatives and the Senate
Judicial Branch
branch of government made up of judges and courts. Judges are appointed by the president then confirmed by the Senate
House of Representatives
representatives based on the population of each state
Senate
Each state elects two senators to represent them
French Revolution
Influential period of social and political upheaval: this revolution altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of theocracies and absolute monarchies
War of 1812
Battle between United States and Britain: the war resolved many issues which remained from the American Revolutionary war but involved no boundary changes. Based on trade restrictions
Missouri Compromise
in an effort to preserve the balance of power in Congress between slave and free states, this compromise admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state.
Erie Canal
connects the great lakes with the Atlantic Ocean via the Hudson River
Lowell Mill Girls
Women worked in mills; although paid half the amount as men, these women were able to attain economic independence.
Frederick Douglass
African-American social reformer, abolitionist orator. Escaped from slavery and became a leader of the abolitionist movement
Mexican American War
The first US armed conflict fought on foreign soil; based on borders
Seneca Falls
first women's rights convention.
Compromise of 1850
defused a four-year political confrontation between slave and free states regarding the territories acquired during the Mexican-American war
Reconstruction
The transformation of the Southern United States
13th Amendment
Abolished Slavery
14th Amendment
citizenship rights, equal protection to all citizens
15th Amendment
prohibits the federal and state government from denying a citizen the right to vote based on race
Neutrality Acts
ensure that the US would not become entangled again in foreign conflicts
Iron Curtain
the ideological conflict and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas
specialization
pursuing a particular line of study or work
Industrial revolution
took place from 18th to 19th centuries in which rural societies in Europe and American became industrial and urban
Main industries of Industrial revolution
iron and textile industries, along with the development of the steam engine, played central roles in the industrial revolution, which also saw improved systems of transportation, communication, and baking.
Egypt
this early civilization traded hunting for agriculture and made early advances that paved the way for art and crafts, technology, politics, and religion (including a great reverence for the dead - life after death)
mesoamerican
an early civilization defined by its domestication of certain plants, turkey, and dogs - led to sedentary agricultural villages. Used mythological and religion tradition, a vigesimal numeric system, and a complex calendric system, ball playing, and distinct architectural style.
Greece
civilization the included the development of analytical secular history, creation of naturalistic art style, introduction of philosophical dialogue, and the development of systematic logic.
Location
where did it happen? absolute or relative
Region
a method of grouping information into units of manageable size. defined as an area of land that has consistent or easily recognizable features.
Elizabethan Age
many dramatic works were revivals of classical Greek plays
19th Century Women's movement
advocates of women's rights were much more reluctant to challenge the traditional assumption that women must choose between motherhood and a professional career
Progressive Era
strongly believed that government should be used to correct social problems.
5 Reasons for European Exploration
1. To find a new passage to the Far East for trade
2. To find gold, silver, precious gems, and other valuables
3. To claim new lands for their countries
4. To convert people to Christianity
5. For adventure
Colonization of the Americas
-Spain, France, and Britain sent explorers to the Americas. Later, they claimed huge territories and built colonies.
-France: Canada to the Great Lakes, down the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico.
-Spain: Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, Mexico (where it conquered the Aztec empire), Central and S. America.
-Britain: the Caribbean, the 13 colonies along the Atlantic Coast of N. America
The Mayflower Compact
In 1620, the Pilgrims wanted to separate from the Church of England. They set sail from Plymouth, England on the Mayflower, headed toward Virginia, but the ship was blown off course and landed in Provincetown, Mass.
-Here the Pilgrims signed the Mayflower Compact, an agreement provided for a government and set of laws for the pilgrims before they settled in their new home, which they called Plymouth.
The French & Indian War (1754-1763)
-Fought by French soldiers together with Native Americans against British soldiers and American colonists. France was defeated and lost most of its territory in N. America. Britain placed all its colonies under strict control and began taxing them to help pay for the cost of the war.

Causes:
1. In the 1750s, France and Britain were fighting in Europe. Tension grew between their colonies in the New World.
2. The British colonists wanted to take over French lands to make money in the fur trade.
The American Revolution (1775-1783)
-By 1775 the Parliament passed many taxes that the colonists had to pay. Colonists called this taxation without representation.
-The British did not understand the hardships brought to colonists by heavy taxation.
-War broke out and the 13 colonies successfully revolted against the British, and the USA was born.
The Boston Tea Party (December 1773)
(One Cause of the American Revolution)
-In 1773, British ships full of tea were docked in Boston Harbor. Colonists dressed as Mohawks boarded the ships and dumped the tea in the water.
-To punish the colonists, the British passed even stricter laws. The colonists called these laws the Intolerable Acts, because they decided they would not tolerate/accept them.
The Boston Massacre (1770)
(One Cause of the American Revolution)
-In 1768, 4,000 British soldiers (called redcoats) moved into Boston, Mass. Many colonists were forced to keep them in their homes, so Boston became an occupied city. This occupation eventually triggered the Boston Massacre.
-In 1770 a number of colonists got in an argument with the redcoats and began throwing snowballs and ice at them. The soldiers shot into the crowd. Five Americans were killed. The soldiers were brought to court, where they were defended by John Adams. Two were found guilty, others were declared innocent.
-Revolutionaries publicized this story to build support for colonial independence.
5 Results of the American Revolution
1. The 13 colonies became an independent nation called the United States of America.
2. Britain gave the US a large portion of land
3. All British control of American trade was lifted.
4. A new government with elected representatives was formed under the Articles of Confederation.
5. The successful revolution encouraged other people to overthrow their governments.
Creation of The Declaration of Independence (signed July 4, 1776)
The Continental Congress appointed a committee to write a document declaring independence for the 13 colonies. The committee included Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman, and Robert Livingston. Jefferson was the principal author.
Main Points of the Declaration of Independence
1. The nature of a fair government is to recognize that people are born with certain rights, including life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; and a government is formed to protect these rights.

2. The Declaration lists many insults, taxes, and other problems the colonists had put up with over the years of British rule under King George III and the British government.

3. The colonies intended to form a new nation. Since Britain would not listen to their complaints, the colonists claim their independence and their ability to set up their own government.
Benjamin Franklin
-A writer, printer, inventor, and diplomat.
-He represented the American colonies in London and later persuaded the French to aid the colonists' cause in the American Revolution.
-He invented the lightning rod and started the first public library, the first fire dept, and the first insurance company in N. America.
-He also wrote Poor Richard's Almanack, a collection of now famous proverbs and wise sayings.
The Articles of Confederation
The first American government. It consisted of all 13 states.
-No monarch.
-The Continental Congress sent delegates to the government, and each state had one vote. For major laws to be passed, 9 of 13 states had to agree.
-The confederation lasted for 8 years.
-It provided for a central government that was weaker than the state governments.
The US Constitution
-In 1787, 55 delegates from every state except Rhode Island met in Pennsylvania to write a new constitution. It took four months to write.
-George Washington served as president of the convention. James Madison took detailed notes.
-The constitution is now the highest law of the US. It provides for citizens to elect the officials who govern them. It establishes that power is shared between the national government and the state governments.
3 Branches of Government
1. Legislative branch (congress)

2. Executive branch (headed by the president, which carries out laws)

3. Judicial branch (headed by the Supreme Court, which decides if laws are constitutional, or applied correctly.)
The Bill of Rights (1793)
Even though the Constitution was ratified, many people feared the central government would have too much power. The Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution after opponents of the Constitution convinced the nation that a strong central government without safeguards for the people was a danger to liberty.
The Bill of Rights consists of 10 Amendments, or additions, to the Constitution. It guarantees basic liberties, such as freedom of speech, of the press, and of religion.
-It was ratified in 1793, three years after the Constitution went into effect.
The beginning of Political Parties
-George Washington didn't want the US to have political parties, but during his second term, people started to form them anyway. Two major parties emerged.
-The country's second president, John Adams, was a Federalist.
-Adams was defeated in 1800 by Thomas Jefferson, a Democratic-Republican. When Jefferson was inaugurated, power passed peacefully from one political party to another. This was important evidence that the democratic process worked in the US.
-In 1824 Andrew Jackson renamed the Democratic-Republicans to Democrats. The Federalist party fell apart after the war of 1812. The new opposition to the Democrats was the Whigs, who joined up with the Free Soil party, later known as Republicans. Abraham Lincoln became the first Republican president.
The War of 1812
The American Revolution gave Americans independence. The War of 1812 guaranteed that other nations of the world would that the US with respect.

Causes:
1. Great Britain and France were taking US ships, which interfered with trade.
2. The US states thought that Britain was still interfering with its former colonies.
3. The US made a deal with France to stop trading with Britain if the French would stop taking US ships.
4. The US wanted to take Canada from Britain and Florida from Spain.
Results of the War of 1812
1. The British recognized US boundaries and stayed out of the Northwest Territory.
2. the US gained national pride from its victories at sea.
3. American industry prospered b/c it made more goods at home when trade stopped with Britain.
4. The Federalist party (John Adams and Alexander Hamilton) disappeared. Federalists had opposed the war.
The Monroe Doctrine (1823)
-The Monroe Doctrine was issued by the 5th president, James Monroe. It was one of the nation's first major foreign policy statements.
-It was written by then Secretary of State John Quincy Adams. It warned European nations not to try to establish new colonies in the Americas.

Main Points:
1. European countries could no longer form colonies in the Americas.
2. The political systems of the Americas were separate from Europe's.
3. The US would consider any attempt by Europe to influence politics in the Americas as a threat to its "peace and safety"
4. The US would not interfere in European governments or their existing colonies.
The Louisiana Purchase (1803)
-In 1803, the US bought the Lousiana Territory from the French Emperor Napoleon.
-President Thomas Jefferson's secretary of state, James Madison, paid 15 million dollars to make the Louisiana Purchase.
-Wars broke out between settlers and Native American tribes. Most tribes were forced off the lands.
Lewis & Clark Expedition
President Thomas Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark, two officers in the US Army and experienced frontiersman, on an expedition to learn more about the lands in the Louisiana Territory.
-The purpose was to follow the Mississippi River to its source and to find an all-water route to the Pacific Ocean. The explorers also planned to collect information about plants, animals, climate, and geographical features along the way.
-A Native American woman named Sacajawea helped lead their expedition.
The Mexican War (1846-1848)
Causes:
1. Mexico was opposed to Texas becoming a US territory.
2. The US and Mexico both had different claims of what the southern boundary of Texas was.
3. President Polk used this border dispute to justify moving US troops into Mexican territory.

Results:
1. Mexico agreed that the Rio Grande River twas the southern boundary of Texas.
2. Mexico gave all of present-day California, Nevada, and Utah as well as parts of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming to the USA. The US paid Mexico $15 million for this land.
3. The size and influence of the US increased again.
The Slavery Debate
-The 1800s were a time of growth and success, but the North and South were very different. The South was made up of farms and plantations, mostly run by slaves. The North was an area of small farms and factories, where there were few, if any, slaves.
-As new states entered the Union, the North and South argued over whether they would be slave states or free states.
The Abolitionist Movement (1830s)
-In the 1830s, people known as Abolitionists began to speak out against slavery. They wanted to free slaves and abolish slavery. They argued that slavery was against the democratic principles upon which the nation was founded, and cited the Declaration of Independence. They pointed out that "all men" included slaves.
The Civil War (1861-1865)
-The American Civil War was fought between the North and the South. It was triggered by the election of Republican president Abraham Lincoln in 1860. Lincoln wanted to keep the Union together adn to end the spread of slavery to new states.
-After Lincoln was elected, SOuthern states began to secede from, or leave, the Union. Eleven slave states formed their own government, called the Confederacy. They elected Jefferson Davis as their president.
-More people died during the Cibil War than any other US war. The Confederates were defeated, which led to the end of slavery throughout the US, and restored the Union, although much of the South was destroyed.
Causes of the Civil War (1861-1865)
1. Slavery.
2. Ways of life. (North- large cities/factories, South- plantations)
3. Free Labor vs. Slave Labor. (The Northern economy was based on free labors who received wages, the Southern economy was based off slave laborers with no wages.)
4. States' rights. (The North thought that no state had a right to leave the Union, or secede. The South argued that a state could leae the Union if it voted to do so.)
Advantages of the NORTH in the Civil War
1. About 10 million more people
2. More factories to produce guns, uniforms, military supplies
3. Navy and merchant marine
4. Rail system twice as large as the South's to move troops and supplies
5. Most of the banks and cash in the US
Advantages of the SOUTH in the Civil War
1. Better military leaders
2. Most o the war fought in the South on familiar terrain
3. More skilled horsemen and riflemen
Reconstruction and the Birth of Civil Rights (1865-1877)
-The 12 year period after the Civil War.
-The nation faced the problems of rebuilding the South and reuniting the states.
-Many of the Southern states started passing laws that took freedom from African Americans. Congress wanted the South to accept the end of slavery and that slaves were safe and accepted as full citizens.
Jim Crow Laws
-Laws passed by Southern states to legalize segregation.
-They created separate areas for blacks and whites in public waiting rooms, restaurants, schools, and hospitals.
-The name Jim Crow comes from a popular minstrel song, "Jump, Jim Crow." Minstrels were usually white people who put on black face.
-Jim Crow laws existed until the 1960s in many places in the US.
New Deal -
FDR gave a complex package of economic programs the 3 R's - relief, recovery, reform
Revolutionary
War - American Revolution 1775
Battles of Lexington and Concord - Great Britain was forced to recognize the independece of the 13 colonies
Federalists
An American Political Party which wanted a fiscally sound and strong nationalistic government and was opposed by the dems and repub.
WWI
First World War or Great War - the first military conflict that embroiled most of the worlds great powers end of the war was 1918 and Germany, Russia, and Hungary were defeated
WWII
1939- Nationalism, Germany's defeat and Treaty of Versailles lead to the beginning of the war - This was a global military conflict - Soviet Union and US emerged as super powers, Red Scare-Strong anti-communism
Communism
A system of social organization in which all economic and social activity is controlled by a totalitarian state dominated by a single and self-perpetuating political party.
Capitalist
Economic system where means of production are privately owned
Socialist
System of social government that advocates the vesting of ownership and control of the means of production in the community as a whole
Democratic Government
Government by the people
Bureaucratric Society
Collective organizational structure in place to manage activity in large organizations and government
Republican government
Favors business and opposes welfare
US Senate
Congress and House of Representatives
US Congress
Consisting of 2houses: Senate and House of Representatives
Senate
Upper house (each house has 2 senators)
House of Representatives
Lower House (each states has a representative according to the population)
Legislature
Type of deliberative assembly with the power to pass, amend and repeal laws (Senate and House of Representatives make up congress)
Federal Government
Separation of powers and checks and balances
Judicial
Supreme Court is the highest power
Executive
Executive power is the president
Articles of Confederation
Was the first constitution of the 13 US states and legally established the union of the states
US constitution
The Supreme Law of the US (3 main branches of government: Judicial, Legislative, and Executive)
Gold Rush
Gold was discovered in California and thousands of people flocked there
Mexican War
Conflict between US and Mexico
Progressive Era
Period of wide range of reforms for the middle class between 1890s adn 1920s
Industrial Revolution
A period in which fundamental changes occurred in agriculture, textile and metal manufacture, transportation, economic policies and social structure in England
Meso America
Is a region and culture area in the Americas, extending approximately from central Mexico to Honduras and Nicaragua
Acculturation
Is the exchange of cultural features that results when groups of individuals having different cultures come into continuous first hand contact