187 terms


(1) The Second Song Capital
-Gaozong the emperor moved the capital to Hangzhou because the Jurchen were attacking in the North
(2) Song Inventions
-Trade expanded on water and land
-exported: Gold, Silver, copper coins, and porcelain
-footbinding became popular among the wealthy classes
(3) City Life of the Wealthy
-lived a good life
-markets carried fish, rice, and veggies
-enjoyed jewelry shops and bookstores
-entertained by puppet shows, dancer, and acrobats
-high rise houses with artificial ponds
-women were often carried on sedan chairs because their feet were bound
(4) City Life of the Poor
-lived in small apartments or were homeless
-govt. had "welfare system" (Hospitals and Orphanages gave money or food to the needy in times of emergencies)
(5) Fall of the Song
-Invaded by the Mongols in the 1200s
-Genghis Khan captured Beijing (Jin Capital)
-Kublai Khan conquered all of China by 1280
(6) Battle Advantages and Battle Tactics
-warriors on horseback
-saddles with iron stirrups
-bows and arrows
-surrounded enemy
-gift exchanges to form alliances
(7) Temujin
-birth name of Genghis Khan
-went to live with his future wife at the age of 9
-but his dad was poisoned so he had to go home to be the chief
-his uncles ruled for him because he was to young
-he was later "kicked" out
-he joined a new clan and emerged as a leader at age 30
(8) Genghis Khan
-gained the title "Genghis Khan" which means "universal ruler"
-divided the army into 95 groups (quran)
-each group had 1000 men
-which were divided into smaller squads
-"Imperial Guard" Genghis' own bodyguards
died in 1227
-after his death, empire was divided into many pieces
(9) Messenger System
-riders carried messages from one location to the next
-changing for a rested horse at each stop
-rode about 200 miles a day
(10) Ogodei
-later, he helped to take over the rest of Southern Asia
(11) Batu
-grandson of Genghis
-led campaign to take over Russia, Poland, Hungary, and part of Vienna in Austria.
-killed or took people as slaves
-Mongols named him "Golden Horde"
12) "Golden Horde"
-in central Asia and Europe
-gold meant the wealth that they took
-horde meant the "elite cavalry force"
-after Batu died, there were a few rulers (Guygug, Mongke, Hulagu spread throughout the empire)
(13) Kublai Khan
-Grandson of Genghis
-educated in China
-liked Chinese culture
-advised by Confucian scholars
-became the new "Great Khan"
-in 1271, he became "emperor of China" in the north
-named the new dynasty the Yuan ("great origin")
-Mongols conquered all of China
-open to other religions in China
-kept Mongols and Chinese apart
-set up a social scale in China
-extended the Grand Canal from the Huang He river to PD Beijing
-built stone roads along river expanding over 1000 miles
-built mail routes from China to India and Persia
(14) Yuan Capital
-Kublai moved it to Da Du (present day Beijing)
(15) Government System under Mongols
-made local governments report to the central government
(16) Fall of Yuan
-the literati started to resent Kublai for having foreigners in the government
-people did not like Kublai's preference for foreign traders
-a series of weak rulers after Kublai died
-military leaders fought for power
-famine after the Huang He flooded and destroyed crops
-people resented the harsh treatment while they worked to repair the Grand Canal
-peasants were angry about the growing taxes to fix the Grand Canal
-rebellions broke out
-secret revolutionary groups formed (Red Turbans, White Lotus) to oust the Mongols
-Zhou Yuanzhang took over and Toghon Temur fled to Mongolia
(17) Zhu Yuanzhang
-founded the Ming dynasty
-Buddhist Monk
(18) "ming"
(19) Ming capital
-was moved by Zhu Yuanzhang from Nanjing to Beijing in 1421
(20) Junks
-Large ships created during the Ming dynasty
-used compasses and maps
-overseas trade and travel
(21) Yongle
-an emperor
-AKA: Zhu Di, Cheng Zu, Emperor Cheng
-3rd emperor of the Ming dynasty (1402-1424)
(22) Zheng He
-a captain or overseer of expeditions for about 30 years
-traveled to the Persian Gulf, Red Sea, and East Africa
-brought gold, silver, pearls, rhino horns, incense, and herbs and spices back to China (and a Giraffe)
-established diplomacy with foreign countries
(23) Diplomacy
-established by Zheng He
-the conduct by government officials of negotiations and other relations between nations
-the art or science of conducting such negotiations
(24) Xuande
-an emperor
-Yongles grandson
-stopped sea travel in 1433 (to save money for defense and because confucian attitudes disagreed with foreign trade)
(25) Ming Social Classes
-society was divided into ordered social classes based on Confucian thought
1) Emperor
2) Scholar and Government Officials governed the empire
3) Peasants produced agriculture and paid taxes
4) Artisans manufactured goods
5) Merchants were "Parasites" (made profits from selling goods that the peasants and artisans made and made profits from trade with the west)
-The idea that the home empire is more important then the rest of the world (no outside influence)
(26) Ming Tribute Systems
-with Japan, Korea, and Tibet to keep the peace
-Ming gave the countries gifts in exchange for their loyalty
-secured the northern frontier
-offered land to Warriors who moved to the frontier
-fortified the Great Wall
-a tribute system with the Nomads (Nomads fought for the Ming in exchange for gifts)
(27) Ming Tombs
-built lavish tombs for emperor
-over 15 tombs near Beijing
-Ming tombs were started by Emperor Yongle and continues by 12 more emperors
(28) Imperial Palace ("The Forbidden City")
-construction began under emperor Yongle in 1406 and completed in 1420
-where emperor and government officials lived and worked
-known as the "Forbidden City" because only government officials and members of the imperial court could go there
(29) Temple of Heaven
-built by Yongle between 1406 and 1420
-the emperors worshipped for good harvests
(30) Fall of Ming
-the Eunuchs gained too much control
-government officials were divided
-government spent more taxes than it received
-soldiers were not paid, so they left their post leaving the frontier volatile to invasion
-5 government positions were left unfilled
-Emperor Tianqi was advised by Wei Zhongxian to raise the taxes
-conquered by the Manchus (Manchuria, and present day North Korea)
-Invasion was led by Manchu leader: NURACHI
(31) Nurachi
-led the Invasion of the Northern territory in China from Manchuria
-Nurachi and Abahai (Nurachi's son) took over part of the Ming territory in Manchuria and founded "The Later Jin Dynasty" in 1616
(32) Abahai
-Nurachi and Abahai (Nurachi's son) took over part of the Ming territory in Manchuria and founded "The Later Jin Dynasty" in 1616
-after Nurachi died, Abahai took over and ruled almost all of Manchuria
-by 1636, Abahai started to creep into the Ming territory
(33)"Later Jin Dynasty"
-also called the Qing dynasty or "pure dynasty"
-Abahai died in 1643, passing the reign to his 6 year old son Shunzhi
-Abahai's brother, Dorgon, ruled for Shunzhi
(34) Dorgon
-Abahai's brother, Dorgon, ruled for Shunzhi until 1650
(35) Li Zicheng
-a chinese Rebel who took over the Imperial Palace in April 1644
(36) Chongzhen
-the Ming emperor
-Hanged himself when the Imperial Palace was taken over
(37) Shunzhi
-Nurachi's Grandson
-in June 1644, the Manchus invaded Beijing and took over- claiming the Mandate Of Heaven for Shunzhi
-all of China was under Manchu rule
(38) Manchu Rule
-studied Manchu language
-could not marry Chinese
-Chinese men, forced to wear Queue as a sign of obedience to Manchu rule and to distinguished between Chinese and Manchu
-attempted to stop footbinding but failed
(39) Qing Agriculture
-New Crops:
1) Sweet Potato "poor man's food" (easy to grow)
2) Peanuts and Tobacco
-Sent caravans carrying silk and tea to central Asia
-Some sea travel to India
(40) Kangxi
-an Emperor who followed Shunzhi
-ruled for 61 years
-rule was based on Confucian thought
-supported Literacy campaigns based on Confucian classics (Novels appeared, and Encyclopedias of plants and animals)
-continued civil service exams
-oversaw flood control projects
-used Leveling (WU-DI)
(41) Qianlong
-Kanxi's grandson
-ruled from 1735-1796
(42) Xianfeng
-ordered the construction of the Summer Palace
(43) Cixi
-Xianfeng's favorite "lady friend"
-the only woman to have a son "an heir to the throne"
-her role in foreign affairs combined with discontent and rebellion led to the downfall of the Qing
(44) Tongzhi
-Cixi's son
-became the emperor at the age of five
-at age 18, Cixi did not want to give up her reign
-Tongzhi got small pox and later died, leaving a pregnant wife
-Cixi got Tongzhi's wife to commit suicide, so Cixi could rule longer
(45) Guangxu
-Cixi's four year old nephew
-the new emperor
-Cixi would rule for him
-at age 18, he became old enough to rule, so Cixi "retired" (to the Summer Palace)
(46) Cause of the Opium Wars
-British needed something to trade for Chinese tea
-the British got the Chinese addicted to Opium
-the Chinese government tried to stop the sale of opium because it was destructive, so China started to buy the opium with silver
-Lin Tse-Hsu attempted to shut down trade with Great Britain
-war broke out
-the Treaty of Nanking (Nanjing)
(47) Lin Tse-Hsu
-Imperial commissioner at Canton (port used for opium trade)
-attempted to shut down trade with Great Britain (Letter to Queen Victoria asked to stop opium trade, request dismissed. So he threatened to cut off all trade with Great Britain and get rid of the British in China
(48) Treaty of Nanking (Nanjing)
-China was forced to give Hong Kong to Britain
-British took Chinese ports for trade: Guang Zhou, Amoy, Fuzhou, Ningbo, and Shanghai
-British living in port cities would be ruled by British laws, not CHINESE LAWS
-Great Britain did not have to pay tribute (tax) to Qing government to trade
-Great Britain gained "Most Favored Nation" status
(49) Extraterritoriality
-foreigners were exempted from laws of the nation where they live or do business
(50) "Most Favored Nation"
-gave Great Britain trading rights as any other country
(51) Reparations/indemnity
-China had to pay 21 million dollars to cover the cost of the Opium that Lin dumped into the ocean and for war damages
(52) Convention of Beijing
-at the end of the 2nd opium war and during the Taiping rebellion, China was forced to sign more unequal treaties at the Convention of Beijing
1) Britain and France (and later other Euro countries) could govern themselves (extraterritoriality) in their port cities
2) Euros could travel (for trade or missionary work) within China
3) Euros could travel on the coast and through Chinas rivers
4) Perform missionary work
5) a limited tax on Euro imports
6) Foreign diplomats would be allowed in Beijing and in Port cities
7) British promised to help the Qing overthrow the Taiping rebellion (because the Qing troops were not protecting the Euros)
(53) Goals of the Taiping
1) Combined Christian beliefs with Chinese thought- wanted to take over the Qing and create a government based on equality and shared property
2) Led by Hong Xiuquan
(54) Hong Xiuquan
-was disgruntled over failing Civil Service Exams
-had an interest in Christianity
-tutored under a Southern Baptist Missionary
-Started the "God Worshippers"
-believed that he was the younger brother of Jesus
-believed that God wanted him to destroy Idols and Demons (Manchus)
-believed that the Manchu government was full of Demons and wanted to destroy the Manchus
-in time of Famine, he gained followers because the God Worshippers had food
-organised an army and conquered many rural towns and some cities to spread their form of Christianity and to rid China of the Manchu rule
-Qing government attempted to suppress the Taiping movement (Great Peace Movement) and in doing so, much of Southern China was destroyed
-during the Taiping rebellion, foreigners demanded protection from the Chinese army
-War broke out again because China could not protect the British
-so again China was forced to sign unequal treaties
(55) "God Worshippers"
-a group formed by Hong Xiuquan
(56) "Kingdom of Heavenly Peace"
-Taipeng= "great peace"
(57) Unequal Treaties of 1856
-British Embassy in present day Beijing
-US, France, Germany, Japan added foreign embassies
-China promised to protect foreign missionaries
-opened new ports on Chang Jiang
-Great Britain took a small sliver of land across from Hong Kong
-Russia gained trading privileges
-Russia was granted extraterritoriality
-Russia gained land and founded the port of Vladivostok
-further weakened the Qing & China
(58) Failure of the Taiping
-it lacked unity in their cause
-incompetent rulers
-Hong Xiuquan quit to indulge in other activities (thought that god would protect him)
-later Hong lost faith in God, and poisoned himself
-leaders quarreled
-with the help of the west, the Qing overthrew the rebellion
(59) Goals of the Boxers
-wanted to get rid of all foreign influence in China
-killed Christian missionaries, and Chinese people who had converted
-killed foreign merchants, burned churches, and foreign business'
(60) Boxer Beliefs
-thought that the westerners put them out of work
-thought that the westerners angered the Chinese spirits because it was a time of famine and draught
(61) Eight-Nation Alliance
-created to put down the Boxers
-countries were: Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, Great Britain, US (Belgium, Holland)
-fought together against the Boxers
-Chinese imperial troops fought back with the Boxers
-20,000 foreign troops sent to China
-Beijing was looted
-many innocent Chinese, and along with Boxers were tortured and or killed
(62) Propaganda against the Boxers
-threats were posted on magazines, newspapers, and postcards
(63) Boxer Protocol
-treaty allowed Euro governments to have military troops in Beijing
-the Qing government was still in place, but was actually ruled by several nations
-treaty ended Civil Service Exams
-ended import on weapons
-government officials went on trial
-some punished and executed
-apology to Japan & Germany for their foreign diplomats killed
-Chinese forts were destroyed
-Qing had to build monuments for the westerners who died
-Qing had to pay 450 million ounces of silver in reparations, or indemnity
-Cixi fled to Xian
-Boxer Rebellion brought China into total foreign domination
-Boxer Rebellion failed its major goal which was to drive all foreigners away from Chinese soil
(64) Xianfeng
-Cixi was the 16 year old concubine of Xianfeng
(65) Empress Dowager
-a widow holding property from deceased husband
-Cixi was given the rank of Empress Dowager when Xianfeng died
(66) Xiao Cian
-Xianfeng's wife
-the Empress Consort
(67) Empress Consort
-the title given to the wife of the reigning king or in this case emperor
(68) Tongzhi and his wife
-Tongzhi=Cixi's son
-at age 5, he became the emperor
-but, he got small pox and died
-wife was pregnant
-Cixi got Tongzhi's wife to commit suicide so that no baby was born
(69) Lady Alute
-Tongzhi's wife
-she was forced to commit suicide to prevent her from giving birth
(70) Guangxu
-the 4 year old nephew of Cixi that she chose to be the next emperor so that Cixi could rule for longer
-when he was 18 and old enough to rule, Cixi retired to the Summer Palace
-issued reforms, modernized laws, modernized education, modernized military, and modernized postal service
-Cixi did not want those reforms, so she put him under house arrest in the Summer Palace and executed his advisors
(71) Cixi's Expenditures/Luxury Items
-she loved to spend money on luxury items such as rebuilding the Summer Palace, improving her living quarters in the Imperial Palace, built the Marble Boat when she should have financed a navy, Cixi did not put any money into defense
(72) Treaty of Shimoneski
-China had to pay Japan 200 million silver coins over 7 year period (later Japan demanded 30 million more)
-Japan got 4 ports: Shashih, Chungking, Soochow, and Hangchow
-gave Taiwan and other islands to Japan
-China had to give Korea independence
(73) General Yuan Shikai
-told Cixi that Guangxu was going to lock her up in the Summer Palace so that she would not be a problem
-when Cixi heard of this, she told General Yuan Shikai to lock Guangxu up in the Summer Palace, and executed his advisors
(74) "European Problem"
-Merchants in port cities sold machine made goods, causing Chinese to lose their jobs
-Missionaries were opening schools and churches and preached against ancestor worship and idols
-Chinas military was outdated and no match for the Europeans
(75) Cixi's Reforms
-promised to start a democracy
-attempted to modernise education (practical subjects, and abolish Civil Service Exam)
-modernized police force, army
-tried to control the use of Opium
(76) Pu Yi
-Guangzhu's son
-Emperor Xuanzong
-government officials had to rule for them because he was to young
(77) Sun Yatsen
-educated in US
-started to organise revolutionary groups such as "The Society To Revive China" and the "Revolutionary Alliance" ("Guomindang")
(78) Goals of the Nationalists
-Constitutional government
-wanted to industrialise China
-believed that China could protect themselves only if it became a modern nation with modern weapons
(79) Qing Reforms
-paid for with peasants taxes
-education was reformed (allowed girls, and western studies)
-military was reorganized under the leadership of Yuan Shikai
-Nationalized Railroads which caused job loss in Canal and road workers
(80) Chinese Revolution
-because of grievances over the railroads, a strike was started in Sichuan province, which sparked other small other revolutions in other provinces
Sun Yatsen's followers attacked a governors office in Wuchang
-15 of 24 provinces became independent from the Qing government in lat 1911
(81) General Yuan Shikai
-in charge of the army in Beijing
-agreed to take over the Qing if Sun Yatsen made him the president of China
-Sun told the general to force the Qing to abdicate instead of fighting
(82) Pu Yi
-last Qing emperor
-forced to abdicate by the Nationalist army
(83) Abdicate
-to renounce or relinquish a throne, office, or power
(84) Republic
-a state in which the supreme power rests in the hands of the citizens who vote for representatives
(1) Ethnocentric
-the belief in the inherent superiority of ones own ethnic group or culture
(2) "China is a sea which salts all rivers..."
-believed that outsiders would be absorbed into China
(3) Dynastic Cycle (in depth)
-Four Main Stages:
1. the founding of the dynasty
-previous dynasty was usually defeated through a revolt
-the right to rule became hereditary and a new dynasty emerged
2.time of peace and prosperity
-Dynasty became powerful by making people work and by collecting taxes
-used wealth to improve the general welfare of the people
-used the wealth to improve the infrastructure (improvements in roads, irrigation systems, new buildings such as palaces, temples and libraries, and added emphasis on the arts and education
3.Period of Decline
-rulers stopped caring about the welfare of the people
-became corrupt, and lived in luxury
-raised taxes
-stopped maintaining the irrigations causing flooding or drought
-did not maintaining the military
4. Overthrow of a Dynasty
-eventually there would be a revolt, nomadic invasion, or a natural disaster causing the dynasty to collapse
-a new dynasty would emerge and the cycle would start over
(4) Infrastructure
-an underlying base or foundation especially for an organization or system.
-the basic facilities, service, and installations needed for the functioning of a community or a society
(5) Shi Huangdi/ Shi Huangdi's Rule
-first emperor of united China
-ruled from 221 BCE - 207 BCE
-established the Qin Capital: Xianyang
-didn't want new ideas spreading
-did not allow scholars to meet
-burned all books except medical books
-later killed all scholars
-valued peasants, and soldiers
-compulsory labor 1 month per year: built roads, irrigation channels, and the Great Wall
(6) Qin Capital
(7) Accomplishments of the Qin
1.unified China for the first time under a strong central govt. (1st empire)
2.standardized weights and measures
3.standardized money
4.standardized taxes
5.standardized writing
6.standardized axle size
7.built roads and bridges
8.connected existing city-state wall to create The Great Wall Of China
9.cut channels for irrigation which became the Grand Canal
10.the code of Qin unified laws throughout the empire
11.the Terra-cotta Tomb
12.expanded the empire to the south
(8) Government System Under the Qin
- Local officials from 36 districts reported to the military and civil governors of each district
- The military and civil governors from each of the 36 districts reported to the imperial inspectors of each district
- The imperial inspectors from each of the 36 districts reported to the three top advisors
- The three top advisors reported to the emperor
(9) Fall of Qin
-people disgruntled over high taxes, labor, autocracy
-discontent led to rebellion led by peasant Liu Bang who founded the Han dynasty
(10) Liu Bang (Han)
-led peasant revolt against Qin
-Founded the Han Dynasty
(11) Han Capital
-was at Chang-an (Now called Xian)
(12) Accomplishments of the Han
-founded the civil service system
-meritocracy, only the wealthy could afford a tutor
- Established Imperial Academy
- Extended the territory to include Manchuria, Korea, Indochina, and Central Asia
- Established Leveling
- Defeated the Hun and brought about "Pax Sinica"
- Led to safety along Silk Road which brought about more trade
(13) Civil Service System Under the Han
-to join the civil service system, you had to pass a test based on the confuciun classics
(14) Wu Di's Accomplishments (AKA: Wudi)
-ruled from 140 BCE to 87 BCE
-founded the imperial academy for scholars to study confucian classics
-the Han extended their territory to include Manchuria, Korea, Indochina, and central Asia
-Established leveling
-Han fought the Huns, and restored peace
-Brought about "Pax Sinica"
- Led to safety along Silk Road which brought about more trade
(15) Leveling
-govt. bought and stored surplus grain in times of a good harvest to keep prices from falling
-during bad harvests, govt. sold previous surplus to keep price from rising (Supply & Demand)
(16) "Pax Sinica" (and Importance)
-Chinese Peace
-allowed traders to travel safely along the silk road,
-trade between east and west began to flourish
(17) Silk Route (AKA Silk Road)
-a caravan trade route from eastern China to the West
-it carried: silk, Jade, paper, and porcelain from China to Greek and Roman Traders
-Traders brought: Glass, amber, wool, and linen back to China from the west
(17.5) Middlemen
-a person who plays an economic role intermediate between producer and retailer or consumer.
(18) Han Inventions
-paper and porcelain
(19) Fall of Han
-A revolt overthrew Han
-The period of Warring States (220-589 CE)
-China was reunified in 589 by the Sui dynasty
(20) Emperor Wendi
-Also known as Yang Jaing
-Sui reunited China in 589
- Founded the Sui Dynasty
(21) Sui Capital
(22) Accomplishments of the Sui
-reunited China
-reestablished a strong central Government
-reestablished the civil service system and the civil service test
-improved on the codes of law
-repaired the great wall
-built new roads
-worked on the construction of the GRAND CANAL
- built new palaces
(23) Grand Canal
-linked the Huang He River (Yellow River) to the Chang Jiang River (Yangtze River)
-linked northern and southern China for the first time (which was good for trade and transportation)
(24) Fall of the Sui
-people revolted because govt. required too much labor, and taxes were too high
(25) Li Yuan
-Founded the Tang dynasty
-which extended the empire to the west
-and contact with Muslim, and Indian Empires
(26) Tang Capital
-center for govt. and trade
-Arab, Persian, and Greek traders made it their home, which made it diverse
(27) Du Fu
-Confucianist who wrote about human suffering
(28) Li Bo (AKA Li Bai)
-Daoist poet who wrote about happiness
-died while trying to reach his reflection in the water (Drunk)
(29) "The Buddhist Problem"
- Buddhism gained popularity and reached its peak during the Tang dynasty
- The lower classes favored Buddhism because they wanted to escape from their poor lives in the next world.
- The wealthy favored Buddhism because they like the intricate
philosophy and fancy rituals
- The wealthy gave land and money to the Buddhist monasteries
- The Tang government felt threatened by the growing strength and popularity of the Buddhists
- Insane emperor destroyed 40,000 shrines, 4,600 monasteries and made 260,000 monks and nuns stop practicing Buddhism
- In fear of a revolt, the Tang government quickly moved toward the direction of reviving Confucian beliefs (see Revival of Confucianism)
(30) Revival of Confucianism
- In fear of revolt for destroying Buddhism, the Tang government quickly moved to the direction of riving Confucianism
- Built Confucian temples, added Confucian rituals, Confucian songs, Confucian deities (gods)
- Stressed the Confucian Analects and Classics
- Revived the Civil Service System to bring back the Ruler to Subjects beliefs and instill the idea that the subjects should never question the ruler (See Civil Service System under the Tang)
(31) Civil Service System under the Tang
-stressed the confucian classics
-govt. probably wanted to instill the "ruler to ruled" ideology that seamed to have been lost with the popularity of Buddhism
-Broken down into 3 main branches: Chancellery, Secretariat, and Department of State Affairs
(32) Secretariat & Chancellery
-advised the emperor
(33) Department of State Affairs
-ruled over 6 smaller branches:
*Civil Office: employed government officials
*The Rites: Oversaw religious observances and rituals for foreign dignitaries
*Revenue: Oversaw taxes
*Justice: Oversaw Laws
*War: Oversaw defense
*Public Works: Worked on the infrastructure
(34) Censorate
-the "watchdog", or "CIA"
-ran govt. as a whole
(35) Tang Agriculture
-water control project for better irrigation for more rice
-developed quick ripening rice (Two harvests per year)
-Tea was a new crop
-peasants had more work but had a chance to raise surplus
(36) Tang Tax System
- Early in the Tang dynasty, poor peasants (tenant farmers) could live on tax-free estates
- The tenant farmers had to pay rent (in labor or harvest) to the
- Later in the Tang dynasty, there were no more tax-free estates, so landowners now had to pay high taxes (in part, due to more grain from quick-ripening rice)
- The amount of taxes was based on how much land the people owned
- The landowner did not want to pay the higher taxes, so the landowner charged the peasants more rent (grain harvest)
- If the landowner could not afford the higher taxes, then the landowner might have to sell his land and also become tenant farmer
(37) Tenant Farmer
-a person who farms the land of another and pays rent with cash, labor, or with a portion of the produce (Vicious cycle of Doom!!!!)
(38) Fall of the Tang
-Gradually declined because of:
*Weak Emperors
*Eunuchs Gained too much power
*high taxes, then falling taxes
*Natural Disaster:floods, droughts, disease
*Governors in provinces stopped trusting the Emperor and questioned his power
*Nomadic Attacks
(39) Zhao Kuangyin
-founded the Northern Song Dynasty (960-1126)
(40) The First Song Capital
(41) Song Government
-Broken into 4 main branches:
1) Emperor at the top
2) Grand Council: High ranking government officials (most likely the literati) who oversaw the Secretariat & Chancellery
and the Department of State Affairs; also consulted
with the emperor and made important decisions
3) Secretariat and Chancellery: Advised the emperor
4) Department of State Affairs:
-ruled over 6 smaller branches:
1) Civil Office: Employed government officials
2) The Rites: Oversaw religious observances and rituals for
foreign dignitaries
3) Revenue: Oversaw taxes
4) Justice: Oversaw Laws
5) War: Oversaw defense
6) Public Works: Worked on the infrastructure
Also had many local officials throughout the empire
(42) Khitan (Liao)
-Mongols who threatened the Song
-Song paid the Khitan 200,000 rolls of silk, and 100,000 ounces of silver each year
- Price tag increased to 300,000 rolls of silk and 200,000 ounces of silver after the Tanguts made a treaty with the Song
(43) Tanguts
-Threatened the Song
- Agreed to the boundary separating them from China in a northwest region called Xi Xia since the Song agreed to a peace treaty
- According the terms of the treaty, the Song paid the Tanguts 130,000 rolls of silk, 50,000 ounces of silver, and 20,000 pounds of tea each year to keep the peace
(44) Jurchen
-Asians that moved into Manchuria
-Established the Jin dynasty, to the north of the Song
- Moved into part of the Song territory in the north
-The Jin capital was in present day Beijing
-because the Jin dynasty was so close to the Song, the Song moved further south to Hangzhou on the East China Sea
(45) Civil Service System
-Exams at 3 levels
-Less then 10% passed the local exam (first level), if you passed you went on to the Imperial Exam in Kaifeng
-Less then 10% passed the Imperial Exam (second level) if you passed that you would become a Juren (the title brought honor to family but not necessarily a government position)
- If you passed the Imperial Exam, you could go on to the third and final level, taking a third exam
- Less then 10% passed, but if you did, you would become a jinshi (which brought great honor to the family and guaranteed a government position)
(45.5) Preventative Measures Against Cheating During the Song
- Candidates were searched for cheat sheets before taking the exams
- Candidates were given numbers so names would not be recognized by possibly corrupt judges
- Scribes copied over the tests so handwriting would not be recognized by possibly corrupt judges
- Guards watched the test takers so they would not cheat
(NOTE: There were two judges who graded the tests, but if they did not agree, a third judge would make the final decision)
(NOTE: If a person was caught cheating, a possible punishment was death!)
(46) Juren
-"elevated man"-
-group of scholars who passed the first level civil service exam (local level) and then went on to take the second imperial exam at the capital, Kaifeng
- Highly respected and brought honor to the family
- However, Juren were not guaranteed a government position
- They could stay in Kaifeng and sit for the third and final test -Less then 10% passed
(47) Jinshi
-if a person passed the 3rd test, they were considered an "Advanced Scholar"
*guaranteed a government position, and would bring great honer to his family
(48) Literati
- high ranking government officials (possibly members of the Grand Council) who shared scholarly beliefs and discussed politics and Confucian thought
(49) Second Song Capitol
-Hangzhou (Huangzhou)
-Study of truth and or theories of the truth
-outlook on life
Reasons Why Ancient Philosophies Developed
-to understand conflict (political conflict)
-to understand emotional conflict (Pain and sorrow)
-to discover the meaning of life
-founded Daoism (born: 604 BCE, Died: 517 BCE)
-wanted to resolve feudal wars
-did not like politics
-discouraged peoples participation in local government
Dao de Jing
-may have been written by Laozi
-means "way of virtue classic"
-81 short chapters
-some scholars think that it is the most influential chinese book in history
-means "the way", "path", "way of nature"
-started as philosophy
-evolved into a religion
-strong belief in Yin and Yang
-declined in 1911 with the fall of the qing (ching) dynasty
Dao (cont.)
-a power that surrounds and flows through all things
-balance in nature, or universe
-the harmony of opposites (no light without dark)
-opposite force, feminine, evil spirits, dark, cool, wet, mysterious, secretive, submissive, shadows, earth, north side of a hill, south side of a riverbank, camels, women
-positive force, masculine, good spirits, warm, south side of hill, north side of riverbank, aggressive, sun, heaven, fire, bright, dry, horse, active, men
Daoist teachings and beliefs
-simple life
-opposed large and powerful governments
-hated unnecessary violence
-embraced harmony, love, and learning about nature
-Goal: to become one with "Dao"
-did not pray to god
-sought answers to life through meditation and observation
-believed that people were inherently good
"Three Jewels of Daoism"
1. compassion
2. moderation
3. humility
-humble or modest
-innate, or existing from birth
Followers of Daoism
-appealed to peasants because it embraced nature
-artists and poets
-Confucianists because it balanced their life
-some people practiced both confucianism and daoism because they believed that they balanced each other like Yin and Yang
Kong Qui
- 551 BCE-478 BCE
- "Supreme Sage"
-Educated Orphan
-lived during the warring states period
-started teaching in early 20s
-"minister of crime"
-all crime within his province stopped within a year
-forced to "retire" (fired) because rulers jealous
-founded Confucianism
-retired from his government job then taught till death
-In time Confucianism became seen as religion
-a collections of writings
-based on the ideas of Confucius
-part of the Chinese classics
Confucian Teachings and Beliefs
-wanted to end "political disorder"
-all jobs are equal and important
-government should be honorable (shouldn't stress strong army, care for best interests of people).
-Nepotism, meritocracy, Junzi Code
-favoritism based on family friends and associates
-a system in which talented people are rewarded and advanced
Junzi Code
-Perfect gentleman
-Li, Ren/Jen, Xin, Yi, Zhi
-correct behavior
-doing the right thing (ex. Doing assigned jobs).
-concern and regard for people in the environment
-inner spirit (ex. picking up trash when not told)
-confidence, respect, trustworthiness
-mind-heart, heart
-living center of a person (ex. writing out note cards for long and short term goals)
-seeking the truth and trusting
-proper and conduct
-removing self from the possibility of disgrace.
-realizing the difference between right and wrong
-guide behavior when there are no rules
Ruler to subjects
-ruler should be honorable and should improve the welfare of the people
-subjects should be loyal, serve, and honor the ruler because of his position and character
Father to Son
-Father: kind, protection, and education
-Son: respect, accepts guidance, cares for father in old age, performs customary burial
Filial Piety
-respect, accepts guidance, cares for father in old age, performs customary burial
Husband to Wife
-Husband: carries out family duty's, honorable and faithful
-Wife: looks after home, meets needs of husband and children, "is obedient"
Older Brother to Younger Brother
-Older Brother: sets example of good behavior
-Younger Brother: respects character and experience of older bro.
Elder to Junior
-Elder: gives encouragement, consideration, and sets a good example
-Junior: shows respect, takes advice, eager to learn from elders
Friend to Friend
-Equal position shows respect
Siddhartha Gautama
-later ka Buddha
-shielded from ordinary people
ventured into the city around age 30
a. "Why does Pain , Suffering, and Sorrow exist?"
b. "What is the value of life and death?
-founder of Buddhism (India)
-563 BCE to 483 BCE
-later known as "Buddha"
-son of prince (life of luxury)
-the "enlightened one"
-taught about:
a. Four Noble Truths
b. Eightfold Path
c. Reincarnation
-"Buddha" meditated under a fig tree and found the answers to his three questions
-according to his followers, he became the enlightened one" ("Buddha") at that moment
Questions asked about Life
1. "Why does pain, suffering, and sorrow exist?"
2. "What is the value of life and death?"
-Siddhartha had these questions after seeing elderly weak sick and dying
"Enlightened One"
-became "Buddha" while meditating under a tree
-also sought "the truth" through fasting
-for rest of life taught the enlightenment, or "The Way of Life"
Buddhist Teachings and Beliefs
-four noble truths
-eightfold path
-belief that the soul upon death comes back to earth in another body or life form
-salvation comes from knowing the 4 noble truths and following the eightfold path
Four Noble Truths
1. There will always be pain and suffering in life.
2. Greed for pleasure and material possessions causes pain and suffering
3. lack of greed for pleasure and material possessions frees a person from suffering and helps the soul reach Nirvana
4. Follow the eightfold path to reach Nirvana
-"Perfect Peace"
-frees the soul from the cycle of reincarnation
Eightfold Path
A. Right Views: "seeing life as it really is"
B. Right Intentions: doing the right things
C. Right Speech: be truthful, don't spread rumors, don't use profanity
D. Right Action: don't be a criminal; "be honest"
E. Right Living: "work at a job that does not harm others"
F. Right Effort: "work to prevent evil"
G. Right Mindfulness: "Awareness of self" and actions
H. Right Concentration: "direct the mind in daily meditation"
Hinayana Buddhism
-regarded Buddha as a teacher
-spread to: Burma, Thailand, and Cambodia
Mahayana Buddhism
-regarded Buddha as a god and savior
-seen as a religion with priests, temples, and rituals
-spread to: Afghanistan, China, Korea, and Japan
Hsun Tzu
-Founded Legalism 221-207 BE
-lived from 298-238 BCE
-Believed that people were born bad, corrupt, and greedy
-believed that people could be made good by education and society.
Han Fei Tzu
-was a pupile of Hsun Tzu (300s BCE)
-believed that civil wars would stop with harsh laws
Totalitarian Rule
-strong state control where the subjects show absolute obedience to authority
Autocratic Government
-ruler has absolute power
Legalist Teachings and Beliefs
-people are born selfish greedy and bad
-people could be taught to be good through harsh laws, and punishments
-worked long hours in the fields, built irrigation projects, roads and bridges, and completed THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA
-If people refused to abide by laws, punishment could be death
-if people outwardly spoke out against the law, the punishment could be death
Legalist Laws
-created laws that rewarded good behavior and punished bad behavior
-people needed to perform physical labor to become "good"
-created "the Code of Qin"
-most education was banned (Books burned, scholars killed)
Code of Qin
-"Rule of Law" (Idea that law was supreme even over rulers)
-"Equality Before The Law" (Everyone would be punished the same)
Accomplishments under Legalism
-ended the Warring States Period, and united China for the first time
-The Great Wall was connected
-standardized money, writing, taxes, weights and measurements, and the size of axles on carts
Fall of Legalism
-to harsh under Qin rule (Lasted 14 years)
-people had enough and revolted
-China was still united when the next dynasty took over: Han