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88 terms

Medical Terminology (Ch.4)

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Abdominal cavity
The superior portion of the abdominopelvic cavity
Abdominal region
The area of the body trunk located below the diaphragm
Abdominopelvic cavity
The inferior part of the ventral cavity located beneath the diaphragm
Acute
A disease of short duration, usually with a sharp or severe effect
Anatomical position
Erect posture of a subject, with arms at the side, palms facing forward, and legs together with the feet pointing forward
Appendages
The limbs, which are attached to the trunk, and include the head, arms, and legs
Atom
The simplest organized substance of matter
CAT scan
Acronym for computed axial tomography scanning; a diagnostic imaging procedure that uses X-ray technology with computer enhancement and analysis to observe internal body structures
Cavities
Internal spaces of the body that are lined with a membrane and house one or more organs
Cell
The most basic unit of life
Chronic
A disease of long duration
Cranial cavity
The dorsal body cavity that houses the brain
Diagnostic imaging
A noninvasive procedure using instrumentation that seeks to establish a diagnosis by observing body structure and/or function
Diaphragm
The skeletal muscle separating the thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity; it functions in respiratory movements
Directional terms
Words used to describe the relative location of the body or its parts
Disease
A failure of homeostasis resulting in instability of health
Dorsal cavity
The body cavity on the posterior side of the body that includes the cranial cavity and vertebral cavity
Endoscopy
A diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a device that can be inserted into body orifices; a camera at one end enables a health professional to observe interior body spaces
Epigastric region
The upper central abdominal region
Frontal (coronal) plane
A vertical plane passing through the body from side to side, dividing the body into anterior and posterior portions
Homeostasis
The process of maintaining internal stability
Hypochondriac region
The upper right and upper left abdominal regions
Iliac region
The lower right and lower left abdominal regions
Infection
A disease caused by parasitic organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi
Lumbar region
The middle right and left abdominal regions
MRI
Acronym for magnetic resonance imaging; a diagnostic imaging procedure that uses magnetic fields and computer enhancement to reveal details of internal structures and function
Mediastinum
A potential space in the center of the thoracic cavity that contains the heart and surrounding structures
Molecules
Nonliving particles composed of two or more atoms
Organ
A structure composed of two or more different types of tissues that forms a certain shape and performs a general function
PET scan
Acronym for positron emission tomography scanning; a diagnostic imaging procedure that uses radiology to detect images that have absorbed tracer substances, revealing body functional activity
Pathologist
A physician specializing in the study of disease
Pathology
The study of disease
Pelvic cavity
The bowl-shaped inferior portion of the abdominopelvic cavity
Pericardial cavity
The cavity surrounding the heart between the parietal and visceral pericardia
Physiology
The study of nature; the study of the functional nature of living things
Pleural cavity
The cavity surrounding each lung between the parietal and visceral pleura
Prognosis
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease
Regions
Areas of the body
Sagittal plane
A vertical plane passing through the body from front to back, dividing the body into right and left portions; a midsagittal plane divides into equal portions, and a parasagittal plane divides into unequal portions
Sign
A finding that can be discovered through objective examination
Symptoms
Experiences of a patient resulting from a disease
System
A group of organs sharing a common function
Thoracic cavity
The superior part of the ventral cavity, also called the chest cavity
Thoracic region
The area of the body trunk located between the neck and the diaphragm
Tissue
A combination of similar cells that combine to form a generalized function
Transverse plane
A horizontal plane dividing the body into superior and inferior portions
Trauma
A physical injury
Central Body Trunk
The torso of the body
Ultrasound imaging (sonography)
A diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a receiver and computer enhancement to detect and enhance sound waves as they echo from body structures
Umbilical region
The middle abdominal region
Ventral cavity
The body cavity on the anterior side of the body that includes the thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity
Vertebral cavity
The dorsal body cavity that houses the spinal cord
Viscera
Internal contents of body cavities, which include organs and supporting structures
Anatomy
The study of body structure
Physiology
the study of the nature of living things
Cardiovascular system
Consists of the heart, arteries, veins, and blood
Lymphatic system
Consists of a network of tubes that carry lymph fluid through the body
Respiratory system
Consists of the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
Urinary system
Contains the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, processes bloody by extracting waster materials and producing urine
Digestive system
Consists of the mouth, pharynx, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, breaks down food
Male reproductive system
Contains the testes, epididymis, vas deferens, urethra, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, bulbourethral glands, penis, and scrotum
Female reproductive system
Consists of ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, vulva, and mammary glands
Nervous system
Consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory organs
Endocrine system
Consists of the pituitary, thyroid gland, adrenal glands, pancreatic islets, gonads
Muscular system
Composed of 500 individual muscles
Skeletal system
Forms the body frame; bones, joints
Integumentary system
Includes the skin; hair, sweat glands
Superior
Refers to a body part located above head and relative to another part of upper part of the body
Dorsal and posterior
Interchangeable term that mean "pertaining to the back"
Anterior and ventral
Interchangeable terms "pertaining to the front"
Plane
An imaginary flat field that is used as a point of reference for viewing three dimensional objects
Inferior
Away from the head end or toward lower part of body
Medial
Toward the midline, which is an imaginary vertical line down the middle of the body
Lateral
Toward the side
Superficial
External; toward the body surface
Deep
Internal; inward from the surface of the body
Proximal
Toward the origin or attachment to the trunk
Distal
Away from the origin or attachment to the trunk
Head
Subdivides into the face and the cranium
Neck
Subdivides into the anterior neck and the posterior neck
Trunk
Subdivides into the thorax, the abdomen, the pelvis, and back upper appendages
Upper appendages:
The shoulder, axilla (armpit), brachium (upper arm), elbow, forearm, carpus, manus, and digits
Lower appendages
The gluteus (buttock), femorus (knee), leg, tarus, ankle, food, toes
Fever
A symptom in which body temperature rises above normal
Pain
An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience that is associated with tissue
Sensation
Feeling or mental experience perceiving any stimulus
Sign
An abnormality that is discoverable by an objective exmaination
Symptom
An appearance or sensation experienced by a patient that deviates from the normal healthy state