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149 terms

Computer Concepts and Applications

EIU computer class; business
STUDY
PLAY
Facebook and Twitter are examples of social networking options
true
Prior to 1940, the word computer was defined as a person who performs calculations
true
An operating system is an example of application software
true
Because of increased versatility, a videogame console is now considered a personal computer
False
The purpose of a server is to serve computers on a network
true
In the binary number system, 2 is used to represent the value 2
False
Trojans are computer programs that seem to perform one function while actually doing something else
true
To assure you can remember your password it is a good idea to base it on information you can easily remember such as your birthday
false
A group of computers linked by wired or wireless technology is a(n) ____
network
The ____ is a collection of linked documents, graphics, and sounds
Web
____ is a term that refers to entities that exist largely within computer networks
Cyberspace
Digital imaging has had an effect in the following areas: ____
all of the above
A computer is a multiple purpose device that can do all of the following EXCEPT ____
think independently
In a computer, most processing takes place in ____
the CPU
An area of a computer that temporarily holds data waiting to be processed is ____
memory
A set of computer programs that helps a person carry out a task is ____
application software
The master controller for all activities that take place within a computer is ____
the operating system
A(n) ____ is a microprocessor-based computing device designed to meet the computing needs of an individual
personal computer
Data becomes ____ when it is presented in a format that people can understand and use
information
The binary number 10 represents ____ in the decimal number system
2
Data transmission speeds are typically expressed as ____
bits
Storage is typically expressed as ____
bytes
1,048,576 bytes is a ____
megabyte
A super-thin slice of semiconducting material packed with microscopic circuit elements is a(n) ____
all of the above
C, BASIC, COBOL, and Java are examples of ____ programming languages
high-level
A(n) ____ converts and executes one statement at a time
interpreter
A problem a hacker can cause after breaking into your computer includes ____
all of the above
____ attack uses password-cracking software
brute force
The type of data where text, numbers, graphics, sound, and video have been converted into discrete digits as represented in the accompanying figure is ____
digital
The type of data that is represented using an infinite scale of values as represented in the accompanying figure is ____
analog
The ____ is the part of the microprocessor that performs arithmetic operations, as shown in the accompanying figure
ALU
All IP addresses are static
False
All IP addresses are dynamic
False
The www in a URL is part of a domain name
False
Television and data signals are carried over the same cable
True
Cloud computing is the term given to analyzing cloud patterns and, with the help of the computer, predicting the weather
False
P2P file sharing allows users to obtain files from other users on the Internet
True
an ISP may provide ____ services
all of the above
____ replaced analog technology with digital technology and added support for text messages
2G
____ technologies support digital transmission for both voice and data
3G
____ are intended to work within LANs to monitor and direct packets being transported from one device to another
Routers
The accompanying figure represents the connection of your computer to the Internet
the router marked A should belong to a(n) ____; ISP
Digital audio is music, speech, and other sounds represented in a binary format for use in digital devices
true
Solid state storage cards hold data without consuming power, so they do not lose data when the camera is turned off
true
CDs with copy protection cannot be duplicated, and music that is ripped to another format does not play back correctly
true
if you have dialed Directory Assistance lately to obtain a telephone number, you have probably encountered ____
speech recognition
When a bitmap graphic is enlarged, it still retains its original ____
resolution
____ refers to the process of selecting part of an image
Cropping
The quality of a bitmap graphic is ____ dependent
resolution
You have just decreased the number of pixels, resolution, and file size of your graphic by selecting a portion of the image. What have you done to your graphic?
You have cropped your graphic.
A ____ is a smooth blending of shades from one color to another or from light to dark
gradient
A vector graphic can quite easily be converted into a bitmap graphic through a process called ____
rasterizing
____ is a popular format for Web-based video that requires Adobe Flash Player
Flash video
You can use a scanner, like the one in the accompanying figure, to convert a printed image into a bitmap graphic
True
When you increase the resolution of an existing graphic, as illustrated in the accompanying figure, the file size decreases
False
With images that contain strong curved or diagonal lines, pixel interpolation can result in ____ effects, such as those in the accompanying figure
pixelated
A vector graphic, like the one shown in the accompanying figure, resizes better than a comparable bitmap graphic
true
First-generation computers used vacuum tube technology
True
Assembly language and machine language are the same
false
High-level languages were developed for first-generation computers
False
Programming the first commercial microcomputers was accomplished by flipping switches
true
The computer industry encompasses those companies that manufacture computers and computer components
true
In the United States, the IT industry is fully regulated by the FCC
False
A computer certification will totally prepare a person for a job in the IT industry
False
Laws and ethics are really just different words for the same concept
false
A step-by-step process by which numbers are manipulated is a(n) ____
algorithm
An experimental device that typically must be further developed and perfected before going into production is called a(n) ____
prototype
A person who designs, codes, and tests computer programs is a ____
computer programmer
To get maximum exposure for your resume in an online job database, you should focus on ____
nouns
The life cycle of a new computer product is shown in the accompanying figure, in which box B represents ____
Product Announcement
The life cycle of a new computer product is shown in the accompanying figure, in which box C represents ____
Introduction
The accompanying figure represents computer and software marketing channels. In that figure, Box A represents ____
distribution centers
The simplest model for storing data is the flat file
true
In a fixed-length field, when the data entered is shorter than the allocated field length, blank spaces automatically fill the field
True
A record contains the smallest unit of meaningful information
True
A relational database stores data in a collection of related tables
true
If a name field contains an entire name, it is difficult to individually manipulate the first name, last name, and middle initial
true
The logical data type is used for true/false or yes/no data
true
The data accessed by data mining and other analysis techniques is often stored in a data ____
warehouse
In the world of databases, a(n) ____ refers to a collection of data fields
record
____ refers to the number of associations that can exist between two record types
Cardinality
A(n) ____ is an association between data that is stored in different record types
relationship
Data ____ means that data are separate from the programs used to manipulate the data
independence
The ____ data type is used to store true/false or yes/no data using minimal storage space
logical
A ____ data type usually provides a variable-length field into which users can enter comments
memo
In SQL terminology, creating a relationship between tables is referred to as ____ tables
joining
A database audit can ____
all of the above
in the accompanying figure, the relationship shown in the top row is a one-to-many relationship
true
____ is the process of converting text, numbers, sound, photos, and video into data that can be processed by digital devices.
Digitization
Technology ____ is a process by which several different technologies with distinct functionality evolve to form a single product.
Convergence
All of the following require both parties to be online at the same time EXCEPT ____.
Asynchronous Communication
A named collection of data that exists on a storage medium is known as (a) ____.
File
A set of computer programs that helps a computer monitor itself and function more efficiently is ____.
Application Software
An ordinary personal computer that is connected to a network is a ____.
Workstation
1,024 bytes is a ____.
Kilobyte
The human-readable version of a program is called ____.
Source Code
A(n) ____ converts all the statements in a program in a single batch and the resulting collection of instructions is placed in a new file.
Compiler
A collection of preprogrammed activities such as addition, subtraction, counting, and comparison is called a(n) ____.
Instruction Set
In terms of an authentication protocol, the phrase 'something a person knows' refers to ____.
authentication protocol
A ____ is a series of characters that becomes a person's unique identifier.
User Id
In terms of an authentication protocol, the phrase 'something a person possesses' could refer to ____.
ATM card or credit card
In terms of an authentication protocol, the phrase 'something a person is' refers to a(n) ____.
biometrics; fingerprint, facial features, retinal pattern
A term which can refer to a person who manipulates computers with malicious intent is a ____.
Black hat or cracker
____ intercepts information sent over computer networks.
sniffing
A hacker posing as a legitimate representative of an official organization such as your bank is an example of ____.
phishing
As shown in the accompanying figure, the ____ fetches each instruction.
Control Unit
The Internet began with a project called ____.
ARPA or ARPANET
Every domain name corresponds to a unique IP address that has been entered into the ____.
Domain Name System
The rate of data arriving at your computer is ____.
Downstream Speed
All of the following EXCEPT ____ are considered truly high-speed connections.
ISDN
____ currently offers the fastest Internet access speeds.
DSL
Most messaging is based on a(n) ____ model.
Client/server
The ____ protocol allows the transfer of files from one computer to another over any TCP/IP network.
FTP; File Transfer Protocol
In the accompanying figure, the type of signal represented by A is a(n) ____.
Digital Signal
A(n) ____ is a device that contains a variety of input and output jacks, plus audio-processing circuitry.
Sound Card
A ____ graphic is composed of a grid of dots.
bitmap graphic
____ is a graphics format with built-in compression that stores True Color bitmap data very efficiently in a small file.
JPEG
One clue that an image might be a ____ graphic is a flat, cartoon-like quality.
Vector
____ can be used to create the illusion of three dimensions by smoothly blending shades from one color to another or from light to dark.
Gradient
Today's ____ editing simply requires a computer hard disk and video editing software.
Nonlinear
A ____ watermark is a pattern of bits inserted at various places in an image or a content stream that can be used to track, identify, verify, and control content use.
Digital
A calculator that implements instructions autonomously is a(n) ____.
slide rule?
Punched cards were first used for ____.
controlling textile looms & input, processing, and data storage.
Computers characterized by their use of vacuum tubes are considered ____-generation.
First
A vacuum tube can have ____ states.
2?
Computers characterized by their use of transistors are considered ____ -generation.
Second
Computers characterized by their use of microprocessors are ____-generation.
Fourth
The first phase of testing generally carried out by the software publisher's in-house test team is called ____.
White Box Testing
A set of testing conducted by a team of off-site testers is called ____.
Beta Testing
____ refers to hardware manufacturers that sell their products directly to consumers.
Manufacturer Direct
A(n) ____ investigates the requirements of a business or organization, its employees, and its customers in order to plan and implement new or improved customer service.
...
A person who creates documentation for large programming projects is a ____.
...
Advantages of telecommuting include all the following EXCEPT ____.
...
Careers in computer ____ focus on the design of computer hardware.
Engineering
Careers in computer ____ focus on computer architecture and programming computers to make them work effectively and efficiently.
Science
____ degrees focus on applying computers to business problems.
...
____ degrees focus on the computer equipment and software used by businesses.
Information Technology
In the broadest definition, a(n) ____ is a collection of information.
...
Data ____ refers to the process of analyzing information in databases to discover previously unknown and potentially useful information.
...
____ refers to a branch of data mining that focuses on predicting future probabilities and trends.
...
A fixed-length field contains a predetermined number of ____.
...
A record ____ contains data about a particular entity.
...
Database ____ software is designed to manage billions of records and several hundred transactions per second.
...
A field ____ rule is a specification that the database designer sets up to filter the data entered into a particular field.
...
A ____ validates an entry by searching for the same data in a file or database table.
...
The goal of normalization is to minimize data ____.
...
____ is a query language.
...
The ____ operator specifies that both of the search criteria must be true for the record to be selected.
...
The two tables shown in the accompanying figure are ____ by the CustomerNumber field.
...