130 terms

Eastern Religions

For first year world religions, containing key terms for Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, and Shinto. Made for myself to study from, so they might not make much sense to others
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Sanatana dharma
Hinduism: "Eternal Duty" or "Eternal Law"
Tilak (or Tilaka)
Hinduism: Forehead markings
Karma
Hinduism: Action
Jainism: Particles created from action that sticks to you, and its quality depends on the action and the intention of the action
Samsara
Hinduism: Cycle of life, death, and reincarnation
Buddhism: Ignorance of reality
Indus Valley Civilization
Hinduism: dwelled in the Indus River basin, thought to be where Hinduism originated.
Mohenjo-Daro
Hinduism: A city found in the Indus valley Civilization
Harappa
Hinduism: A city found in the Indus valley Civilization
Aryans
Hinduism: Nomads, were not highly organized. Their language is thought to be the basis of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Hinduism: The official language of Hinduism
Puranas
Hinduism: Texts that talk about the gods and how to worship them
Bhagavad-Gita
Hinduism: An excerpt from the Mahabharata, a conversation between Khrishna and Arjuna
Bharata
Hinduism: Indigenous term for India
Vedas
Hinduism: Religious texts:
Rig-Veda

Yajur-Veda

Sama-Veda

Atharva-Veda
Samhita
Hinduism: The four collection of the Vedas: Rig-Veda, Yajur-Veda, Sama-Veda, Atharva-Veda
Brahmanas
Hinduism: Section of each Veda regarding ritual
Aranyakas
Hinduism: Rituals to be learned in the wilderness, written by people who meditate in the woods
Upanishads
Hinduism: Religious texts, a part of the Veda
Prana
Hinduism: Internal air current, the animating principle
Atman
Hinduism: The thing that moves from one life to the next, like a soul
Brahman
Hinduism: The single source of all that is
Rita
Hinduism: Abstract impersonal principle that keeps the world in harmony; is dynamic and changing
Purusha
Hinduism: Ancient being sacrificed by the gods to create the world
The Laws of Manu
Hinduism: Text describing the duties and responsibilities of each class
Varna
Hinduism: Class
Jatis
Hinduism: caste
brahman
Hinduism: The priests (Note: lower case, not to be confused with Brahman)
Ksatriya
Hinduism: Kings and Warriors
Vaisya
Hinduism: Common People
Sudra
Hinduism: Servants
Dharmasastra
Hinduism: Text explaining that the best measure of one's karma was one's birth position
Asramas
Hinduism: The four stages of life
Samnyasin
Hinduism: The stage when one cast off all worldly ties and leaves for the woods to meditate
Artha
Worldly success
Kama
Hinduism: Sensory pleasure
Dharma
Hinduism: One's duty based on the laws of manu. It is unchanging
Buddhism: The teachings of the Bhudda
Moksa
Hinduism: Release/liberation
Jainism: Release from karmic matters
Yoga
Hinduism: Practises to reunite the soul with Brahman
Samskara
Hinduism: Life Cycle rites
Puja
Hinduism: Homage/worship
Namaskara
Hinduism: A gesture of respect (hand at the centre of atman)
Prasad
Hinduism: Leftovers of Puja offerings
Bhakti
Hinduism: Devotional faith
Kali Yuga
Hinduism: Period of decay
Saiva
Hinduism: Worship focused on Siva
Vaisnava
Hinduism: worship focused on Vishnu
Ista-devata
Hinduism: Chosen deity
Devis
Hinduism: Goddesses, all take the form of rivers
Pativrata
Hinduism: emphasis on Dharma of a woman being a faithful wife
Sufism
Sikhism: Islamic Mythical tradition
Sant tradition
Sikhism: Traditions found in Northern India
Sant poets
Sikhism: Those who taught the Sant traditions through poetry
Nanak
Sikhism: The Guru who started Sikhism
Adi Granth
Sikhism: Compilation of 990 hymns written by nanak
Sat Guru
Sikhism: "True teacher" refers to God
Om Kara
Sikhism: "Divine one" refers to God
Mardana
Sikhism: Friend of Nanak, was a Muslim
Sikh
Sikhism: Followers of the new one god
Gobind Singh
Sikhism: Created the Khalsa, 10th and last guru
Khalsa
Sikhism: Special militaristic group, all took the last name Singh and were required to wear the five Ks
Kes
Sikhism: Uncut hair, one of the five Ks of the Khalsa
Kangha
Sikhism: Comb, one of the five Ks of the Khalsa
Kacch
Sikhism: Short trousers, one of the five Ks of the Khalsa
Kirpan
Sikhism: Sword, one of the five Ks of the Khalsa
Kara
Sikhism: Steel bracelets, one of the five Ks of the Khalsa
Gurdwara
Sikhism: Places of worship, cultural centre, social meeting place
Karmamarga
Jainism: "Way of Works" or "Path of egoless action"
Ahisma
Jainism: Nonviolence
Sramanas
People who opposed the Vedic traditions and set out to find their own paths to liberations
Tirthankaras
Jainism: Those who found liberation, 24 of them
Rsabha
Jainism: The first tirthankara
Mahavira
Jainism: The last Tirthankara and the founder of Jainism
Jina
Jainism: "Victorious one", refers to Mahavira
Parsva
Jainism: Mahavira's predecessor
Svatambara
Jainism: "White-Clad"
Digatambara
Jainism: "Sky-Clad"
Acarya
Jainism: head priest who governs a monastery
Swatsika
Jainism: means 'wellbeing"
Theravada / Hinayana
Buddhism: "Small vehicle"
Mahayana
Buddhism: "Great Vehicle"
Vajrayana
Buddhism: Tantric tradition
Bhudda
Buddhism: The enlightened one
Samgha
Buddhism: Religious Community
Anatman
Buddhism: The idea of "no-self"
Siddhartha Gautama
The first Bhudda, a prince
Sakyamuni
Buddhism: Sage of the Sakya clan, refers to the first Bhudda
Duhkha
Buddhism: Suffering
Noble Eightfold path
Buddhism: The steps to follow in order to reach enlightenment
Dependent origination
Buddhism: Everything is caused by something before it
Tripitaka
Buddhism: The three baskets, scripture canons: Sutra, Vinaya, Abhidharma
Bhiksu
Buddhism: Male monastic
Bhiksuni
Buddhism: Female Monastic
Sunyata
Buddhism: emptiness
Bhodicitta
Buddhism: Compassion and wisdom
Bhodisattva
Buddhism: Those who obtain Bhodicitta
Nirvana
Buddhism: The truth of reality, the same as Samsara
Upaya
Buddhism: Skillful means
Madhyamaka
Buddhism: Mahayana school, explains the teachings of mahayans
Yogacara
Buddhism: School focused on meditation/yoga
Nagajuna
Buddhism: Founder of Madhyamaka
Yasanga
Buddhism: Founder of Yogacara
Sukhavati
Buddhism: The pure land
Conciousness-only
Buddhism: Perception of world just in our mind
Sutra
Buddhism: threads that bind the teachings together
Tantra
Buddhism: Fabric of continuation of teachings
Mandala
Buddhism: Sacred diagrams
Mantra
Buddhism: Secret/Sacred spells
Mudra
Buddhism: Hand gestures
Vispasyana
Buddhism: Higher insight
Heaven
Asian Religions: Not Christian heaven. Where ancestors live and where rulers receive their mandate
Earth
Asian Religions: Mother Earth, the realm we reside in
Confucianism
Asian Religions: The teachings of Confucius
Confucius / Kong Tzu
Founder of confucianism
Oracle bones
Asian Religions: Burning bones then reading the cracks to predict the future
Shamans
Asian Religions: Becomes leader when people believe in their power, and may claim to receive the 'mandate of heaven". Can eventually become king. Animal + Human sacrifices to tame nature
Analects
Asian Religions: The collected writings of the teachings of conufcius
Ren
Asian Religions: Confucian value of "Humanesness"
Mencius
Asian Religions: Follower of confucianism, believes that humans were essentially good
Hsun-tzu
Asian Religions: Believed humans were evil and selfish
Five Classics
Asian Religions: The texts followers of confucianism were to study
Filial piety
Asian Religions: Confucian value of respect to parents and ancestors
Tao
Asian Religions: "The Way"
Shinto
Shinto: The way of the Gods
Kami
Shinto: "Gods" but more like spirits than western idea of gods
Izanami
Shinto: One of the two divine beings created to create the land
Izanagi
Shinto: One of the two divine beings created to create the land
Jimmu
Shinto: First Emperor of japan, supposedly a descendent of Amaterasu
Emperor Meiji
Shinto: Created State Shinto, emphasized belief that the Imperial line descended from the Goddess
Mutsuhito
Shinto: Emperor of Japan who encouraged the modernization of Japan (1852-1912), Emperor Meiji
State Shinto
Shinto: Militaristic, very focused on the Samurai ideal
Amaterasu
Shinto: The Sun Goddess