This was the war of American independence fought between America and England from 1775 to 1783. Underlying causes were boosted colonial confidence from the French and Indian War, the fact that the British needed colonists to help pay for the French and Indian War, the new idea of republicanism, the Sugar Act, the Quartering Act, the Stamp Tax, the Townshend Acts, the Declaratory Act, the Boston "Massacre," the Boston Tea Party, the "Intolerable Acts," the Quebec Act, and the meeting of the Continental Congress. The immediate cause of the war was when the British commander in Boston sent a detachment of troops to Lexington and Concord to seize stores of colonial gunpowder and to capture rebel ringleaders, and shots ended up being fired when the Minute Men refused to disperse rapidly enough. Important events and turning points in the war were the meeting of the Second Continental Congress, the capture of the British garrisons at Ticonderoga and Crown Point, the seizure of Bunker Hill by the colonists, the rejection of the Olive Branch Petition, the hiring of Hessian mercenaries by the British, the burning of Falmouth, ME, and Norfolk, VA, by the British, the British evacuation of Boston, the publication of "Common Sense," the writing of the Declaration of Independence, and the American victories at Trenton and Princeton, the surrender of British general Burgoyne to American general Horatio Gates at Saratoga, and the colonist victory at Yorktown (with French aid) that resulted in Cornwallis's surrender. The ending event was the signing of the Treaty of Paris. It recognized the independence of the United States and granted generous boundaries, and the Americans agreed to discontinue the further persecution of Loyalists, restore confiscated Loyalist land, and pay back debt to British creditors. Short-term results of the war were that the Articles of Confederation came into effect and foreign relations were strained. Long-term results were that the U.S. was given a splendid territorial birthright and a priceless heritage of freedom, the aristocracy was weakened as equality became a new ideal, indentured servitude became unpopular, and the colonies drafted new constitutions.