MCAT DNA & RNA
The gene DNA Replication RNA Transcription Post-transcriptional Processing DNA technology
Terms in this set (61)
a sequence of DNA nucleotides that codes for rRNA, tRNA, or a single polypeptide via an mRNA intermediate
Prokaryotes only have ___ copy of each gene.
repetitive sequence DNA
regions of non-coding DNA (found only in eukaryotes)
unique sequence DNA
regions of coding DNA; a gene
All the genetic information in an organism; all of an organism's chromosomes.
The Central Dogma
DNA is transcribed to RNA which is translated to amino acids forming a protein (all living organisms use this method).
Thymine (T) and Cytosine (C)
Adenine (A) and Guanine (G)
Adenine (A) and Thymine (T)
Cytosine (C) and Guanine (G)
between the 3rd carbon of a nucleotide and the 5th carbon of another [sugar-phosphate backbone]
An -OH group
The 3' end is attached to ___.
A phosphate group
The 5' end is attached to ___.
The orientation of two single strands of DNA
when a new double strand is created it contains one old strand and one new strand
when DNA is replicated, it is replicated in two directions
The multi-molecular machine that copies DNA; includes DNA polymerase, helicase, primase, and other enzymes.
origin of replication
Site where the replication of a DNA molecule begins, consisting of a specific sequence of nucleotides.
An enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of new DNA at a replication fork by the addition of nucleotides to the existing chain.
Sequence of RNA primers bound to a region of single-stranded DNA to initiate DNA replication.
Pyrophosphate group (two bonded phosphates)
Each nucleotide added to the strand requires the removal of a ___.
A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates by means of Okazaki fragments, each synthesized in a 5' to 3' direction away from the replication fork.
Small fragments of DNA produced on the lagging strand during DNA replication, joined later by DNA ligase to form a complete strand.
A linking enzyme essential for DNA replication; catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 3' end of one DNA fragment (such as an Okazaki fragment) to the 5' end of another DNA fragment (such as a growing DNA chain).
nuclear enzymes necessary for DNA synthesis
the type of process that describes DNA replication, in regards to the leading strand being continuous and the lagging strand being fragmented
Enzyme that can remove deoxyribonucloeotides from DNA; DNA polymerase also acts as one of these
DNA polymerase in humans moves at about ___ nucleotides per second.
The replication of the 6 billion base pairs that make up the 46 human chromosomes takes about ___ hours.
A region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromatid, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.
A type of RNA, synthesized from DNA, that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein.
A globular RNA that is combined with special protein that makes up a ribosome
An RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid and protein language by picking up specific amino acids and recognizing the appropriate codons in the mRNA
nucleus; mitochondrial matrix; cytosol
DNA is only found in the ___ and ___ while RNA is also found in the ___.
Transcription requires a ___ whereas replications requires a ___.
sequence of bases at the end of a gene that signals the RNA polymerase to stop transcribing
A region on prokaryotic DNA where one or more genes and their controlling elements are located
gene regulation in eukaryotes is more complicated and more space is needed so ___ act like promotors/operators but are located further from the gene.
An initial RNA transcript; also called pre-mRNA when transcribed from a protein-coding gene.
A modified form of guanine nucleotide added onto the 5' end of a pre-mRNA molecule
poly A tail
The modified end of the 3' end of an mRNA molecule consisting of the addition of some 50 to 250 adenine nucleotides to protect it from exonucleases
A segment of a gene situated between exons that is removed before translation of messenger RNA and does not function in coding for protein synthesis.
A coding region of a eukaryotic gene. Exons, which are expressed, are separated from each other by introns.
(small nuclear ribonucleoproteins) located in the nucleus and composed of RNA and protein molecules, recognize the splice sites, join with additional proteins to form a spliceseome
a DNA molecule that has been split apart
nucleic acid hybridization
A technique in which a single-stranded nucleic acid probe is made that is complementary to, and binds to, a target sequence, either DNA or RNA. The resulting double-stranded molecule is a hybrid.
digest (cut) nucleic acid only at certain nucleotide sequences along the chain
A specific sequence on a DNA strand that is recognized as a "cut site" by a restriction enzyme (typically palindromic)
DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources and cut by the same restriction enzyme
A small ring of DNA that carries accessory genes separate from those of the bacterial chromosome
a collection of cloned DNA fragments.
DNA created by reverse transcriptase from a strand of mRNA (which has already had introns removed)
PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)
DNA is copied multiple times to produce many copies of the original molecules helpful when there's only a small DNA sample
A technique that enables specific nucleotide sequences to be detected in a sample of DNA. It involves gel electrophoresis of DNA molecules and their transfer to a membrane (blotting), followed by nucleic acid hybridization with a labeled probe.
A technique in which RNA fragments, previously separated by gel electrophoresis, are transferred to a nitrocellulose membrane and detected by autoradiography or chemical luminescence.
A technique in which proteins, previously separated by gel electrophoresis, are transferred to paper. A specific labeled antibody is generally used to mark the location of a particular protein.
RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism)
Differences in DNA sequence on homologous chromosomes that can result in different patterns of restriction fragment lengths (DNA segments resulting from treatment with restriction enzymes); useful as genetic markers for making linkage maps.
SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms)
Single nucleotide polymorphism. point mutation sites causing a polymorphic gene