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Teaching English Language Learners Key Terms
Key Terms found in the book: Foundations for Teaching English Language Learners: Research, Theory, Policy, and Practice By: Wayne E. Wright
Terms in this set (121)
academic language proficiency
Refers to the level of language proficiency students need to successfully comprehend and perform grade-level academic tasks. The level of proficiency needed varies widely depending on the language demands and nature of the tasks.
In testing ELLs, refers to modifications to the testing environment or testing procedures, or modifications to the test instrument itself, that are intended to make up for a student's lack of proficiency in the language of the test (e.g. providing extra time, oral interpretation of test directions or items, native-language versions of the test)
A situation in which a second language is eventually added to a student's native language without replacing it.
adequate yearly progress (AYP)
The amount of progress a school or school district must make each year toward reaching target objectives (see AMAOs) under the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Determined mainly by student scores on state-wide tests. To make AYP under Title I of NCLB, increasingly higher percentage of students in each subgroup in each tested grade-level must pass the state tests each year. To make AYP under Title III, increasingly higher percentages of ELL students must make progress in learning English, attain English proficiency, and also make AYP under Title I.
Refers to affective factors, such as fear, anxiety, shyness, and lack of motivation, that can block comprehensible input and thus prevent second language acquisition. Lowering the affective filter allows learners to receive more comprehensible input and thus enables them to acquire more of the second language.
A form of assessment that focuses on several aspects of a student's performance, normally guided by a rubric that includes separate analytic scales. For example, a rubric to assess student writing may contain separate analytic scales for composing, style, sentence formation, usage, and mechanics.
annual measurable achievement objectives (AMAOs)
Targets set by each state, as required by the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, that indicate the percentage of students at each grade level expected to pass each state test. The AMAOs increase toward the goal of 100% of students passing each test by 2014.
The process of collecting and analyzing a wide variety of data from students that provides evidence of their learning and growth over an extended period.
before, during, after (BDA)
In literacy instruction, refers to strategies used before, during, and after reading a text, to maximize student's comprehension. Also referred to as intro-through-and beyond.
In testing, refers to the unfair advantages or disadvantages that may be given to certain students that can impact their performance. For example, a test given in English will be biased in favor of proficient English speakers and biased against students who lack proficiency in English.
Bilingual Education Act
Added in 1968 as Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Before passage of No Child Left Behind, it provided support for bilingual and other programs for ELL students and their families on a competitive grant basis.
bilingual immersion programs
For language minority students who are English dominant and native English speakers who desire to become bilingual students are initially constructed 90-100% in the non-English target language for the first two years of the program. Instruction evens out gradually to 50% instruction in English and 50% in the non-English language as students move up in grade level.
Short for "Web log," refers to easy to create and update interactive Web sites where the most recent postings appear at the top and older content appears below (or is archived) in reverse chronological order. Blogs enable readers to interact with the blonde creator and other readers by posting comments and questions related to the content.
Words that are similar in languages because they come from the same root (e. g., education in English and educación in Spanish)
The ability to use a language to communicate effectively and appropriately with other speakers of the language. Includes grammatical, discourse, sociolinguistic, and strategic confidence.
Communicative language teaching (CLT)
Language teaching approaches, methods, strategies, and techniques that focus on helping students develop communicative competence.
Oral or written language that is slightly above a second language learner's current level of proficiency in a second language and thus provides linguistic input that leads to second language acquisition. Represented by the formula "i + 1", where "i" is the current level of proficiency, and "+1" is input slightly above this level.
Oral or written language produced by a second language speaker that is comprehensible to the individual or individuals with whom he or she is communicating. Second language learners need to produce comprehensible output pushes them to pay attention to gaps in their proficiency and thus may prompt them to notice more in the input and motivate them to learn the language they need to express their intended meanings.
Computer assisted language learning (CALL)
Refers to the use of technology and second language teaching and learning.
Concepts of print
Refers to such reading related issues as understanding the differences between letters and words and words and spaces, knowing where to start reading and how to do a return sweep to continue reading the next line, and understanding the basic features of a book, such as title, front and back cover, and even have to hold it properly.
Providing line-by-line translation of teacher instruction or text into the students' native language. Considered a poor use of the native language because it removes the need for students to attend to the second language and that's interferes with second language acquisition.
Content-based instruction (CBI)
An approach to second language instruction in which content-area subjects and topics are used as the basis of instruction.
A process in which small groups of students collaborate and interact to accomplish a specific learning task or activity.
Test designed to measure the degree to which students have mastered content.
Developmental bilingual education (DBE)
A form of bilingual education for ELL students, who initially receive about 90% of content-area instruction in their native language (L1) and 10% of content-area construction through sheltered instruction. L1 instruction decreases slowly as sheltered English instruction increases as students move up in grade level. Instruction continues in both languages until the end of the program, even after students attain proficiency in English, to ensure that students attain strong bilingual and buy literacy skills. Also referred to as maintenance late-exit bilingual education.
Construction that is tailored to the unique language and academic needs of each student.
Dual language books
Books printed into languages in which one language appears above the other or the two languages are written side-by-side on one page or on opposite pages.
Dual language programs
A variety of bilingual programs models for a low and English-proficient students designed to help them become bilingual and biliterate. In a 50/50 model, half of the students are fluent English speakers and half are ELLs, and 50% of instruction is in English and 50% in the native language of the ELLs. In the 90.10 model, for the first three years, 90% of instruction is in the non-English language and 10% is in English. Instruction gradually reaches 50% in each language. Other variations exist. Also called two-way immersion.
Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)
The main body of federal education policy and law and source for education funding to state and local education agencies. Passed in 1965 and binding on all states and entities except federal education funding.
An alternative label for ELLs that draws attention to the other language or languages and the learners' linguistic repertoires, situates these learners in a continuum of bilingual development, and emphasizes that a fundamental goal of programs for these learners should be to help them attain high levels of proficiency in both their first language and English.
Emergent, early, early fluency, and fluency levels of literacy development
The stages or levels beginning readers go through during their literacy development.
English as a second language (ESL)
Instruction that focuses on helping ELLs attain proficiency in English.
English for the Children initiatives
Referendums put to voters in four states with large ELL student populations that would place severe restrictions on bilingual education programs. In 1998 California voters approved Proposition 227, And 2000 Arizona voters approved Proposition 203, And in 2002 Massachusetts motors approved Question two. An attempt to pass a similar initiative in Colorado (Amendment 31) failed.
English language development (ELD)
An alternative label for English as a second language (ESL) programs and instruction, commonly used at the elementary school level.
English language learner (ELL)
A label for students who are non-native speakers of English and art in the process of attaining proficiency in English. Sometime shortened into English learner (EL).
Equal Education Opportunities Act of 1974 (EEOA)
A federal law that declares, "No state shall deny educational opportunities to an individual on account of his or her race, color, sex, or national origin." Includes the mandate that educational agencies take appropriate actions to help (ELL) students overcome language barriers that impede equal participation of students in education programs.
The use of assessment data to make judgments about the progress of students' learning, effectiveness of teacher instruction, or the quality of the educational programs.
fluent English proficient (FEP)
The official designation for former ELL students who have attained sufficient English proficiency to meet their state's criteria for redesignation.
The use of on-going assessments that help to identify the students' strengths and needs and thus informs subsequent instruction, building on the strengths while addressing these needs.
An amendment to the US constitution ratified in 1868: "No State shall make or enforce any law which I'll abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; Nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction equal protection of the laws." Several lawsuits regarding the education of ELLs have been argued under the 14th amendment.
A form literacy instruction and which small, homogeneous groups of students are matched to text at their appropriate instructional level, and the teacher provides support for students attempt to read the text on their own.
In the United States, refers to a non-English language to which one has a family tie. Both ELLs and students who are proficient in English and may have little to no proficiency and their heritage language, As is common for second and third generation immigrant students, maybe designated heritage language students.
Heritage language programs
Programs for language minority students to develop or maintain their heritage language; include bilingual programs for ELLs, foreign language classes targeting native speakers in K-12 and post-secondary education, and community based after school or weekend programs.
A form of assessment in which a student's performance (e.g., a writing sample) is given a single score that represents an overall judgment of the performance as a whole.
Reading students are able to do on their own with little or no support.
Writing students are able to do on their own little or no support.
Writing instruction for DLL students who are at the beginning stage of writing, in which the teacher and the student compose a short sentence or paragraph. The teacher helped the students construct a sentence or sentences in enlarged text (e.g., on chart paper) by guiding individual students as they come up to add individual letters or words, and helping them to make relevant sound-symbol correspondences.
Also call developmental spelling, transitional spelling, or temporary spelling; refers to a temporary stage emergent writers may go through as they rely on their knowledge of sound-symbol correspondences to write words as they sound to them.
Notebooks in which students write regularly to practice and develop their writing skills.
A point of view and which the native language of ELL students is viewed as a strength to be developed and built on to help the students learn English and academic content.
Language majority students
Describe students who are native speakers of the standard language Friday spoken by the dominant group of a given society. And the United States, the term covers students to speak standard English.
Language minority students
Describe students who are not native speakers of the language spoken by the dominant group of a given society. In the United States the term covers all students to speak languages other than standard English.
Regulations issued by the U.S. Department of Education Office of Civil Rights following the U.S. Supreme Court decision Lau v. Nichols (1974), outlining requirements for school districts and schools to address the needs of EL L students.
The vocabulary of a language.
Limited English proficient (LEP)
A label for students who have not yet attained proficiency in English. Although the English language learner (ELL) label is preferred, LEP remains an official legal designation and federal and in many states' legislation.
Words that differ by single phoneme (e.g., sand/ hand, bit/bet, rag/rat), typically used to help students distinguish specific sounds that change the meaning of words and help students improve their pronunciation.
Writing instruction in which the teacher instructs a text in enlarged print (e.g., on chart paper), demonstrating a variety of writing strategies and techniques students are expected to learn and use in their own writing.
The study of the structure of words. The central unit of study is the morpheme, the smallest unit of meaning are grammatical function.
Refers to scoring a piece of student writing by considering several traits, for example, clear opinion (main idea), adequate details to support the opinion, and a strong conclusion.
A form of independent recreational reading that entails reading several books on the same subject, by the same author, or in the same genre.
Native language (L1) instruction
Instruction in one or more content areas in the native language of ELL students. A distinguishing feature of bilingual education models.
For beginning level ELL students who have been in the United States For only one or two years. Programs typically provide intensive English instruction and may include some native language instruction and ample primary language support.
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB)
A re-authorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Places heavy emphasis on accountability through standards and high-stakes testing.
A test designed to compare a student's score to those of other students. Test results are usually reported as percentile ratings (e.g., a student at the 71st percentile rank scored higher than 71% of the students in the test norming population, that is, a group of students who have already taken the test)
Students' assessment of each other's work or performances.
A form of assessment in which students are evaluated on their ability to perform a specific academic task or set of related tasks (e.g., use oral language to role play interactions at the market, write an essay, conduct a science experiment, measure and compare a set of objects using a scale).
Personal word book
A book provided for each student that contains a list of high frequency words in other words students commonly ask for when they write, and space under each letter section for students record their own words as they progress through the school year.
A component of reading instruction and which students learn the phonetic value (i.e., sounds) of individual letters and combinations of letters.
The study of the sound systems of languages.
Free audio or video programs that can be streamed over or downloaded from the Internet. Include professional and amateur productions.
Assessment of student work collected throughout the school year and organized in a portfolio enables the assessment of students' progress and growth based on authentic samples of student work.
The study of language in use, that is, how individuals produce and interpret language and social interaction in specific contexts.
A form of primary language support in which a lesson or re-allowed to be conducted in English is previewed, and then reviewed, and the native language of the ELL students.
Primary language support (PLS)
Using student's native language during ESL or sheltered English content-area instruction to make the English instruction more comprehensible.
Primary trait scoring
Refers to scoring a piece of student writing by focusing on a specific trade, for example, the ability to craft a thesis statement in a persuasive essay.
A form of writing instruction and what students are guided through five stages: pre-writing, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing. Often talk to Ray collaborative approach call the Writer's Workshop.
An English for the Children voter initiative passed in Arizona in 2000, placing restrictions on bilingual education.
An English for the Children voter initiative passed in 1998, placing restrictions on bilingual education.
A program model for ELLs in which students are placed in mainstream or sheltered English immersion classrooms but are regularly pulled out of class for ESL lessons taught by an ESL teacher.
And English for the Children voter initiative passed in Massachusetts in 2002, placing restrictions on bilingual education.
Refers to anytime a teacher, parent, or other proficient reader reads books or other text to one or more students.
A structure for reading instruction often used in secondary schools that enables teachers to tailor instruction to students' strengths, and needs.
Tools or procedures used by students to assess their own reading performance.
Refers to a political battle over approaches to reading instruction between those who favor a bottom-up direct skills instruction approach to reading (e.g., Direct systematic and phonemic awareness and phonics instruction) and those who favor a top-down approach, which takes a more holistic view of reading (e.g., whole language).
The interactive feature of the Internet that allows users to both read and write Internet content.
The reclassification of a student from English-language learner (ELL), or limited English proficient (LEP), to fluent English proficient (FEP), based on criteria established by a school district or state.
Variation and the use of language based on the context in which the language is used.
The consistency with which a test or assessment measures what it is measuring.
A reading assessment tool that provides a visual record of a student's reading performance word by word on the specific text.
Sample performance indicators
A feature of the TESOL English Language Proficiency Standards that provides examples of how to implement the standards. Grade-level academic tasks are broken down into descriptions of the level of performance fact me reasonably expected from ELL students at each of the five levels of English proficiency.
Support or assistance provided to a student within his or her zone of proximal development I am more knowledgeable other (e.g., teacher, peer) to help the student learn a new concept or develop new skills.
Students' assessment of their own performance, typically guided by a checklist or a rubric.
The study of the meaning of words, phrases, and sentences.
Reading instruction in which the teacher reads a big book or other source of enlarged text with the students, modeling a variety of reading strategies and using the text (once it is familiar to the students) to teach reading skills.
Writing instruction in which the teacher, and collaboration with the students, constructs in enlarged text (e.g., on chart paper). Students suggest sentences and revisions and the teacher models the use of a variety of writing strategies students are expected to use in their own writing.
Sheltered English immersion (SEI)
A program model for ELLs that combines ESL, sheltered content-area instruction, and primary language support. Sometimes called structured English immersion.
Grade-level content-area instruction provided an English in a manner that makes it comprehensible to ELLs while supporting their English-language development.
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP)
A tool for planning, implementing, and evaluating sheltered English content-area instruction.
A period many new learners of a second language go through before they feel comfortable speaking in the new language.
SOLOM (Student Oral Language Observation Matrix)
An assessment of students' oral language proficiency using an analytic scoring rubric that focuses on the aspects of comprehension, fluency, vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar.
Specifically designed academic instruction in English (SDA IE)
Another term for sheltered instruction, referred in California and other states because it places emphasis on the fact that such instruction is academically rigorous and specifically designed to match the linguistic needs of the student.
Standard error of measurement (SEM)
A statistical matter that indicates a range of trustworthiness of an individual student's standardized test score. For example, the actual score of students who earned a score of 50 on a test within SEM of 3 would be between 47 and 53 (e.g., 50 +/-3).
The process of placing ELL students in the mainstream classroom where they do not receive any ESL, shelter content instruction, or primary language support. Also called "sink-or-swim."
A situation in which a second language eventually replaces a student's native language.
Assessments that provide a summary of what students know and can do. Typically given at the end of the unit or at the end of the school year.
The study of the rules governing the relationships between words and the ways they are combined to form phrases and sentences.
The administration of tests, singular instruments designed to systematically measure a sample of the student's ability at one particular time.
Teaching a series of content-area lesson across different content areas focusing on a unifying topic or theme.
Thematic word chart
A list of key vocabulary related to a theme currently under study.
Total physical response (TPR)
A language teaching approach in which students physically respond to language input (e.g., commands) to internalize the meaning and to demonstrate their comprehension of the language.
Transitional bilingual education (TBE)
A program model for ELL students in which native language content-area instruction provided for the first few years of the program, in addition to sheltered English content-area instruction in English as a second language. Is our transition to mainstream classrooms after just a few years in the program
The accuracy of the tester assessment and measuring wanted purports to measure
Voice-over-Internet protocol (VOIP)
Technology that allows the use of live voice over the Internet in real time. Used for Internet telephone service and audio chatting.
The period after a question has been posed during which students can thinking formulate answers in their head before being required to answer out loud. Particularly important for ELLs who may need extra time to process input and formulate output in their second language.
A theme-based activity in which a teacher selects a series of websites for students to visit, and designs learning tasks for students to complete on visiting each site
A philosophy of reading instruction that takes a top-down approach to literacy development, that is, instruction begins with a focus on comprehension of the whole text and then helping students develop reading and comprehension strategies and skills within the context of these meaningful texts.
A website that can easily be created and maintained collaboratively by multiple users.
Short (mini-) lessons focusing on the morphological or semantic properties of words and related sets of words.
An enlarged list of words organized alphabetically and displayed on the classroom wall to support students' vocabulary and literacy development.
An instructional approach to writing and which students work independently and at their own pace as they move through the five stages of process writing the teacher and peer guidance and support.
Zone of proximal development (ZPD)
Refers to a metaphorical space between what an individual can do on his or her own, and what he or she can do with support from a teacher or other more knowledgeable person.
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