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- an organism that consumes secondary consumers and feeds at the fourth trophic level.
- an organism that consumes primary consumers and feeds at the third trophic level.
- an organism, such as a millipede or soil insect, that scavenges the waste products or dead bodies of other community members.
- an organism, such as a fungus or bacterium, that breaks down leaf litter and other nonliving matter into simple constituents that can be taken up and used by plants.
the study of how the natural world functions and how humans and the environment interact.
- a theory that views environment rather than heredity as the important factor in the development and especially the cultural and intellectual development of an individual or group
- Nature Conservancy, Conservation International, the World Wide Fund for Nature, Greenpeace, and Population Connection
examples of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)
- a combined effort of government and a for-profit entity, generally intended to use the efficiency of the private sector to help achieve a public policy goal.
- the ability of an ecological community to remain stable in the presence of a disturbance.
- the ability of an ecological community to change in response to disturbance but later return to its original state.
- a stereotypical series of changes in the composition and structure of an ecological community through time.
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