93 terms

Nutrition - Chap 2

carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
Kilocalories (Kcal)
the energy (fuel) provided by macronutrients
Carbohydrates - 1st Macronutrient
Carbon (carbo), water (hydrate) and oxygen are made through the process of photosynthesis;
in which the sun's energy allows plant leaves to take in carbon dioxide (co2) from the air
Two sources of Carbohydrates
plant material and milk
Carbohydrate kcals
1 gram carbs = 4 kcal/g; break down into glucose; grains(oat, barley, wheat), vegetable, fruit, sugar, beer
Protein kcals
1 gram protein = 4 kcal/g; break down into amino acids; building blocks, muscle of meats, legumes(beans, peas), nuts, milk
Fat kcals
1 gram fat = 9 kcal/g; break down into fatty acids, glycerol; liquid - room temperature, solid - saturated fats, butter, meat
Alcohol kcals
1 gram alcohol = 7 kcal/g; break down into glucose
simple carbohydrate, is a single or double molecule made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, may be referred to as a monosaccharide or disaccharide
Monosaccharide (simple carbs)
single unit, molecules:glucose (blood sugar), frucose (fruit sugar)
Disaccharide (simple carbs)
double units or double sugars, found in food and must break apart through digestion into monosaccharide molecules before they can be absorbed into the bloodstream, molecule:lactose (milk sugar)
Polysaccharide (complex carbs)
multiple unit, molecule:starch - is a chain of sugar links, rice, corn, potatoes, beans, peas
Dietary Fiber
(1)soluble in water-found in the pulp of plant foods, gummy, (2)insoluble, generally found in the skin and siids of plant foods, crunchy, helps with constipation
contain carbon
break down into something else
has carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
Three Glucose Molecules (C6H12O6)
Sugar - monosaccharide, shorter digestion, Starch - polysaccharides, harder to digest (rice, corn, peas, potatoes, pasta), Fiber - indigestible polysaccharide, reduces cholesterol, helps w/colon health, harder to digest; chief energy source for the body cells
increased acidity level of the blood, reduced ability to remove CO2 occurs
Metabolic Ketosis
low ph, acid in the body; lower than 100grams of carbs in the body *Lowest to go is 100 grams**
Carb Functions (digest in 1 hr)
(1)sparing (the burning of protein), (2)helps with the burning of fats, (3)laxative effect, (4)source of energy(fuel), aids in absorption of vitamins (calcium), (5)promotes normal bowel functions
Grain (Three Portions)
(1)Bran layer - high source of dietary fiber, (2)Endosperm - ground in white flour, (3)Germ (wheat germ) - most nutritious part of any grain, includes a small amount of natural fiber
added back into the product
was never in the product to begin with, it is added in
1 cup of Milk
15 grams carbs
1 slice of Bread
15 grams carbs
1 cup of Fruit
15 grams carbs
1 cup of raw veges
15 grams carbs
1 tsp sugar
4 grams carbs
1 tbsp flour
5 grams carbs
Carbohydrate intake
300 grams p/day, s/b 60% of diet
Proteins - 2nd Macronutrient
(1)basic element of life - it is essential to life, (2)made up of amino acids, (3)made up of nitrogen, muscle - meats, eggs, nuts, milk, legumes, milk products
Protein intake
45-60 grams p/day, s/b 10-35% of diet
Protein Functions
(1)repair/replace tissue, (2)tissue building, (3)energy, (4)contruction/functioning-enzymes, hormones, hemoglobin, protein in blood, (5)prevents edema, maintains osmotic pressure
Nitrogen Balance
a condition in which the nitrogen consumed in the form of proteins is equal to the nitrogen lost daily in the urine and other body secretions
a measure of serum protein status, albumin level less than 3.5mg/dL is an indication of mild protein deficiency
Fats - 3rd Macronutrient
liquid - room temperature: oils, solid - saturated fats, butter, red meats, fat digestion takes the longest of all the macronutients, requiring up to 4 hours
Hydrogenated (trans fats)
hydrogen has been added to liquid oils in order to make lid fats-also called trans fats
Saturated Fats
fats that are solid - naturally found in animal products such as butter and red meat, makes our body produce cholesterol
protein energy malnutrition - diet low in calories, proteins are used as a source of energy, leaving little of this nutrient to build and repair tissues and maintain immune function
refers to a condition in which the individual may have an adequate caloric intake but lacks adequate dietary protiens
Fat Functions
(1)furnishing essential fatty acids, (2)sparing - burning of protein for energy, (3)protecting body organs, (4)insulating and controlling body temperature in the form of body fat
is a fat related coumpound that is not a kilocalorie source, in foods it is found only in animal fats because it is made in the liver of animals
Fat intake
no specific requirements, 20-30 grams total caloric intake
CHO (Carbohydrates)
give us energy, found in plants: vegetables, fruits, wheat, grains, milk
20-35 grams, helps with constipation, colon cancer; low residue 5-15 grams
3 Factors of plant food carbohydrate
water (watermelon), sweetness, density (how heavy)
Low Carb foods
veges: spinach, cabbage, cucumbers
Sugar Substitutes
Nutritive, Nonnutritive
Amino Acids
building blocks of protein
Types of Protein
(1)Biological Value, (2)Essential Amino Acids, (3)Complete Protein, (4)Incomplete Protein
Biological Value
(1) High Biological Value has all the 9 essential amino acids, the amt of essential amino acids in relation to total protein
Essential Amino Acids
9 essential, 22 all together
valine, lysine, methioine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, isoleucine, leucine, histidine (required for children)
Complete Protein
has all 9 essential amino acids, has a high biological value.
Sources of Complete Protein
animal sources: meat, fish, poultry (chicken), milk, eggs
Incomplete Protein
has some of the essential amino acids
Sources of Incomplete Protein
whole grains, legumes, beans, nuts, seeds
Protein Intake
(1)Nitrogen Balance, (2)Allowance is 0.8 grams of protein for each kilograms of body weight, (3)Increased needs
Calculating Protein
Weight - 129 lbs divided by 2.2 = 58.6kg; 58.6 X .8 = 46.9 grams p/day
One Protein Serving of Grains
1/2 cup or 1 oz wt) provides on average 2 grams of proteins
One Protein Serving of Veges
1 cup raw or 1/2 cup cooked, provides 2 grams of proteins
1 cup of milk
provides 8 grams of proteins
1 oz (1/4 cup) meat or cheese
provides 7 grams of proteins
one egg, 1/2 cup of beans, 1/4 cup nuts
1 oz meat
Inadequate Protein Intake
muscle loss, blood loss (hemorrage), slow wound healing, nutritional edema, kwashiorkor, protein-energy malnution (marasmus)
3 oz meat
is the size of a deck of cards or the size of an average palm of the hand
30 %
Saturated Fats
Functions of dietary fats
source of heat and energy, furnish essential fatty acids, sparing, adding, satiety, absorption, structural component, insulate and control body temp, protect body organs
Source of heat and energy
9 kcal p/grams
Furnish essential fatty acids
Sparing (burning of fat)
flavor to food
makes us feel full
absorption of fat soluble vitamins, A, D, E, K
Structural Component
fat is the structural component of cell membranes
Insulate and Control Body Temp
fat is a insulator
Protect Body Organs
fat protects body organs
Fat like substances
Phospholipids, Sterols, Monounsaturated Fats
make up cell membrane structure, allow fats to go through the bloodstream
fat in the bloodstream
Two items combined to make Phopholipids
Phospho (phosphate) and a Lipid (fat)
water fearing group of fats, have a role in membrane's fluidity
Monounsaturated Fats
help lower the LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol); help increase the HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol)
located in the bloodstream
Omega 9
Monounsaturated fat with one opening
Omega 3
Polyunsaturated fat with three openings
Unsaturated Fats
decrease our bodies production of cholesterol
Fats are broken down into
(1)Saturated, (2)Monounsaturated, (3)Polyunsaturated
Consistency of Fats
Liquid (saturated), solid (saturated), omega-3 fatty acid (unsaturated), hydrogenated (liquids turned into solid), trans fatty acid (liquid changed to a solid and it changes the bend), Diglycerides, Monoglycerides, glycerol
Intake of Fats & cholesterol
min 20 grams, cholesterol-300, kilocalories - 9 k/grams
Role of the Nurse
educate the clients, use good interviewing skills to determine dietary habits, promote consumption of appropriate dietary needs, refer when necessary