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carbohydrates, proteins, and fats

Kilocalories (Kcal)

the energy (fuel) provided by macronutrients

Carbohydrates - 1st Macronutrient

Carbon (carbo), water (hydrate) and oxygen are made through the process of photosynthesis;


in which the sun's energy allows plant leaves to take in carbon dioxide (co2) from the air

Two sources of Carbohydrates

plant material and milk

Carbohydrate kcals

1 gram carbs = 4 kcal/g; break down into glucose; grains(oat, barley, wheat), vegetable, fruit, sugar, beer

Protein kcals

1 gram protein = 4 kcal/g; break down into amino acids; building blocks, muscle of meats, legumes(beans, peas), nuts, milk

Fat kcals

1 gram fat = 9 kcal/g; break down into fatty acids, glycerol; liquid - room temperature, solid - saturated fats, butter, meat

Alcohol kcals

1 gram alcohol = 7 kcal/g; break down into glucose


simple carbohydrate, is a single or double molecule made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, may be referred to as a monosaccharide or disaccharide

Monosaccharide (simple carbs)

single unit, molecules:glucose (blood sugar), frucose (fruit sugar)

Disaccharide (simple carbs)

double units or double sugars, found in food and must break apart through digestion into monosaccharide molecules before they can be absorbed into the bloodstream, molecule:lactose (milk sugar)

Polysaccharide (complex carbs)

multiple unit, molecule:starch - is a chain of sugar links, rice, corn, potatoes, beans, peas

Dietary Fiber

(1)soluble in water-found in the pulp of plant foods, gummy, (2)insoluble, generally found in the skin and siids of plant foods, crunchy, helps with constipation


contain carbon


break down into something else


has carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

Three Glucose Molecules (C6H12O6)

Sugar - monosaccharide, shorter digestion, Starch - polysaccharides, harder to digest (rice, corn, peas, potatoes, pasta), Fiber - indigestible polysaccharide, reduces cholesterol, helps w/colon health, harder to digest; chief energy source for the body cells


increased acidity level of the blood, reduced ability to remove CO2 occurs

Metabolic Ketosis

low ph, acid in the body; lower than 100grams of carbs in the body *Lowest to go is 100 grams**

Carb Functions (digest in 1 hr)

(1)sparing (the burning of protein), (2)helps with the burning of fats, (3)laxative effect, (4)source of energy(fuel), aids in absorption of vitamins (calcium), (5)promotes normal bowel functions

Grain (Three Portions)

(1)Bran layer - high source of dietary fiber, (2)Endosperm - ground in white flour, (3)Germ (wheat germ) - most nutritious part of any grain, includes a small amount of natural fiber


added back into the product


was never in the product to begin with, it is added in

1 cup of Milk

15 grams carbs

1 slice of Bread

15 grams carbs

1 cup of Fruit

15 grams carbs

1 cup of raw veges

15 grams carbs

1 tsp sugar

4 grams carbs

1 tbsp flour

5 grams carbs

Carbohydrate intake

300 grams p/day, s/b 60% of diet

Proteins - 2nd Macronutrient

(1)basic element of life - it is essential to life, (2)made up of amino acids, (3)made up of nitrogen, muscle - meats, eggs, nuts, milk, legumes, milk products

Protein intake

45-60 grams p/day, s/b 10-35% of diet

Protein Functions

(1)repair/replace tissue, (2)tissue building, (3)energy, (4)contruction/functioning-enzymes, hormones, hemoglobin, protein in blood, (5)prevents edema, maintains osmotic pressure

Nitrogen Balance

a condition in which the nitrogen consumed in the form of proteins is equal to the nitrogen lost daily in the urine and other body secretions


a measure of serum protein status, albumin level less than 3.5mg/dL is an indication of mild protein deficiency

Fats - 3rd Macronutrient

liquid - room temperature: oils, solid - saturated fats, butter, red meats, fat digestion takes the longest of all the macronutients, requiring up to 4 hours

Hydrogenated (trans fats)

hydrogen has been added to liquid oils in order to make lid fats-also called trans fats

Saturated Fats

fats that are solid - naturally found in animal products such as butter and red meat, makes our body produce cholesterol


protein energy malnutrition - diet low in calories, proteins are used as a source of energy, leaving little of this nutrient to build and repair tissues and maintain immune function


refers to a condition in which the individual may have an adequate caloric intake but lacks adequate dietary protiens

Fat Functions

(1)furnishing essential fatty acids, (2)sparing - burning of protein for energy, (3)protecting body organs, (4)insulating and controlling body temperature in the form of body fat


is a fat related coumpound that is not a kilocalorie source, in foods it is found only in animal fats because it is made in the liver of animals

Fat intake

no specific requirements, 20-30 grams total caloric intake

CHO (Carbohydrates)

give us energy, found in plants: vegetables, fruits, wheat, grains, milk


20-35 grams, helps with constipation, colon cancer; low residue 5-15 grams

3 Factors of plant food carbohydrate

water (watermelon), sweetness, density (how heavy)

Low Carb foods

veges: spinach, cabbage, cucumbers

Sugar Substitutes

Nutritive, Nonnutritive

Amino Acids

building blocks of protein

Types of Protein

(1)Biological Value, (2)Essential Amino Acids, (3)Complete Protein, (4)Incomplete Protein

Biological Value

(1) High Biological Value has all the 9 essential amino acids, the amt of essential amino acids in relation to total protein

Essential Amino Acids

9 essential, 22 all together


valine, lysine, methioine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, isoleucine, leucine, histidine (required for children)

Complete Protein

has all 9 essential amino acids, has a high biological value.

Sources of Complete Protein

animal sources: meat, fish, poultry (chicken), milk, eggs

Incomplete Protein

has some of the essential amino acids

Sources of Incomplete Protein

whole grains, legumes, beans, nuts, seeds

Protein Intake

(1)Nitrogen Balance, (2)Allowance is 0.8 grams of protein for each kilograms of body weight, (3)Increased needs

Calculating Protein

Weight - 129 lbs divided by 2.2 = 58.6kg; 58.6 X .8 = 46.9 grams p/day

One Protein Serving of Grains

1/2 cup or 1 oz wt) provides on average 2 grams of proteins

One Protein Serving of Veges

1 cup raw or 1/2 cup cooked, provides 2 grams of proteins

1 cup of milk

provides 8 grams of proteins

1 oz (1/4 cup) meat or cheese

provides 7 grams of proteins

one egg, 1/2 cup of beans, 1/4 cup nuts

1 oz meat

Inadequate Protein Intake

muscle loss, blood loss (hemorrage), slow wound healing, nutritional edema, kwashiorkor, protein-energy malnution (marasmus)

3 oz meat

is the size of a deck of cards or the size of an average palm of the hand

Saturated Fats


Functions of dietary fats

source of heat and energy, furnish essential fatty acids, sparing, adding, satiety, absorption, structural component, insulate and control body temp, protect body organs

Source of heat and energy

9 kcal p/grams

Furnish essential fatty acids


Sparing (burning of fat)



flavor to food


makes us feel full


absorption of fat soluble vitamins, A, D, E, K

Structural Component

fat is the structural component of cell membranes

Insulate and Control Body Temp

fat is a insulator

Protect Body Organs

fat protects body organs

Fat like substances

Phospholipids, Sterols, Monounsaturated Fats


make up cell membrane structure, allow fats to go through the bloodstream


fat in the bloodstream

Two items combined to make Phopholipids

Phospho (phosphate) and a Lipid (fat)


water fearing group of fats, have a role in membrane's fluidity

Monounsaturated Fats

help lower the LDL cholesterol (bad cholesterol); help increase the HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol)


located in the bloodstream

Omega 9

Monounsaturated fat with one opening

Omega 3

Polyunsaturated fat with three openings

Unsaturated Fats

decrease our bodies production of cholesterol

Fats are broken down into

(1)Saturated, (2)Monounsaturated, (3)Polyunsaturated

Consistency of Fats

Liquid (saturated), solid (saturated), omega-3 fatty acid (unsaturated), hydrogenated (liquids turned into solid), trans fatty acid (liquid changed to a solid and it changes the bend), Diglycerides, Monoglycerides, glycerol

Intake of Fats & cholesterol

min 20 grams, cholesterol-300, kilocalories - 9 k/grams

Role of the Nurse

educate the clients, use good interviewing skills to determine dietary habits, promote consumption of appropriate dietary needs, refer when necessary

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