133 terms

Medical terminology Systems;Chapter 12;Female Reproductive System

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amni/o
amnion (amniotic sac)
amniocentesis
-surgical puncture of the amniotic sac
-is a transabdominal puncture performed under ultrasound guidance using a needle and syringe to remove amniotic fluid
cervic/o
neck; cervix uteri (neck of uterus)
cervicitis
inflammation of the cervix
colp/o
vagin/o
vagina
colposcopy
visual examination of the vagina
vaginocele
-vaginal hernia
- also called colpocele
galact/o
lact/o
milk
galactopoiesis
production of milk
lactogen
forming or producing milk (refers to any substance that stimulates milk production, such as a hormone)
gynec/o
woman, female
gynecologist
physician specializing in treating disorders of the female reproductive system
hyster/o
metri/o
uter/o
uterus (womb)
hysterectomy
excision of the uterus
endometrial
pertaining to the lining of the uterus
uterovaginal
relating to the uterus and vagina
mamm/o
mast/o
breast
mammogram
radiograph of the breast
mastopexy
-surgical fixation of the breast(s)
-is reconstructive , cosmetic surgery
men/o
menses, menstruation
menorrhagia
-bursting forth of the menses
-excessive amount of menstrual flow over a longer duration than normal
metr/o
uterus (womb); measure
metroptosis
prolapse or downward displacement of the uterus
nat/o
birth
prenatal
pertaining to (the time period) before birth
oophor/o
ovari/o
ovary
oophoroma
ovarian tumor
ovariorrhexis
rupture of an ovary
perine/o
perineum
perineorrhaphy
suture of the perineum
salping/o
tube (usually fallopian or eustachian [auditory] tubes)
salpingoplasty
surgical repair of a fallopian tube
-arche
beginning
menarche
beginning of menstruation
-cyesis
pregnancy
pseudocyesis
false pregnancy
-gravida
pregnant woman
multigravida
woman who has been pregnant more than once
-para
to bear (offspring)
nullipara
woman who has never produced a viable offspring
-salpinx
tube (usually fallopian or eustachian [auditory] tubes)
hemosalpinx
blood in a fallopian tube; also called hematosalpinx
-tocia
childbirth, labor
dystocia
difficult childbirth
-version
turning
retroversion
-tipping or turning back (of an organ)
-usually occurs in 1 of 4 healthy women
ante-
before, in front of
anteversion
tipping or turning forward of an organ
dys-
bad; painful; difficult
dysmenorrhea
painful menstruation
endo-
in, within
endometritis
inflammation of (tissue) within the uterus
multi-
many, much
multipara
woman who has delivered more than one viable infant regardless of whether the offspring was born alive
post-
after
postnatal
occuring after birth
primi-
first
primigravida
woman during her first pregnancy
gynecology (GYN)
the branch of medicine concerned with diseases of the female reproductive organs and breasts
obstetrics
-the branch of medicine that manages the health of a woman and her fetus during pregnancy and childbirth
-includes the puerperium
Puerperium
-the period of adjustment after childbirth during which the reproductive organs of the mother return to their normal nonpregnant state
-generally lasts 6 to 8 weeks and ends with the first ovulation and the return of normal menstrutation
obstetrician/gynecologist (OB/GYN)
the physician who simultaneously practices the specialties of both gynecology and obstetrics
dysmenorrhea
-menstrual pain and tension
-may be the result of uterine contractions, pathological growths, or such chronic disorders as anemia, fatigue, diabetes, and tuberculosis
metrorrhagia
menstrual periods
menorrhagia (hypermenorrhea)
-profuse or prolonged bleeding during regular menstruation
-may, in early life, be caused by endocrine disturbances
-in later life, it is usually due to inflammatory diseases, fibroids, tumors, or emotional disturbances
premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
-a disorder with signs and symptoms that range from complaints of headache and fatigue to mood changes, anxiety, depression, uncontrolled crying spells, and water retention
-occurs several days before the onset of menstruation and ends when menses begins or a short time after
Endometrial tissue
-develops into implants,lesions, or growths and cause pain, infertility, and other problems
pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
-general term for inflammation of the uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and adjacent pelvic structures
Pathogens
disease producing organisms
septicemia
bacteria in the blood that often occurs with severe infections
vaginitis
-localized infections and inflammations confined to the vagina, occurring from viruses, bacteria, or yeast
-2 most common types: candidiasis and trichomoniasis
urethritis
urethral inflammation
Candidiasis(monoiliasis)
-caused by Candida albicans, a yeast that is present as part of the normal flora
-If normal flora is disrupted by steroid therapy, diabetes, or pregnancy it will promote overgrowth of yeast
-results in a yeast (fungal) infection
mycostatics
antifungal agents that suppress the growth of fungi, used to treat candidiasi
Trichomoniasis
-caused by protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis
-Most commonly sexual transmitted infections in the lower genital tract
Carcinoma of the breast
-breast cancer
-most common malignancy of women in the US
-ass. with ovarian hormonal functions,family history, and hormone replacement therapy(HRT)
Nulliparous
women who have never borne children
atresia(D&C)
congenital absence or closure of a normal body opening, such as the vagina
choriocarcinoma(D&C)
-malignant neoplasm of the uterus or at the site of an ectopic pregnancy
-rare tumor that may occur after pregnancy or abortion
-its actual cause is unknown
dyspareunia(D&C)
occurrence of pain during sexual intercourse
endocervicitis(D&C)
-inflammation of the mucous lining of the cervix uteri
-usually, chronic, commonly due to infection, and accompanied by cervical erosion
retroversion(D&C)
turning or state of being turned back, especially an entire organ, such as the uterus, being tipped from its normal position
uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) (myomas) (fibroids)(D&C)
-benign tumors com-posed of muscle and fibrous tissue that develop in the uterus myomectomy or hysterectomy may be indicated if they grow too large
-cause such symptoms as metrorrhagia,pelvic pain,and menorrhagia
sterility(D&C)
inability of the female to become pregnant or the male to impregnate the female
abortion(D&C)
termination of pregnancy before the embryo or fetus is capable of surviving outside the uterus
abruptio placentae (placental abruption)(D&C)
-premature separation of the placenta from the uterine wall before the third stage of labor-results in uterine hemorrhage and threatens the life of the mother
-disrupts blood flow and oxygen through the umbilical cord and threatens the life of the fetus
breech presentation(D&C)
common abnormality of delivery in which the fetal buttocks or feet present rather than the head
Down syndrome (trisomy 21)
(D&C)
-genetic condition in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46-occurs
-when there is an extra copy it causes delays in the way a child develops mentally and physically
eclampsia(D&C)
-most serious form of toxemia during pregnancy
-signs include high blood pressure, edema, convulsions, renal dysfunction, proteinuria, and, in severe cases, coma
ectopic pregnancy (D&C)
-pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum does not reach the uterine cavity but becomes implanted on any tissue other than the lining of the uterine cavity, such as the fallopian tube, an ovary, the abdomen, or even the cervix uteri
-kinds include abdominal pregnancy, ovarian pregnancy, and tubal pregnancy
placenta previa(D&C)
-obstetric complication in which the placenta is attached close to or covers the cervical canal that results in bleeding during labor when the cervix dilates
-leading cause of vaginal bleeding (spotting) that may lead to other complications
-may also necessitate a cesarean delivery
IUD (intrauterine device)
(MP)
-small t-shaped device inserted by a physician inside the uterus to prevent pregnancy
-Copper IUD,which releases copper particles to prevent pregnancy
-hormonal IUD,which releases progestin to prevent pregnancy
cerclage (SP)
(purse-string procedure)
suturing of the cervix to prevent it from dilating prematurely during pregnancy, thus decreasing the chance of a spontaneous abortion
cesarean section (SP)
-incision of the abdomen and uterus to remove the fetus -also called c-section
colpocleisis (SP)
surgical closure of the vaginal canal
conization (SP)
excision of a cone shaped piece of tissue, such as mucosa or the cervix for histological examination
cordocentesis (SP)
sampling of fetal blood drawn from the umbilical vein and performed under ultrasound guidance
cryosurgery (SP)
-process of freezing tissue to destroy cells
-also called cryocautery
(D&C)-dialation and curettage (SP)
widening of the cervical canal with dialator and scraping of the uterine endometrium with curette
Subtotal hysterectomy (SP)
Hysterectomy where the cervix, ovaries, and fallopian tubes remain
Total hysterectomy (SP)
-Hysterectomy where the cervix is removed but the ovaries and fallopian tubes remain
- also called complete hysterectomy
Total plus bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (SP)
Total (complete) hysterectomy, including removal of the uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes, and ovaries
laparscopy (SP)
visual examination of the abdominal cavity with a elaparoscope through one or more small incision in the abdominal wall, usually at the umbilicus
lumpectomy (SP)
excision of small primary breast tumor or lumps and some of the normal tissue that surrounds it
mammoplasty (SP)
surgical reconstruction of the breast to change the size, shape, or position
mammoplasty (augmentation) (SP)
insertion of a breast prosthesis (filled iwth silicone gel or saline) beneath the skin or beneath the pectoralis major muscle
mammoplasty (reduction) (SP)
breast reduction to reduce the size of a large, pendulous breast
mastectomy (SP)
excision of the entire breast
mastectomy (total-simple) (SP)
excision of the entire breast, nipple, areolar, and the involved overlying skin, also called simple mastectomy
mastectomy- (modified radical) (SP)
excision of the entire breast, inculuding the lymph nodes in the underarm axiallry dissection
mastectomy (radical) (SP)
excision of the entrire breast, all underarm lymph nodes, and chest wall muscles under the breast
reconstructive breast surgery (SP)
creation of a breast shaped mound to replace a breas tthat has been removed due to cancer or other disease
tissue (skin) expansion (SP)
common breast reconstruction technique in which a balloon expander is inserted beneath the skin and chest muscle, saline solution is gradually injected to increase size, and the expander is then replaces with a more permanent implant
TRAM - transverserectus abdominis muscle flap (SP)
surgical creation of a skin flap using skin and fat from the lower half of the abdomen, which is passed under the skin to the breast area, and then shaping the abdominal tissue flap into a natural looking breast and suturing it into place
tubal ligation (SP)
-procedure that ties ( ligates) the fallopian tubes to prevent pregnancy
-form of sterilization surgery usually performed during laparoscopy
amniocentesis(CP)
trans-abdominal puncture of the amniotic sac under ultrasound guidance using a needle position is verified by US on a monitor screen and syringe to remove amniotic fluid and enables transfusion of blood and instillation of drugs to the fetus
colposcopy(CP)
visual examination of the vagina and cervix with an optical magnifying instrument (colposcope)
insufflation(CP)
-delivery of a pressurized air or gas into a cavity, chamber, or organ to allow visual examination, remove an obstruction, or apply medication
- Increases distance between structures
insufflation (tubal)(CP)
-test for patency of the uterine tubes made by transuterine insufflation with carbon dioxide
-also called Rubin test
pelvimetry(CP)
measurement of the pelvic dimensions to determine whether the head of the fetus will be able to pass through the bony pelvis to allow delivery
CVS- chorionic villus sampling(LP)
-sampling of placental tissues for prenatal diagnosis of potential genetic defects
-involves insertion of a catheter into the uterus to obtain sample
-can be undertaken in the 1st trimester of pregnancy
endometrial biopsy(LP)
-removal of a sample of uterine endometrium for microscopic study
-used in fertility assessment and to determine dysfunctional and postmenopausal bleeding
papanicolaou (pap) test(LP)
-cytological study used to detect abnormal cells sloughed from the cervix and vagina, usually obtained during routine pelvic examination
-commonly used to scan for cervical cancer
heterosalpingography (HSG)
(IP)
-radiography and usually fluroscopy of the uterus and uterine tubes( oviducts) following injection of a contrast medium
-used to determine pathology in the uterine cavity,evaluate tubal patency, and determine the cause of infertility
mammography(IP)
radiographic examination of the breast to screen for breast cancer
ultrasonography (US)
-use of a high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) directed at soft tissue and reflected as "echoes" to produce an image on a monitor of an internal body structure
- also called ultrasound, sonography and echo
ultasonography ( transvaginal)(IP)
US of the pelvic area performed with a probe inserted into the vagina, which provides sharper images of pathological and normal structures within the pelvis
Antifungals
Treat vaginal yeast infection by altering the yeast cell membrane or interfering with the metabolic process
Estrogens
Treat symptoms of menopause (hot flashes, vaginal dryness, fatigue)through hormone replacement therapy(HRT)
Oral contraceptives
Synthetic hormones used to prevent pregnancy and treat menstrual disorders
Oxytocics
Induce labor at term by increasing the strength and frequency of uterine contractions
Prostaglandins
Terminate pregnancy
Spermicides
Chemically destroy sperm by creating a highly acidic environment in the uterus