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What is the minimum number of seismic stations needed to record the epicenter of an earthquake


which type of unconformity is found between older metamorphic of plutonic igneous rocks and younger sedimentary rock layers


all of the following are characteristic of s waves EXCEPT

An example of surface waves, which are typically more destructive than other seismic waves

when measuring the size of an earthquake, the ______of an earthquake refers to the effect of shaking on people and buildings whereas the ______ of an earthquake referes to the energy released during the seismic event

intensity, magnitude

in what type of fault does the hanging wall block move upward relative to the football block


continental drift was initially rejected because

wegner's mechanism for continental drift was not actually strong enough to cause the continents to move

what is the correct order from SLOWEST TO FASTEST for the velocity of seismic waves traveling through rocks that makeup the different types of the crust and the upper mantle

continental crust, oceanic crust, upper mantle

continental drift was proposed as a ____ to explain dr wegners observations whereas plate tectonics is recognized as a _____ in geology because plate tectonics has been rigorously tested and is widely accepted as being true

hypothesis, theory

which geologic material woul experience the most shaking during an earthquake and liqufaction causeing the greatest damage to structures built on that material

saturated silt and clay

during isostatic adjustment solid material flows laterally in the _____ to compensate for crustal uplift


currently the oldest rocks that have been dated on earth are _____years old and are typically found in the craton of continents


folds are the result of an ______ response in rocks to stress and faults are the result of an ______ response in rock to stress

ductile, brittle

when seismic waves bounce off of boundaries between rock layers it is called sesmic:


all of the following are true about horsts and grabens EXCEPT

defined by sets of strike slip faults

what is the correct order from the surface to the earths interior of the earths layers

lithosphere, asthenosphere, lower mantle, outer core, inner core

subduction zones at convergent plate boundaries are characterized by

deep focus earthquakes

the youngest era of geologic time and the one in which we currently live is called the


which of the following is not true regarding the vine matthews hypothesis

provided evidence that the continents had not moved throughout geologic time

geologists can calculate the size of earths core beacuse of

p wave shadow zones

____ refers to the sliding of the lithosphere away from the ridge crest due to gravity

ridge push

the _____of an earthquake is the point where seismic waves first originate at depth, whereas the _____ of an earthquake is the equivalent point located at the earth's surface

focus, epicenter

when rock layers are tilted the direction of_____ is always_____ the youngest rock layers

dip, towards

when a geologist collects samples from layers of undeformed ocean floor sediment she knows that the youngest layer is on top and the oldest is at the bottom because of the principle of _____


humans are capable of causing earthquakes


isotopes of the same element have the same number of neutrons


divergent boundaries are characterized by the formation of new granitic crust


most evidence for the size and composition of earths interior is from direct evidence such as drilling at bore holes


stress is defined as a force per unit of area


Aleutian islands

ocean ocean convergent

san andreas fault zone


western side of south america

ocean continent convergent

present day red sea


himalayan mountains

continent continent convergent

composition of oceanic crust


composition of the upper mantle


composition of continental crust


boundary between the crust and the mantle


boundary between the core and the mantle where p-wave velocity decreases

d" layer

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