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38 terms

GEO FINAL TEST THREE

STUDY
PLAY
What is the minimum number of seismic stations needed to record the epicenter of an earthquake
3
which type of unconformity is found between older metamorphic of plutonic igneous rocks and younger sedimentary rock layers
nonconformity
all of the following are characteristic of s waves EXCEPT
An example of surface waves, which are typically more destructive than other seismic waves
when measuring the size of an earthquake, the ______of an earthquake refers to the effect of shaking on people and buildings whereas the ______ of an earthquake referes to the energy released during the seismic event
intensity, magnitude
in what type of fault does the hanging wall block move upward relative to the football block
reverse
continental drift was initially rejected because
wegner's mechanism for continental drift was not actually strong enough to cause the continents to move
what is the correct order from SLOWEST TO FASTEST for the velocity of seismic waves traveling through rocks that makeup the different types of the crust and the upper mantle
continental crust, oceanic crust, upper mantle
continental drift was proposed as a ____ to explain dr wegners observations whereas plate tectonics is recognized as a _____ in geology because plate tectonics has been rigorously tested and is widely accepted as being true
hypothesis, theory
which geologic material woul experience the most shaking during an earthquake and liqufaction causeing the greatest damage to structures built on that material
saturated silt and clay
during isostatic adjustment solid material flows laterally in the _____ to compensate for crustal uplift
asthenosphere
currently the oldest rocks that have been dated on earth are _____years old and are typically found in the craton of continents
4,280,000,000
folds are the result of an ______ response in rocks to stress and faults are the result of an ______ response in rock to stress
ductile, brittle
when seismic waves bounce off of boundaries between rock layers it is called sesmic:
reflection
all of the following are true about horsts and grabens EXCEPT
defined by sets of strike slip faults
what is the correct order from the surface to the earths interior of the earths layers
lithosphere, asthenosphere, lower mantle, outer core, inner core
subduction zones at convergent plate boundaries are characterized by
deep focus earthquakes
the youngest era of geologic time and the one in which we currently live is called the
cenozoic
which of the following is not true regarding the vine matthews hypothesis
provided evidence that the continents had not moved throughout geologic time
geologists can calculate the size of earths core beacuse of
p wave shadow zones
____ refers to the sliding of the lithosphere away from the ridge crest due to gravity
ridge push
the _____of an earthquake is the point where seismic waves first originate at depth, whereas the _____ of an earthquake is the equivalent point located at the earth's surface
focus, epicenter
when rock layers are tilted the direction of_____ is always_____ the youngest rock layers
dip, towards
when a geologist collects samples from layers of undeformed ocean floor sediment she knows that the youngest layer is on top and the oldest is at the bottom because of the principle of _____
superposition
humans are capable of causing earthquakes
true
isotopes of the same element have the same number of neutrons
false
divergent boundaries are characterized by the formation of new granitic crust
false
most evidence for the size and composition of earths interior is from direct evidence such as drilling at bore holes
false
stress is defined as a force per unit of area
true
Aleutian islands
ocean ocean convergent
san andreas fault zone
transform
western side of south america
ocean continent convergent
present day red sea
divergent
himalayan mountains
continent continent convergent
composition of oceanic crust
mafic
composition of the upper mantle
ultramafic
composition of continental crust
felsic
boundary between the crust and the mantle
mohorovicic
boundary between the core and the mantle where p-wave velocity decreases
d" layer