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106 terms

BOT 112

STUDY
PLAY
Our compound microscopes have more than one...

a. possible light intensity
b. light source
c. objective lens
d. stage
e. focusing knob
f. magnification
a c e f
Plant cell walls...

a. are made of lipids
b. contain cellulose
c. must be able to grow as a cell's central vacuole fills with water
d. are found inside cell membranes
e. can sometimes be quite thick
f. do photosynthesis
b c e
A plant cell that has lost a large amount of water...

a. would have a very large vacuole
b. may be able to recover if it can replace the lost water quickly
c. is probably a root hair
d. could be surrounded by liquid
e. must have a damaged cell wall
f. would still provide good structural support for the cells located above it in the plant
b d
Which one of the following things could be found in or on a typical plant root?

a. xylem
b. lateral buds
c. cells from a fungus
d. chlorophyll
e. cellulose
f. starch
a c e f
Thing(s) that soils usually provide for plants...

a. plenty of oxygen, when saturated with water
b. energy
c. physical support
d. starch from decaying organic matter
e. dissolved ions
f. pigments to fill their vacuoles
c e
Statement(s) that are true about water molecules...

a. the H and O atoms share electrons
b. multiple water molecules tend to stick to each other
c. large quantities can harm plants
d. it can pass in and out of plant cell membranes
e. rarely found in plant tissues
f. plants transport it rapidly using their ground tissue
a b c d
If aboveground epidermal cells produced an excessive amount of wax, that part of the plant may have an overly thick ____
cuticle
Ionic bonds form because ions have positive or negative charges. The charges result from the atoms either losing or gaining ____
electrons
Suppose you have a pure sample of 1000 water molecules a) how many covalent bonds are present? b) how many nitrogen atoms are present?
2000, 0
If you move from using the 10X to the 40X objective lens on your compound microscope, your specimen may "vanish" if it was not ____
correctly focused, lined under the lens
Reason why a healthy, normal plant cell might not contain any chloroplasts
it contains chromatids (that contain caratenoid pigments)
Reason why a typical plant cell wold need mitochondria in order to survive
cellular respiration
Specific reason why nitrogen-fixing bacteria benefit their host plants
they convert triple bonded nitrogen pairs into two single nitrogen atoms (the only form usable by plants)
Describe two characteristics that would cause a soil to be considered "poorly suited" to growing plants
too tightly compacted (no oxygen) too much clay, sand or silt (not a good mix of the three) (also could be that the soil is too water logged)
this is part of the microscope that magnifies the image you are viewing
ocular lens
You risk smashing your slide if you move this when using the microscope's highest power objective lens
coarse focus knob
Plants that form root mutualisms provide ____ to their mycorrhizal fungal or nitrogen-fixing bacterial partners
carbohydrates
These regions are short until the cells that make them up have had time to elongate
internodes
Leaf surfaces need to be waxy, because the air usually contains less ___ than the leaf's internal tissues
water
Part of a plant could appear red in color because the cells in that region each contain hundreds of ____
chromoplasts
Without ____, meristematic tissue in roots would probably be damaged as a root elongated
root caps
This plant sample does an especially good job of illustrating how leaves can protect the shoot apical meristem
green onion (head of cabbage)
This underground stem does a good job of illustrating how plants can store excess energy in the form of starch
potato
Grocery store item most likely to contain at least some part of all three plant organs

a. green onion
b. bouquet of flowers
c. head of cabbage
d. potato
e. orange part of carrot
a
This grocery store item is most likely to have a visible vascular cylinder, if cut open

a. green onion
b. bouquet of flowers
c. head of cabbage
d. potato
e. orange part of carrot
e
When this part of an onion is damaged, defense compounds released can cause your eyes to burn
vacuole
If a healthy, undamaged plant that is not currently producing flowers has 16 dormant lateral buds, and 6 lateral buds that have begin to grow, it most likely has 7 _____
sieve tube cells (phloem)
What are the most critical components of a well designed experiment
replication and controls
Statement(s) that accurately describe compound leaves...

a. produced when a plant's cork cambium divides
b. have multiple lateral buds on their petioles
c. by definition, they must be larger than simple leaves
d. always have branching petioles
e. unique type of leaf found only in ferns
f. their sections are often called "leaflets"
g. their divided blades have no ground tissue
h. celery has this type of leaf
f h
Mesophyll tissue in a leaf...

a. often includes cells with many chloroplasts
b. usually includes specialized cells called guard cells
c. is very thin in plants with succulent leaves
d. has epidermal tissue between it and the outside air
e. ends up surrounded by secondary xylem, in older samples
f. may contain a lot of air spaces
a d f
Typical leaves lose a lot of water because...

a. plants have little control over their stomata
b. their woody blades are very porous
c. the air is usually drier than they are
d. they are often covered in petroleum jelly
e. CO2 cannot diffuse through the cuticle
f. that is how plants keep warm during the winter
c e
Stomata are likely to be...

a. on pine needles
b. inside chloroplasts
c. non-functional, if the plant is potassium deficient
d. on branch roots
e. on green petioles of simple or compound leaves
f. open, if the soil is very dry
a c e
Sugar solution moves from place to place in plants because of...

a. water moving into sieve tube cells where sugar concentration is high
b. positive pressure
c. tension
d. the opening of guard cells
e. a heart-like pumping organ
f. its attempts to escape from aphids
a b
A woody fruit tree that has been growing in Seattle for 20 years...

a. is too young to have bark
b. likely has some areas where there are only ten annual rings
c. will contain secondary xylem
d. will have 20 annual rings in the phloem
e. must be a gymnosperm
f. probably has a dormant vascular cambium this time of year
b c f
For photosynthesis to occur in a plant, that plant must have...

a. green leaves
b. an excess of O2
c. Rubisco
d. sodium bicarbonate
e. H2O
f. CAM enzymes
c e
When a C3 plant does photosynthesis...

a. its stomata are probably open
b. it uses light and CO2 simultaneously in the first part of the process
c. its chlorophyll absorbs green wavelengths of light
d. it occurs in sink regions of the plant
e. the enzyme Rubsico absorbs red wavelength of light
f. it makes ATP
a f
Of the following types of plants from the leaf lab exercise, which had the smallest individual photosynthetic leaves?

ferns
conifers with needles
roses
conifers with scales
leek
cactus
conifers with scales
In plants with succulent leaves, name two functions those leaves typically perform
photosynthesis, water storage
Describe two different ways to cause a plant's transpiration rate to slow considerably...
a) without harming the plant
b) in a way that would do substantial harm to the plant
increasing the humidity, cutting off all of the leaves
One way in which the top and bottom of a cherry laurel leaf are distinctly different
the top has more cutin and the bottom is perforated with stomatae
For sugar transport, which of the following is most important

vessel cells
guard cells
sieve tube cells
root epidermal cells
fiber cells
sieve tube cells (part of phloem that transports sugars down the stem and to the roots)
For photosynthesis, which of the following tissues seems most important?

epidermal tissue
phloem
xylem
ground tissue
meristematic tissue
ground tissue (mesophyll location)
For cellular respiration, which of the following molecules seems most important?

carbon dioxide
chlorophyll
oxygen
Rubisco
cellulose
oxygen (cellular respiration requires oxygen to make ATP)
For transpiration, which of the following seems most important?

petiole
taproot
mitochondria
cuticle
blade
blade (it houses the majority of the stomata)
Transport cells that could experience tension and could collapse inward if their cell walls were to break
vessel cells
In early spring, the newly-forming leaves of a maple tree are considered a(n) ____ region for sugar transport
sink
Swelling of guard cells and movement of sugars by the pressure-flow mechanism both depend on the fact that ___ can move across cell membranes from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
water
Region in a plant where secondary phloem can be found
bark
Item from the list that is more likely to be found in a monocot than a dicot

a. wood
b. bark
c. secondary xylem
d. apical meristem
e. vascular cambium
f. petiole
g. blade
h. sheath
i. cork cells
sheath
In many plants, these are found on the undersides of leaves, but in water lillies, they are part of the upper epidermis
guard cells
Plants that do CAM photosynthesis acquire the vast majority of their _____ at night
carbon dioxide
Both the "light energy capture" and the "carbon fixation" parts of photosynthesis must occur inside chloroplasts when light is available, because this molecule is too unstable to store
ATP
If you were trying to extract dissolved calcium, nitrate, and zinc from a plant, what specific cell type would probably contain those substances and be the easiest to sample?
vessel cells
This enzyme, found in chloroplasts, is an essential component of the Calvin Cycle (the "carbon fixation" part of photosynthesis)?
Rubisco
When mitochondria perform cellular respiration these two substances which are produced by photosynthesis get used up
glucose, oxygen
Two specific types of plant cells that would never originate from division of the vascular cambium

cork cells
companion cells
vessel cells
guard cells
parenchyma
sieve tube cells
root hairs
guard cells, root hairs
Order the layers of a tree tissue

vascular cambium
sapwood
cork
bark
youngest phloem
oldest functional xylem
oldest phloem
ray parenchyma cells
heartwood
heartwood
oldest functional xylem
sapwood
ray parenchyma cells
vascular cambium
youngest phloem
oldest phloem
cork
bark
Looking at a cross section of a tree trunk, how can you tell which years had the best growing conditions for the tree?
The thickest rings
Evolutionarily speaking, when we say a particular variety of fern has a high fitness, it...

a. may produce many more spores than other similar ferns
b. must be very drought-tolerant
c. will thrive in almost any environment
d. does a good job attracting pollinators
e. will pass on its heritable traits to its offspring
f. probably lives next to a river or pond
a e
In the life cycle of a typical bryophyte, such as moss...

a. animals help disperse embryos
b. the top of the sporophyte is usually elevated by some sort of stalk
c. meiosis occurs on gametophytes "leaves"
d. mitosis occurs multiple times in one complete cycle
e. sperm need water to reach an egg
f. gametophytes do photosynthesis
b d e f
Process(es) that occur in ferns and other seedless vascular plants...

a. pollination
b. fertilization
c. mitosis that results in production of egg and sperm
d. dispersal of offspring to new areas
e. sugar transport in phloem tissue
f. maturation of ovules
b c d e
True of both gymnosperm cones and angiosperm flowers...

a. include "sepals"
b. each one always has both male and female parts
c. meiosis occurs there
d. produced by very young seedlings
e. produced at the tips of the gametophyte's stems
f. composed of highly modified leaves attached to stems
c f
Correct pairing(s) of a type of plant and one way in which humans are likely to use plants of that type

a. liverworts and hornworts-to feed livestock animals
b. angiosperms-wood for furniture
c. extinct seedless vascular plants-electricity production
d. sphagnum moss-wood for furniture
e. gymnosperms-landscaping Seattle's parks
f. green algae-landcaping in a desert habitat
b c e
Imagine an individual dicot flower that has 7 small pistils, 5 grey anthers, 12 long red and blue striped petals, and 16 large orange sepals. Each ovary contains 10 ovules...

a. how many filaments were probably present?
5
Imagine an individual dicot flower that has 7 small pistils, 5 grey anthers, 12 long red and blue striped petals, and 16 large orange sepals. Each ovary contains 10 ovules...

b. how many fruits can develop from this flower?
7
Imagine an individual dicot flower that has 7 small pistils, 5 grey anthers, 12 long red and blue striped petals, and 16 large orange sepals. Each ovary contains 10 ovules...

c. how many pollen grains are needed for complete fertilization of just one pistil?
10
Imagine an individual dicot flower that has 7 small pistils, 5 grey anthers, 12 long red and blue striped petals, and 16 large orange sepals. Each ovary contains 10 ovules...

d. how many wind-dispersed spores will this flower produce?
0
Imagine an individual dicot flower that has 7 small pistils, 5 grey anthers, 12 long red and blue striped petals, and 16 large orange sepals. Each ovary contains 10 ovules...

e. color of the flower bud when closed at night?
orange
Imagine an individual dicot flower that has 7 small pistils, 5 grey anthers, 12 long red and blue striped petals, and 16 large orange sepals. Each ovary contains 10 ovules...

f. how many seeds can develop from this flower?
70
Imagine an individual dicot flower that has 7 small pistils, 5 grey anthers, 12 long red and blue striped petals, and 16 large orange sepals. Each ovary contains 10 ovules...

g. how many seeds can develop in one ovary if four pollen grains land on its stigma?
4
Imagine an individual dicot flower that has 7 small pistils, 5 grey anthers, 12 long red and blue striped petals, and 16 large orange sepals. Each ovary contains 10 ovules...

h. if complete fertilization occurs in all pistils, how many total cotyledons would grow?
140
Name two male gametophytes
Fern gametophyte (heart shaped, low to ground, furry, needs water to reproduce)
Pollen (male gametophyte of angiosperms, small, attached to stamen)
Directly or indirectly, most human food is derived from this group of plants
angiosperms
An example of a common grocery store fruit that shows the flower from which it developed had just one ovule in its ovary
peach
In sexual reproduction of certain green algae, gametes fuse to form a zygote, which then undergoes meiosis to produce spores. The spores then grow up to be gametophytes. What stage of the land plant's life cycle is absent here?
sporophyte
If a moss sporophyte is completely brown, it must get the energy it needs to grow from the green ____ to which it is attached
gametophyte
A plant may have many structural and physiological features that could help it to survive for a very long time. However, it would have low fitness if it did not ____
reproduce well
Put these processes in the proper order in a typical flowering plant's reproduction:

fertilization
pollination
mitosis of zygote
hardening of seed coat
pollination
fertilization
mitosis of zygote
hardening of seed coat
Example of a plant whose normal, healthy mature fruit is green
jalapeno (green peppers etc.)
Example of a plant whose normal, healthy mature fruit is hard, dry and dull colored
peanuts
In a typical fern plant, where specifically would you go to look for newly formed spores?
On the underside of the frond's compound leaves
In a typical fern plant, what process produces the spores?
Meiosis
Name two things that could never be produced by a female gingko tree but could be produced by a female holly tree
berries?
Name two things that could never be produced by a female gingko tree but could be produced by a male ginko tree
pollen
Their sporophyte stages contain xylem and phloem...

a. douglas firs
b. giant tree ferns
c. green algae
d. mosses
e. orchids
f. water lilies
a b e f
Their embryos are "packaged" inside a tough protective coating along with some stored energy

a. douglas firs
b. giant tree ferns
c. green algae
d. mosses
e. orchids
f. water lilies
a e f
Some species do not have any multicellular stages in their life cycles

a. douglas firs
b. giant tree ferns
c. green algae
d. mosses
e. orchids
f. water lilies
c
When mature, they develop structures with features that help to attract pollinators

a. douglas firs
b. giant tree ferns
c. green algae
d. mosses
e. orchids
f. water lilies
e f
Their epidermal tissue contains stomata

a. douglas firs
b. giant tree ferns
c. green algae
d. mosses
e. orchids
f. water lilies
a b d e f
When reproducing sexually, their sperm travel through the water to reach an egg

a. douglas firs
b. giant tree ferns
c. green algae
d. mosses
e. orchids
f. water lilies
b c d
They have cellulose-based cell walls and make starch molecules as a way to save energy

a. douglas firs
b. giant tree ferns
c. green algae
d. mosses
e. orchids
f. water lilies
a b c d e f
Live specimens were present inside the UW greenhouse

a. douglas firs
b. giant tree ferns
c. green algae
d. mosses
e. orchids
f. water lilies
b c d e f
Location where angiosperm pollen grains would begin growing pollen tubes
stigmas
These haploid structures are part of all sexually reproducing land plants' life cycles
spores
Reproductive structures from pine trees that are regularly, intentionally, consumed by humans
embryos
These structures would be absent (or sterile) in a flower produced by a female kiwi vine
anthers
Though they differ in appearance ___ have the same basic function as male cones
anthers
Reproductive structure produced by male pine cones
spores
Often a direct source of energy for animals that are assisting an angiosperm with seed dispersal
endosperm
In some moss sporophytes, the capsule can forcibly explode to release ___
spores
Provides energy to very young angiosperm embryos
endosperm
A typical strawberry flower can have hundreds of ___ sitting on the stem tip
stigmas (or sweet, fleshy, fruits)
Physical structure present in mature fern gametophytes before fertilization
chloroplasts
These soft, small, non-flowering plants have aboveground epidermal tissue that secretes a waxy cuticle
bryophytes
Gymnosperm with relatively few human uses, grown in greenhouses or other indoor settings in this region
cycads
Reproductive process that would begin with diploid cells and result in haploid cells
meiosis