MODULE: 7. Collisions: Costs and Preventions TOPIC: Driving Defensively to Avoid Collisions


Terms in this set (...)

The driver of the green car, while driving in the left lane of a two-lane road, sees a vehicle stopped on the right shoulder, partially blocking the far right lane. The blue car is attempting to pass the green car. What should the driver of the green car do to clear the scene safely?

Slow down and stay alert to the surroundings.

Continue at the same speed, and keep their eyes carefully on the stopped car, to make sure it does not move unexpectedly.
Slow down and stay alert to the surroundings.
What is defensive driving?
It's a set of driving skills that allows you to defend yourself against possible collisions due to other drivers, weather, or road conditions.
Tips for defensive driving:
○Plan for the unexpected
○Control your speed
○Be prepared to react to other drivers
○Don't expect that everyone is a defensive driver
○Manage time and space
○Be aware of special road and weather conditions
○Be alert and avoid distractions (e.g., cell phone use, eating)
What is IPDE?
•IPDE is a step-by-step reasoning process for safe vehicle operation which uses the principles of defensive driving and careful visual perception in traffic.

-This should always be used while on the road
The four steps of the IPDE process are:
I (Identify)—

P (Predict)—

D (Decide)—

E (Execute)—
To help avoid skidding on slippery surfaces, you should:
○Drive slowly and stay farther behind the vehicle ahead.

○Slow down as you approach curves and intersections.

○Avoid fast turns.

○Avoid quick stops. "Pump" the brakes to slow or stop. (Antilock brakes should not be pumped.)

○Shift to low gear before going down a steep hill.
In case your vehicle begins to skid, do the following:
○Avoid using the brakes if possible.

○If you are in danger of hitting something, pump the brakes gently.

○Steer the vehicle into the direction of the skid. This will
help straighten the vehicle and help you gain control.

○Steer the vehicle back towards the direction you intend to move in.
How much time and distance should you always allow between the car in front of you and our own vehicle?
Always allow a two-second following distance from the vehicle in front of you.

-Two seconds is the minimum recommended safe following distance in Florida. In hazardous conditions or bad weather, adjust the following distance as necessary.
In attempting to avoid a collision, drivers have three options:
1. Stop
2. Turn (or steer away)
3. Speed up
In order to stop, you have to use your brakes effectively.
What is ABS?
ABS (Antilock Braking Systems)

Most new vehicles have ABS, the ABS system will allow you to stop without skidding
In most cases, you can turn the vehicle faster than you can stop it. When you don't have enough room to stop, you may have to steer away from what's ahead.
How to turn quickly and safely:
Do not apply the brake while you are turning. It's very easy to lock your wheels while turning. If that happens, you may skid out of control.

Do not turn any more than needed to clear whatever is in your way. The sharper the turn, the greater the chances of a skid or rollover.

Be prepared to "counter-steer," that is, to turn the wheel back in the other direction, once you've passed the obstacle.
In order to turn quickly, you must have a...
firm grip on the steering wheel with both hands.
Sometimes it is necessary to speed up to avoid a collision
You might have to speed up if..
another vehicle is about to hit you from the side or behind and you have room at the front of your vehicle to get out of danger.

-slow down once the danger has passed.

-Remember to always keep -two-second (or greater) space -
If you are stopped at a traffic light or stop sign and another vehicle is approaching you from behind at a high rate of speed, do the following:
1.) Move forward in effort to give the driver more room to stop

2.) If it can not be avoided ,brace yourself between the steering wheel and the back of the seat and release your brake an instant before impact. This will help to lessen the impact.
If you are in danger of a potential head-on collision:
1. Reduce your speed and flash your headlights in an effort to warn the other driver. Using your horn may also be effective.

2. Head for the shoulder of the road, even if you must hit a fence or drive through bushes.

3. If you cannot avoid the collision, try to maneuver your vehicle in such a way as to lessen the severity of impact. Always wear your seat belts. This is the best thing you can do to protect yourself from injury in the event of a collision.
Stopping quickly with ABS:
Press on the brake pedal as hard as you can and maintain the pressure.

You might feel the brake pedal pushing back when the ABS is working.

DO NOT let up on the brake pedal. The ABS system will only work with the brake pedal pushed down firmly. NEVER PUMP ANTILOCK BRAKES.
In case you have a conventional braking system:
Apply the brakes as hard as you can without locking them. The vehicle can go into a skid if you brake too hard.

If the brakes lock-up, you will feel the vehicle start to skid. Quickly let up on the brake pedal.

As soon as the vehicle stops skidding, push down on the brake pedal again. Keep doing this until the vehicle has stopped.

In case of brake failure, pump the brake pedal quickly. After three or four pumps, you will know if the brakes are going to hold. This action may build up enough brake pressure to steer the vehicle off the highway and stop safely.
Use threshold braking for conventional brakes also known as heel-and-toe method. Place the heel of your foot on the floor, so that the ball of your foot makes contact with the pedal.
This will enable you to use your toes to make fine adjustments in pedal pressure and to pivot your foot smoothly between the brake and accelerator. If lock up occurs, steering control can be gained by releasing brake pressure slightly.
Two-way communication with other drivers
• a nod
• a flash of the lights
• a hand signal
• a tap on the horn
• or yielding to allow another driver to proceed.
Slow down when...
1. Slow down when the road is wet (rain, snow, sleet).

2. Slow down when the road is crowded.

3. Slow down when your vision is limited. You should always be able to stop within the distance that you can see ahead of your car. In darkness or bad weather, do not drive beyond your range of vision.

-A good driver always adjusts speed according to his or her own physical condition and the condition of the vehicle, ensuring complete control of the situation at all times.
Tips on how to adjust speed:
Go 5 to 10 mph slower on a wet road.

Cut your speed in half on packed snow.

Slow to a crawl on ice.
Don't _____; stay in one traffic lane as much as possible. _________ in and out of lanes could anger other drivers on the road and create unsafe conditions.
On two-way roads, use the _____ lane for passing and the _____ lane for your normal path of travel.
If you can choose among three lanes on your side of the road, pick the _______ lane for the smoothest driving
Use the left lane to go faster, pass, or turn _____.
Use the _____ lane to drive slowly, enter, or turn off the road.
In case you find yourself in another drivers 'Blind Spot'...
Drive through another driver's blind spot as quickly as you can or drop back.
The blue car is driving behind the orange car and must maintain a safe following distance. What should the driver of the blue car do?

Maintain a one-second following distance.

Maintain a two-second following distance.
Maintain a two-second following distance.
When a tailgater is crowding you...
allow extra room between your car and the car ahead.
Then, if you need to slow down, do so gradually after ...
checking your mirrors. You will be able to avoid braking suddenly and being hit from behind.
Allow extra cushion when..
When your vision is blocked by poor visibility on road (e.g., fog, heavy rain).

When following or driving next to vehicles that block your view ahead (e.g. trucks, SUVs, buses). You need the extra room to see around the vehicle and to the sides.

On slippery roads. If the car ahead slows or stops, you will need more distance to stop your car.

When it rains or snows. Stopping distances increase on snowy and wet roads.

When following motorcycles. If the motorcycle falls, you'll have to avoid hitting the rider. Motorcycles fall more often on wet or icy roads, bridge gratings, railroad tracks, and on gravel

When the speed increases and the traffic flow is fast. In such cases, you need a space of at least five seconds.

When merging on an expressway.
When the speed increases and the flow of traffic is fast __ seconds of 'cushion' is required
Safety experts estimate that a driver makes nearly ___ decisions for every mile of driving.
If you need to attend to something important while driving, first...
check the situation ahead

then check traffic by taking frequently, short looks

Also check your mirrors in between movements.
When driving on hilltops and curves, check ahead for...
hazards or problems (e.g. a stalled car) and adjust your speed and following distance. Check ahead for speed limit signs on hilltops and curves.
Slow down when driving downhill and before entering a curve. On long, steep downgrades...
keep a look out for large vehicles that can gather speed very quickly.
Watch the brake lights of the cars you're following and lights of vehicles in adjacent lanes. If you see the brake lights of several cars come on or traffic slowing...
,start braking early.
Avoid sudden braking or "hitting the brakes" at the last minute.
- "Tap" your brake pedal several times to warn drivers behind you to slow down.
Any time you come to a place where people may cross or enter your path, you should look to the sides to make sure no one is coming.
Cross streets, side streets, and alleys

Crosswalks and railroad crossings

Expressway entrances

Driveways, shopping center entrances, etc.
You should look left, right, and left again just before entering the intersection.Look to the left first, since cars coming from the left are closer to you.
Look to the left first, since cars coming from the left are closer to you.

Some drivers do not obey traffic signals.

At an intersection, look left, right, and left again even if the other traffic has a red light or a stop sign. A drunk or reckless driver may not stop
Every intersection where streets with sidewalks meet at a right angle has a crosswalk, even if there are no painted lines.
Crosswalks are often marked with white lines. Yellow crosswalk lines may be painted at school crossings. Before turning a corner, watch for people who are about to cross the street.
What does 'Traffic access on expressways is controlled' mean?
his means that you can enter or leave the expressway only at entrances and exits, which are called interchanges.
Sometimes you will find interchanges that are really an intersection of two roads, with one road for exiting and the other for entering the expressway. Who has the right of way?
The car exiting has the right-of-way unless there is a safety threat.
Stopping distances increase on slippery and ice covered surfaces. Remember, stopping distances on slippery roads may be...
2 to 10 times greater than on dry roads.
Focus your attention as far ahead as possible—at least...
20 to 30 seconds.
You must always yield to children playing in the street or nearby. You are responsible for driving with extreme caution when children are present. Slow down near...
Suburban/ crowded residence
residential areas.
The cost of hitting a child is very high—in dollars, grief, and guilt.
When does a rear-end collision occur?
A rear-end collision happens when a vehicle is hit from the back.
How do rear-end collisions occur?
This type of collision usually occurs when the vehicle behind you is driving too close to your car
Avoid sudden moves and stops so that vehicles behind you have time to react. Keep pressing your brake pedal even after stopping. if not..
If you stop or turn unexpectedly and the car following hits you, it could be your fault.
To avoid being rear-ended by another vehicle, you should:
Always signal when you change direction. Signal even when you don't see any cars around. A car you don't see might hit you.

Signal early for turns, stops or lane changes.

Always signal before pulling next to (or away from) the curb.

Even though you signal, do not assume that the space you wish to occupy is clear. Look in your mirrors and over your shoulder to check your blind spot before making a lane change.
Keep your rear lights clean and functioning. Check these lights at least
once a week or whenever you stop for gas.
Replace any burned out bulbs ...
If your brake lights are not working...
the driver behind you will not know if you are stopping or slowing down and might run into your car.
If many cars are pulling out to pass you, maybe you should...
increase your speed to the speed limit or move over into the right lane
You can be cited for driving too slowly and blocking the flow of traffic.
NOTE: When the posted speed limit is 70 mph, the minimum speed limit is 50 mph.
What is tailgating?
following too closely behind
How do you lose a tailgate?
Changing lanes
How do you lose a tailgate if you cannot change lanes?
If you cannot change lanes, slow down enough to encourage the tailgater to go around you. If this does not work, pull off the road when it is safe and let the tailgater pass.
Speed Control Options:
Maintain your speed

Slow down your speed

Increase your speed

Apply the brake

Travel at a speed based upon the speed limit and environmental conditions.

If you determine that a zone is closing to your front, always reduce speed.

Avoid using any unnecessary acceleration into a closed zone.

When you see a red light or stopped traffic, reduce speed until you arrive at an open zone.

When your ability to see others (who may enter your path) is reduced, lower speed.

Use speed limit signs as a cue to check the speedometer and other vehicle gauges.

Select the best lane for the legal requirements of the road and destination.

Select a lane position that provides the best separation from potential problems.
Always remember that the safest position in traffic is the ...
place where the fewest vehicles surround you. Space is the key, and your objective is to always surround yourself with as much space as possible.
Sometimes there will be dangers on both sides of the road. To avoid these multiple hazards:
Identify all potential hazards early. Rate the hazards on the level of threat to your safety.

Make predictions about what might happen or go wrong.

Make adjustments in your speed and position to make sure you are safe.

Have escape routes in mind before you are faced with a dangerous situation.
Pump the brake pedal for about three or four pumps. Doing this fast and hard will build up brake fluid pressure.


Downshift into a lower gear.

Apply the parking brake slowly while holding down the release lever or button. This will prevent the car's wheels from locking and help prevent skidding.

You can also rub the tires against a curb to slow the car, or attempt to move off the road if there is an open space without obstacles.

You can still steer and swerve. Steer into bushes or something soft.

Sound your horn and flash your lights to warn other drivers.

When you no longer need to change direction, turn off the ignition.
Avoid using the brakes.

Focus your steering to avoid hazards.

Attempt to slow the car gradually.

Once the car is under your control, brake softly.

As you slow down, pull the car off the road.
Move to the side of the road as safely as possible. The steering wheel may take more force to turn than normal.

Stop the car. You may have to push the brake pedal hard if your car has power brakes.

Restart the engine and proceed with caution.
Try the dimmer switch. This will often put them on again.

Try the headlight switch a few times. If that doesn't work, put on the parking lights, hazard lights, or turn signals.

If none of these work, pull off the road as quickly as possible and leave the hazard lights on.
Slow down.

Try to look under the hood to see. If you can't, put your head out the window and use the centerline or the lane marking as a guide.

Turn on the emergency flashers and safely pull off the road as soon as possible.
Shift to neutral.

Apply the brakes.

Keep your eyes on the road.

Look for a way out.

Warn other drivers by blinking and flashing your emergency lights.

Try to drive the car safely off the road.

Turn off the ignition when you no longer need to change direction.

Never turn your vehicle's ignition to the "lock" position while it is still in motion. Your steering wheel will lock and you will lose control of your vehicle.
Most vehicles have dashboard gauges or lights that indicate the engine temperature. Activities such as...
driving in stop-and-go traffic on a hot day,

driving on steep inclines,

and towing a trailer can cause your engine to run hotter than normal.
If your temperature gauge moves up to just below the red zone...
turn off your air conditioner and turn on your vehicle's heater to its highest and hottest setting to draw some of the heat away from the engine; then immediately seek out a service station with a mechanic.
If your temperature gauge is rising and you are stopped in traffic...
briefly put the car in park (P) and lightly step on the gas to help circulate coolant.

-If the temperature light goes on or if the gauge enters the red zone, immediately pull off the road, well away from traffic, and stop the engine.

-Wait 20 minutes, start up the engine, and if the temperature light does not come on, proceed directly to the nearest garage.

-If at any time the gauge goes back into the red zone or the temperature light comes on, pull over immediately, turn off the engine, and repeat the process.
When temperatures rise do not..
Never attempt to remove the radiator cap when your car is hot, and do not pour water over a hot radiator or engine. You must wait a sufficient amount of time until your engine cools.
If you are involved in any sort of collision...
it is essential for you to stop.
-If anyone is injured, call 911 immediately.
When in a vollision
Exchange information with anyone else involved in a collision. You are required to give your
-and vehicle registration number.
You must also show your drivers license.
Do not block traffic. Move your car out of the way and make sure it doesn't pose a threat to anyone else on the road. Call a tow truck if..
you are not able to move the vehicle yourself.
If you hit an unattended vehicle or object and cause damage, you must...
attempt to find the owner.
- If you can't locate the owner, leave a note with your name, address, and plate number.
-You are also required to report the incident to your local law enforcement office.
If the accident results in property damage, injury, or death, you are required to..
report it.

Make sure to call your local law enforcement agency, Florida Highway Patrol, or county sheriff's office.

If a DUI charge is involved or damage is so extensive that the wreckage must be towed, a law officer will fill out the report.

If the incident is to be investigated, you are not required to file a report yourself.

If property damage is over $500 and a report is not made by law enforcement, you will be required to file with the Department of Highway Safety Motor Vehicles within 10 days.

-Make sure to maintain a copy of any report for your records.
In Florida, there are two insurance laws...
1. The Financial Responsibility Law
2. The No-Fault Law

Every driver who purchases insurance in Florida is issued an insurance ID card. You must have this card with you every time you drive in Florida.
Forging or making a false statement about car insurance is...
a second degree misdemeanor.
According to the Financial Responsibility Law, the state of Florida requires owners and operators of motor vehicles to ...submit proof of financial responsibility in the event of a collision.
submit proof of financial responsibility in the event of a collision.
A driver must have liability insurance (sometimes called ________) on any vehicle that he/she owns or drives.
mandatory insurance
Motorcycles must also be insured
coverage must provide the following minimum coverage:
$10,000 Bodily Injury Liability to one person
$20,000 Bodily Injury Liability to two or more persons
$10,000 Property Damage Liability
$30,000 combined single limits
According to the Florida Driver Handbook, the Financial Responsibility Law requires drivers and owners of the vehicle to have bodily injury liability insurance at the time of the following cases:
A collision where you are at fault and somebody is injured.

A license suspension for too many points on your driving record.

A citation for driving under the influence, resulting in drivers license revocation.

A revocation for habitual traffic offenses.

A revocation for any serious offense as defined by DHSMV.
If you participate in any of the violations previously mentioned and you do not have sufficient coverage to...
comply with the Financial Responsibility Law, your drivers license and/or license plates will be suspended for up to three years.

-In addition, a $15 reinstatement fee will be charged.

-You will also be required to show certified proof of full liability insurance (using Form SR-22) for three years from the original suspension date if you wish to be able to drive again.

-In addition, if you are the driver or the owner of a vehicle and at fault in a collision, you may be required to pay for the damages before your driving privilege is restored.
You will not be able to purchase a license plate or register a vehicle without the appropriate insurance coverage.
According to the No-Fault law, an owner of any vehicle with more than four wheels that has been in Florida for at least 90 days during the past year must...
buy an insurance policy for the state of Florida.

-The policy must have a minimum coverage amount of $10,000 for personal injury protection and $10,000 for property damage liability.
The exceptions to this rule are owners of taxis and limousines.
The DHSMV will be notified of the actions you take with your insurance policy. This includes...


or the expiration of coverage.

- You will be required to show proof of new coverage.
-The department will notify you when this needs to occur. -
If you fail to provide proof of insurance when required...
your drivers license and license plate may be suspended for up to three years.
If you do not maintain the proper insurance coverage, you will be expected to...
surrender your license plates.

Law enforcement officers have the right to seize your plates at any time if your license and plates have been suspended for 30 days or more due to this type of violation.
If at any time your license and/or plates are suspended for non-compliance with the No-fault law, you will be expected to...
show proof of insurance and pay a $150 fee before reinstatement.
- The fee increases to $250 for a second incident occurring within three years and $500 for a third within three years.
There are four ways to obtain the proper coverage:
1) Buy your insurance policy from a company licensed to do business within the state.

2) Receive your Financial Responsibility Certificate from the Bureau of Financial Responsibility. You can do this by posting a satisfactory surety bond from a company licensed to do business in the state.

3) Receive a Financial Responsibility Certificate from the Bureau of Financial Responsibility after depositing the required amount of cash or securities.

4) Receive a Self Insurance Certificate from the Bureau of Financial Responsibility after showing proof of a net unencumbered capital.
According to the Florida Driver's Handbook, the following parking actions can be considered illegal.

On the roadway side of any vehicle stopped or parked at the edge or curb of a street (double parking)
On a crosswalk
On a sidewalk
In front of a driveway
By yellow curbs painted or where NO PARKING signs are posted
In an intersection
Within 15 ft of a fire hydrant
According to the Florida Driver's Handbook, the following parking actions can be considered illegal.

Within 20 ft of an intersection.
Within 20 ft of the entrance to a fire, ambulance or rescue squad station.
Within 50 ft of a railroad crossing.
On the hard surface of a highway where parking spaces are not marked.
On any bridge, overpass, or in any tunnel.
Within 30 ft of a rural mail box on a state highway between 8 a.m. and 6 p.m.
Within 30 ft of any flashing signal, stop sign or traffic signal.
In such a way that you block or create a hazard for other vehicles.
You must use your parking lights at night if you are on a roadway or shoulder outside of cities or towns. However, driving with only these lights on (without headlights) is not legal.
Headlights must be used between sunset and sunrise or if driving in rain, smoke, or fog.
High-beam headlights must not be used if driving towards vehicles within 500 ft or if you are driving behind vehicles within 300 ft. High-beam headlights are best used at speeds of 25 mph or above. They can reveal objects up to 450 ft away.