Genetics Chapter 13
Terms in this set (25)
The genetic code is
almost universal and non-overlapping.
Which of the following statements about transfer RNAs is TRUE?
They have a secondary structure that is represented by a clover-leaf and they carry amino acids at their 3' ends.
How many different sequences of nine ribonucleotides would code for the amino acid combination trp-leu-phe ?
None of these choices
The genetic code is degenerate. This means that
more than one codon can specify the same amino acid
What is the role of EF-Tu during bacterial translation?
brings aminoacyl-tRNA to the A site
RF1, RF2 and RF3 participate in
translation termination in bacteria
Which of the following best describes bacterial ribosomes?
30S + 50S = 70S
The following mRNA sequence codes for the entire (although short) polypeptide. What is the most likely sequence?
5' AGU CGU GGC AUG CCU GAG CGA ACU GUA UGA ACG 3'
Which type of nucleic acid is most likely to contain modified bases?
During translation, the growing polypeptide chain is transferred from the ___I___ site of the ribosome to the next amino acid in the ___II___ site.
I = P ; II = A
A round of translation is terminated when the ribosome encounters a stop codon. This is because
there are no tRNAs for the stop codon.
During translation, mRNA is read in the _______ direction and polypeptides are synthesized from the _______ terminus.
5'-to-3' ; amino to the carboxyl
The genetic code consists of ____ nonsense codon(s).
During translation, peptide bonds are created by a(n) _______ called peptidyl _______.
rRNA ; transferase
Which of the following does NOT reach the cytoplasm of eukaryotes?
A mature tRNA molecule contains
4 stems and 3 loops.
The enzyme amino acyl-tRNA synthetase
attaches the appropriate amino acid to its tRNA.
Immediately after the peptide bond forms and prior to translocation of the ribosome, the amino acids are attached to the:
During translation, each time the ribosome moves down the mRNA three nucleotide bases, the old ___I___ site becomes the new ___II___ site.
I = A ; II = P
The ___________ is a structure consisting of many ribosomes translating the same mRNA at different sites at the same time.
To construct proteins, organisms use ____ naturally occurring amino acids.
The coupling of transcription and translation is possible in prokaryotes but NOT in eukaryotes because
transcription and translation occur in one cellular compartment in prokaryotes,
but in separate cellular compartments in eukaryotes.
During protein synthesis in bacteria, _____ catalyzes the translocation step.
In bacteria, the initiator tRNA carries ___________ and it enters through the ____ site of the ribosome
Cleavage of _____ provides the chemical energy for loading the aminoacyl tRNA onto the ribosome, and cleavage of _____ is the energy source that drives ribosomal translocation.
GTP ; GTP
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