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Earth Science Final B
Terms in this set (175)
A long, narrow depression in the deep-ocean basin
A body of salt water that covers nearly three-fourths of Earth's surface
A force that spreads sediment over deep-ocean basin
The part of ocean floor made up of oceanic crust and a thin sediment
A deep valley in the continental shelf or continental slope
Biogenic sediments come from
marine plants and animals
Most river sediments are deposited where?
on the shore and continental shelf
The voyages of the HMS Challenger
laid the foundation for oceanography
The soft, fine material that cover about 40% of the ocean floor is
the deepest and largest ocean on Earth is the
The most common compounds in organic sediments are
Not diatoms and radiolarians
A continental shelf is part of the
Not coastal rise
Which is NOT a tool used by scientists to study the deep ocean?
An atoll changes into a guyot because of
The first step in a sonar transmission is to
send out a series of sound waves
the flat, almost level area of the deep-ocean basin
a body of water smaller than an ocean
the shallow sea floor between the shoreline and deep ocean bottom
a cylinder of sediment collected by drilling the ocean floor
a lump of minerals found on the ocean floor
The distance wind can blow across open water
The difference in levels of ocean water at high tide and low tide
Periodic up-and-down movement of water
The movement of water toward and away from the coast
A foamy mass of water created when the top of a wave falls over
Motions in ocean water that occur as tidal bulges move around the ocean basins are called
Which of the following occurs when the gravity of the sun and moon work against each other to create a small daily tidal range?
The force that causes tides
The swift, warm current that flows northward along the east coast of the United States is called the
What is the effect of wind on waves
it makes big waves bigger
Deep currents are caused by
differences in density of ocean water
The curving of the path of ocean currents an wind belts is called
The Coriolis effect
Which of the following forms when water form large breakers returns to the ocean through channels that cut through underwater sandbars
Calling a tsunami a tidal wave is misleading because
a tsunami is not cause by tides
the highest point of a wave is its
The periodic ride and fall of the water level in oceans
A huge circle of moving ocean water
A horizontal movement of water in a well-defined pattern, such as a stream
The bending of ocean waves toward the coastline
A wave formed when wind blows its crest off
Albedo is the fraction of solar radiation reaching Earth that is
Which of the following do NOT make up a global wind belt?
Solar radiation that is not reflected back into the atmosphere
is absorbed by surface materials
One effect of air pollution is destruction of
the ozone layer
Which of the following airs are NOT components of the atmosphere?
Interactions between solar radiation and the ionosphere cause
Because of the Coriolis effect, and object that travels north from the equator will curve to the
All of the following particulates in the atmosphere EXCEPT
Prevailing winds that blow throughout the contiguous United States are called
Local wind patterns are effected by local conditions and
The curving of the path of a moving object from an otherwise straight path due to Earth's rotation
The coldest layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature decreases as altitude increases
A layer of the atmosphere in which temperature increases as altitude increases and which contains the ozone layer
The movement of matter due to differences in density cause by temperature variations
A instrument that measures atmospheric pressure by registering the changes in the bending in or bulging pout of the sides of a sealed metal container
The uppermost layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature increases as altitude increases and which includes the ionosphere
The lowest layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature drops as altitude increases and in which weather conditions exist
When a bend forms in a cold front, it begins the process of creating an area of low pressure with the rotating wind that moves toward the rising air of the central low-pressure region- a storm known as a
What do weather centers all over the world do with the information they collect?
not use is only for local forcasts
Meteorologists use supercomputers for all of the following
not solving methematical equations
When air moves slowly, it takes on the temperature and humidity of its region, becoming an
Which of the following is NOT a type of air mass?
What do meteorologists use to help them make forecasts from data they have input into computers?
not weather maps
which of the following does NOT measure lower-atmospheric weather conditions?
Storms along a cold front are usually short-lives and sometimes violent, while storms along a warm front
Produce precipitation over a large area & are sometimes violent
What do scientists use to convey information on weather amp?
colors and symbols
Meteorologists have tries to control all of the following types of weather EXCEPT
An air mass responsible for warm, dry air
An instrument that measures the speed of wind
A system that uses reflected radio waves to determine the velocity and location of objects
An air mass responsible for warm, moist air
An air mass responsible for cold dry
A destructive, rotating column of air that has very high wind speeds and that may be visible as a funnel-shaped cloud
A severe storm that develops over tropical oceans and has strong winds that spiral in toward the intensely low-pressure storm center
A usually brief, heavy storm that consists of rain, strong wins, lightning, and thunder
Instruments carried aloft by balloons to measure upper atmospheric conditions
An air mass responsible for cold, moist air
A benefit that 20th and 21st century space programs have brought to an area outside of astronomy is
improved heart pumps
The period between successive full moons is
Each of Earth's standard time zones covers about
Which telescope detects invisible electromagnetic radiation
Invisible electromagnetic radiation was discovered with a
The day on which the sun is as far north or as far south of the equator as possible
A collection of stars, dust, and gas that is held together by the force of gravity
The spin of a body on its axis
A system for measuring intervals of time by dividing it into days, weeks, months, and years
Wavelengths that are shorter than violet light
Part of the electromagnetic spectrum with waves longer than those of visible light
A group of stars organized in a recognizable pattern
The point in time when the sun appears to cross the celestial equator
The motion of a body around another body in space
Place in a planet's orbit where the planet is closest to the sun
a light-year equals
The event which began the universe was the
The telescope that solved the problem of color separation was the
The Coriolis effect provides evidence that
Earth rotates on its axis
A constellation's changing position in the sky, at the same time of the evening, over a period of several weeks is evidence that
Earth revolves around the sun
A small body far from the sun; made of frozen methane, rock, and ice
A region just beyond the orbit of Neptune; contains many small bodies made mostly of ice
An astronomer who proposed a heliocentric model of the solar system
A scientist who hypothesized that a moving body will stay in motion and resist a change in speed or direction until an outside force acts upon it
A rotating cloud of gas and dust form which Earth's solar system formed
A type of planet with a deep, massive atmosphere made mostly of gas; denser than an inner planet
A planet hat is made of solid rock and has impact craters and a metallic core; another name for inner planet
An astronomer who believed the planets moved in epicycles as they revolved in larger circles around Earth
A small body from which a planet originated in early stages of the solar system
A large body made up of smaller bodies that joined together through collisions and gravity
Kepler's first law stated that planets orbit the sun in paths called
Young Earth formed a core, mantle, and crust in a process called
Early fresh water oceans became salt when
rainwater carries dissolved solid rock to the oceans
The two inner planets most alike in size, mass, and density are
Venus and Earth
The right combination of temperature, water and oxygen
supports life on earth
Which of the following planets has the most complex ring system
Which planet has volcanic regions that may still be active?
Kepler's third law describes the relationship between the average distance of a planet form the sun and the planet's
Kepler's second law states that equal areas are covered in equal amounts of time as an object---
orbits the sun
The early atmosphere developed when many volcanic eruptions released large amounts of gases in a process called released large amounts of gases in a process called
A spherical region that surrounds the solar system and that contains billions of comets is the
Which of the following describe the phases of the moon?
new, crescent, quarter, gibbous, and full
Characteristics of Ganymede and Callisto are, respectively,
a magnetic field of craters
On what moon of Jupiter did an engineer discover volcanoes by studying images form the Voyager spacecraft?
What are the second and third stages of the moon's formation?
differentiation and meteorite bombardment of the crust
The flat region beyond Neptune's orbit that contains many short-period comets
A bright streak that occurs when a meteoroid burns up in Earth's atmosphere
A small moon of Mars
A small, rocky body that travels through space
A small orbiting body of rock, ice, and cosmic dust that has ion and dust tails
What planet has rings that are divided into hundreds of small ringlets, each containing billions of pieces of rock and ice?
What happens when the shadow of one celestial body falls on another celestial body?
Notable characteristics of Io and Europa are, respectively,
Volcanoes and an ice crust
Which of the following best describes Jupiter's ring?
Thin with microscopic particles
The forces of inertia and the gravitational pull of the moon on Earth cause
A small object that orbits the sun, whose composition is similar to that of the inner planets
A feature of the lunar surface
The shape of the moon's orbit around Earth
A meteoroid that survive Earth's atmosphere to hit it's surface
A layer of the moon
How do sunspots form?
Magnetic fields reduce energy transfer in the convective zone
The temperature of the sun's core is approximately
15,000,000 degrees celcius
Energy from the sun is the result of
What is the hottest layer of the sun;'s atmosphere called?
How long is the average sunspot cycle?
A violent, explosive release of solar energy
The outermost layer of the sun's atmosphere
The colored light resulting form solar wind interacting the Earth's atmosphere
The visible surface of the sun; innermost layer of the sun's atmosphere
The area of the sun, closest to the core
The glowing cloud of gas that arches over the sun's surface
The dark, cooler area on the sun
the center of the sun
A region of the sun from which energy moves upward
The layer of sun's atmosphere that glows with reddish color
Eistein's equation E=mc2 helps scientist understand the sun's energy becasue the equation
Explains how mass can be converted into huge amounts of energy
During nuclear fusion in the sun, which of the following occurs?
Hydrogen nuclei combine to produce a helium nucleus
Particles thrown off the sun's corona that can affect Earth's magnetic field are called
A coronal mass ejection
Which of the following are apart of the sun's atmosphere?
Photosphere and chromosphere
What elements make up most of the sun's mass?
hydrogen and helium
A star group elongated in shape
A group of stars in a recognizable pattern
Evidence of the big bang
Cosmic background radiation
The theory that all matter and energy exploded from a small compressed volume about 14billion years ago
the big bang
A star group with a nucleus of bright stars and arms containing young stars
A shrinking, spinning region of space with a central concentration of matter
A star group of no particular shape, rich in dust and gas
A neutron star that emits radio waves
An object at the center of some galaxies that produce energy at a high rate
A large explosion which causes a star to become suddenly bright
what is a white dwarf?
A hot, extremely dense core of matter left after a star collapses
What is important about Hubble's discovery that there is a red shift in the spectra if galaxies?
it suggests that the universe is expanding
What is absolute magnitude?
The true brightness of a star
What is apparent magnitude?
the brightness of a star as it appears form earth
How does a main-sequence star generate energy?
by nuclear fusion, converting hyrogen to helium in it's core
Many astronomers believe that black dwarfs
may not exist
What makes up most of the universe?
dark energy and dark matter
What is light-year?
the distance light travels in a year
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