People to Know US History Midterm
Terms in this set (48)
He was an English colonist, explorer, and writer whose maps and accounts of his explorations in Virginia and New England were invaluable to later explorers and colonists. He took control of Jamestown in 1608, stabilizing the colony briefly by making everyone work.
Experimenting with tobacco, finds market for it in England
She believed that personal faith and religion with God is more important than communal actions. Thought God already knew who was going to be saved so therefore good works won't help you get into heaven (predestination). She had a large following of people, but was banished from Boston by John Winthrop and then went to Rhode Island.
An English cleric in America who was the first to be expelled from Massachusetts for his criticism of Puritan policies. He founded Providence Plantation, a community based on religious freedom, and obtained a charter for Rhode Island in 1644. He wanted complete separation of the Church and the State. He denied both political and religious authority of Puritan establishment.
He was the first leader of Massachusetts Bay. He was a pretty good leader, very aggressive, strict Puritan. He believed that Native Americans were smote by God to make the land available for his people.
English Quaker who obtained a charter for Pennsylvania from Charles II in exchange for a debt owed to Penn's father. Penn intended to establish a model society based on religious freedom and peaceful relations with Native Americans, in addition to benefitting financially from the sale of the land
He was a minister in Connecticut who questioned big religious groups. He takes his congregation and migrates out of Conn. for religious and economic reasons. He created a general assembly where you do not have to be a Church member to hold office. He offered communion to all the professed faith. He thought that political authority should extend from the people - all property owners can partake in the government and politics.
American public official, writer, scientist, and printer. He proposed a plan for union at Albany Congress (1754) and played a major part in the American Revolution. Franklin helped secure French support for the colonists, negotiated the Treaty of Paris (1783), and helped draft the constitution (1787). His numerous innovations include the lightening rod, bifocal spectacles, and a stove.
He was the first president (elected in 1789). He is the obvious choice because he had been commander-in-chief of the army and he was president of and supported the constitutional convention. He was the only president to be elected unanimously. He had wanted to retire before he became president, but the people of the US had a different idea. His response was that he would do whatever the people wanted. He was very interested in fulfilling his civic duties.
An immigrant from England who published Common Sense to argue the case for independence. Common Sense sold more than 100,000 copies within a few months, reaching hundreds of thousands of people as copies changed hands and many listened to Paine's words read aloud, becoming convinced of the need for independence.
The commander of the British forces who surrendered to Washington at the end of the Battle of Yorktown; 1781
King George III
British monarch in 1760. He enacted all the Acts passed in the states (Sugar Act, Stamp Act, etc.). He decried the Americans' actions of the Boston Tea party as "quite subversive of the obedience which a colony owes to its Mother Country." Over the winter of 1774-1775, George III and his ministers considered the colonies in rebellion, yet the colonists themselves were unprepared to declare independence. In 1775, Congress asked the king for peace while preparing for war. They approved a petition, the Olive Branch Petition, to King George asking him to resolve the dispute with Parliament. Upon its receipt, the king proclaimed the 13 provinces in "an open and avowed rebellion."
He was the first vice president (1789-1797) and second president (1797-1801) of the United States. He was a major figure during the American Revolution: he helped draft the Declaration of Independence and served on the commission to negotiate the Treaty of Paris.
Third president of the United States (1801-1809). As a member of the second Continental Congress, he drafted the Declaration of Independence (1776). His presidency was marked by the purchase of the Louisiana Territory (1803) and the Embargo of 1807.
Fourth president of the United States (1809-1817). Member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist.
Fifth president of the United States (1817-1825), whose administration was marked by acquisition of the Florida (1819), the Missouri Compromise (1820), and the Monroe Doctrine (1823).
First U.S. secretary of the treasury (1789-1795), he established the national bank and public credit system. In 1804 he was mortally wounded in a duel with his political rival Aaron Burr.
40-year-old veteran of Bunker Hill and Saratoga; he emerged as the leader of Shays Rebellion
American politician and jurist. As chief justice of the United States (1801-1835), he helped establish the doctrine of judicial review.
American diplomat and jurist who served in the Continental Congress and helped negotiate the Treaty of Paris (1783). He was the first chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1789-1795) and negotiated the agreement with Great Britain that became known as the Jay Treaty.
American inventor and manufacturer whose invention of the cotton gin (1793) revolutionized the cotton industry. He also established the first factory to assemble muskets with interchangeable parts
John Quincy Adams
He was nominated for secretary of state by Monroe because he wasn't from VA; negotiated Adams-Onis/Transcontinental Treaty; wanted a stronger national govt, internal improvements, and a tariff to protect American industries; accomplished very little
U.S. general and 7th president of the United States (1829-1837). In the War of 1812, he defeated the Red Sticks at Horseshoe Bend (1814) and the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he denied the right of individual states to nullify federal laws and increased presidential powers.
John C. Calhoun
Vice president of the United States (1857-1861). He tried to maintain a balance between proslavery and antislavery factions, but his views angered radicals in both the North and South
Had a duel with Hamilton; created a plot to create a separate nation in the west and to attack Washington DC. He was captured and tried. It was called the Burr conspiracy case. However, the case collapsed, Marshall could not prosecute Burr because treason would need a gathering of troops. He was Jefferson's running mate in the 1800 election.
Martin Van Buren
Eighth president of the United States (1837-1841). A powerful Democrat from New York, he served in the U.S. Senate (1821-1828), as secretary of state (1829-1831), and as vice president (1833-1837) under Andrew Jackson before being elected president in 1836. He unsuccessfully sought reelection in 1840 and 1848
He was part of the "Great Triumvirate" (3 candidates that whigs couldn't choose from); he was a great speaker, but an alcoholic, and came up with the compromise for the tariff abomination
American statesmen and a founder of the Whig party. He pushed the Missouri Compromise through the U.S. House of Representatives (1820) in an effort to reconcile free and slave states and served as secretary of state under John Quincy Adams (1825-1829).
Samuel F. B. Morse
American painter and inventor. He refined and patented the telegraph and developed the telegraphic code that bears his name
American abolitionist and journalist who escaped from slavery (1838) and became an influential lecturer in the North and abroad. He wrote Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass (1845) and cofounded and edited the North Star (1847-1860), and abolitionist newspaper.
Educational reformer and promoter of public school education; first secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
American writer, philosopher, and central figure of American transcendentalism. His poems, orations, and especially his essays, such as Nature (1836), are regarded as landmarks in the development of American thought and literary expression
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist who conducted an experiment that consisted of him living in the woods for 2 years and 2 months. The reflections of this experience were published in Walden: Life in the Woods.
American religious leader who founded the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (1830). He led his congregation from New York State to western Illinois, where he was murdered by an anti-Mormon mob.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
American feminist and social reformer who helped organize the first woman's rights convention, held in Seneca Falls, New York (1848), for which she wrote a Declaration of Rights and Sentiments calling for the reform of discriminatory practices that perpetuated the subordination of women
American philanthropist, reformer, and educator who took charge of nurses for the United States during the Civil War.
William Lloyd Garrison
American abolitionist leader who founded the antislavery journal The Liberator (1831-1865).
Robert E. Lee
U.S. and Confederate general. He led the Army of Northern Virginia in the American Civil War.
16th president (1861-1865), his election triggered Southern secession. He led the United States throughout the Civil War, strengthened the power of the presidency, and signed into law the Emancipation Proclamation. He was assassinated two days later after Lee's surrender.
United States senator, secretary of war, and then president of the Confederacy (1861-1865). He was captured by Union soldiers in 1865 and imprisoned for two years. Although he was indicted for treason (1866), he was never prosecuted.
James K. Polk
He was nominated by democrats that wanted expansion, wins election of 1844 by very small margins; suggested extending MO Compromise line westward; did all the leg work of making Texas a state; when the issue of dividing the Oregon territory at the 49th parallel came up, he secretly negotiated with Britain because he didn't want to be fighting with Mexico AND Britain
He was a Whig that campaigned with William Henry Harrison in election of 1840 (old Tippecanoe and Tyler too!) Harrison won but died 1 month after election, so Tyler was now president, but approached it as more of a democrat than whig, so whigs were divided for next 4 years.
Stephen A. Douglas
American politician who served as U.S. representative (1843-1847) and senator (1847-1861) from Illinois. He proposed legislation that allowed individual territories to determine whether they would allow slavery (1854), and in the senatorial campaign of 1858 he engaged Abraham Lincoln in a famous series of debates.
An enslaved man sued for his freedom in 1847, leading to a crucial Supreme Court decision in 1857 in which the Court ruled that African Americans held no rights as citizens and that the Missouri Compromise of 1820 was unconstitutional. The decision was widely denounced in the North and strengthened the new Republican Party.
American slave leader who organized about 70 followers and led a rebellion in Virginia, during which approximately 50 whites were killed (1831). He was then captured and executed.
American abolitionist who, in 1859 with 21 followers, captured the U.S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry as part of an effort to liberate Southern slaves. His group was defeated, and Brown was hanged after a trial in which he won sympathy as an abolitionist martyr.
17th president of the United States (1865-1869); he succeeded the assassinated Abraham Lincoln. He was a Unionist southerner, but both northerners and southerners distrusted him because of this. He had little sympathy for black people or for expansion of the powers of the federal government. His plans for political reunion left out any provision for black voting or participation in politics.
Ulysses S. Grant
U.S. general and 18th president of the United States (1869-1877). He commanded the Union Army during the Civil War.
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