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End Stopped Lines

red; brought to a pause at which the end of a verse line coincides with the completion of a sentence, clause, or other independent unit of syntax


green; olfactory imagery


green; a blending or confusion of different kinds of sense-impression, in which one type of sensation is referred to in terms more appropriate to another (colors being loud)


red; the pattern of measured sound units recurring more or less regularly in lines of verse.


one meter


a line of verse consisting of 2 metrical feet; in English verse, it means a line with two main stresses


three metrical feet


four metrical feet


five metrical feet


six metrical feet


seven metrical feet


eight metrical feet


nine metrical feet


red; the identity of sound between syllables or paired groups of syllables, usually at the ends of verse lines. Exact/Perfect: draw a positive conclusion
Approximate/Imperfect: draw a negative conclusion and includes assonance and consonance

Blank Verse

red; unrhymed lines of iambic pentameter


red; way it appears on the page


blue; exaggeration for the sake of emphasis in a figure of speech not meant literally. ("I've been waiting forever.")


blue; an understatement


blue; an expression that achieves emphasis or humor by contriving an ambiguity, two distinct meanings being suggested either by the same word or two similar sounding words


green; auditory imagery


blue; a figure of speech that replaces one thing with the name of something closely associated to it. (the bottle for alcohol or the skirt for woman)


blue; a common figure of speech by which something is referred to indirectly, either by naming only some part or constituent of it. (hands for manual labor)


blue; a figure of speech by which animals, abstract ideas, or inanimate things are referred to as if they were human


blue; a rhetorical figure of speech in which the speaker addresses a dead or absent person/inanimate object

Cacophonous Stop Sounds

yellow; relate it to the tone; draw a negative creative conclusion about the tone. B, D, hard G, hard K, P, T (pound, black bug)

Emotion Laden Words

yellow; words pertaining to love, anger, sadness, gloom, happiness, etc. (passion, heart-felt, kiss, anger, rage, despise)

Inversion/Altered Syntax/Anastrophe

red; the reversal of the normally expected order of words or the turning around of a metrical foot


blue; figure of speech that combines two usually contradictory terms in a compressed paradox (bittersweet)

Double Entendre

blue; French phrase for double meaning; denotes a pun in which a word or phrase has a second, usually sexual meaning

Free Verse

red; type of poetry that does not conform to any regular meter; length is irregular and so is its use of rhyme


green; visual imagery


green; gustatory imagery


red; the running over of the sense and grammatical structure form one verse line or couplet to the next with out a punctual pause


yellow; the repetition of the same sounds-usually initial consonants of words or stressed syllables- in any sequence of neighboring words


green; tactile imagery


blue; an explicit comparison between two different things, actions, or feelings, using the words "like" or "as"


blue; openness to different interpretations or when some use of language may be understood in diverse ways

Rhetorical Shift

red; clarification-noticeable change in mood- "but", "yet', or "then"

Poetic Words

yellow; a word or phrase that survives only with in a tradition of poetic diction, usually an archaism like "of yore" or "o'er" (same as archaic)


yellow; the use of words that seem to imitate the sounds they refer to; the sound gives the impression of echoing the sense. (moan, murmuring, whack, fizz, hiss.)


blue; the most important and widespread figure of speech, in which one ting, idea, or action is referred to by a word or expression normally denoting another thing, idea, or action, so as to suggest some common quality shared by the two.


blue; statement or expression so surprisingly self-contradictory as to provoke us into seeking another sense or context in which it would be true (Everything I say is a lie.)


blue; a subtly humorous perception of inconsistency, in which an apparently straight forward statement or event is undermined by its context so as to give it a very different significance

Archaic Words

yellow; the use of words or constructions taht have passed out of the language before the time of writing. (thou, hath, etc.)

Euphonious Continuant and Glide Sounds

yellow; pleasing, smoothness of sound, perceived by the ease with which the words can be spoken in combination; (all other consonants, W, H, Y) because the sound continues


blue; indirect/passing reference to some even, person, place, or artistic work, the nature and relevance of which is not explained by the writer but relies on the reader's familiarity with what is mentioned


blue; contrast or opposition either rhetorical or philosophical. In rhetoric, any disposition of words that serves to emphasize a contrast, or opposition of ideas, usually by the balancing of connected clauses with parallel grammatical constructions.


red; unstressed followed by stressed; V/: 1 foot; two syllable foot


red; a pause in a line of verse, often coinciding with a break between clauses or sentences. Usually in the middle of a line

Formal Rhetorical Substitution

red; a trochee or spondee substituted for an iamb in the first two syllables


an adjective or adjectival phrase used to define a characteristic quality or attribute of some person or thing (Alexander the Great)

Epic Epithet

homeric epithet in an epic

Folk Epic

epic of unknown authorship assumed to be the product of communal comp. or authored by a bunch of people

Art Epic

term used to distinguish, such an epic as, Paradise Lost, from so-called folk epics, such as Beowolf and the Odyssey. (more sophisticated and more moral in purpose)

In Medias Res

in or into the middle of events or a narrative. "In the middle of things". Epics often begin in this, they begin in the middle of events


the repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds in the stressed syllable and sometimes in the following unstressed syllables of neighboring words; consonants differ and vowels match


a folk song or orally transmitted poe telling in a direct and dramatic manner some popular story usually derived from a tragic incident in local history/legend. Composed in quatrains (4 stress and 3 stress lines)


an unusually far fetched or elaborate metaphor or simile presenting a surprisingly apt parallel between two apparently dissimilar things r feelings

Concrete Poetry

a kind of picture made out of printed type; usually involves a punning kind of typography in which the visual pattern enacts or corresponds in some way to the sense of the word or phrase represented


the range of further associations that a word or phrase suggests in addition to its straightforward dictionary meaning, or one of these secondary meanings.


the repetition of identical or similar consonants in neighboring words whose vowel sounds are different, the term is most commonly used for a special case of repetition in which the words are identical except for the stressed vowel (group, grope)


a pair of rhyming verse lines, usually of the same length; one of the most widely used verse forms in European Poetry


a metrical unit of verse having one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables, as in the word carefully; or in quantitive verse, one long syllable followed by two short ones


straightforward dictionary meaning of a word


the choice of words used in a literary work; it may be described according to the oppositions formal/colloquial, abstract/concrete, and literal/figurative.

Dramatic Poem

a category of verse composition for theatrical performance; the term is now commonly extended, to non-theatrical poems that involve a similar kind of impersonation

Extended Metaphor

a metaphor introduced and then further developed throughout all or part of a literary work especially a poem


form of Japanese lyric verse that encapsulates a single impression of a natural object or scene, with in a particular season; 17 syllables arranged in 3 unrhymed lines of 5,7, and 5 syllables

Iambic Pentameter

10 syllable either rhymed or unrhymed lank verse; permits some variation in the placing of its 5 stresses; often begins with a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable before resuming the regular pattern


an English verse form consisting of 5 anapestic lines rhyming aabba, the 3rd and 4th lines having 2 stresses and the others 3

Lyric Poem

a fairly short poem expressing the personal mood, feeling, or meditation of a single speaker; most extensive category of verse

Narrative Poem

class of poems (including ballads, epics, and verse romances) that tell stories


arrangement of similarly constructed clauses, sentences, or verse lines in a pairing or other sequence suggesting some correspondence between them

Petarchan/Italian Sonnet

sonnet divided into an octave rhyming abbaabba and a sestet normally rhyming cdecde, and thus avoids the final couplet found in another sonnet


a hypothetical metrical unit sometimes invoked in traditional scansion: consists of 2 unstressed syllables or in quantitive verse, 2 short syllables and is rather questionably referred to as a foot


verse stanza of 4 lines, rhymed or unrhymed; it is the most commonly used stanza in English. Most ballads and hymns are in it in which the 2nd and 4th lines rhyme (abcb or abab)


a line, group of lines, or part of a line repeated at regular or irregular intervals in a poem, usually at the end of each stanza; may recur in the same form or in a slight variation

Rhyme Scheme

pattern in which the rhymed line-endings are arranged in a poem or stanza; may be expressed as a sequence of recurrences in which each line ending or same rhyme is given the same alphabet letter.


pattern of sounds perceived as the recurrence of equivalent beats at more or less intervals


analysis of poetic mater in verse lines, by displaying stresses, pauses, and rhyme patterns with conventional visual symbols

Sensory language/imagery

vague, critical term covering those uses of language in literary works that evoke sense-impressions by literal or figurative references to perceptible/concrete objects, scenes, actions, or states, as distinct from the language of abstract argument/exposition

English/Elizabethan/Shakesspearean sonnet

comprises 3 quatrains and a final couplet, rhyming ababcdcdefefgg


a lyric poem comprising 14 rhyming lines of equal length:a major form of love poetry


metaphorical term by which some critics refer to distinctive features of a written work in terms of utterance; specific group of characters displayed by narrator or poetic speaker assessed in terms of tone, style, or personality


metrical unit consisting of 2 stressed syllables or in quantitive verse, 2 long syllables; occur regularly in Greek/Latin meters and used as substitutes for other feet in dactylic hexameter


group of verse lines forming a section of poem and sharing same structure as all or some of the other sections of same poem; in terms of length of lines, meter, and rhyme scheme; separated by spaces


way in which words and clauses are ordered and connected so as to form sentences; or set of grammatical rules governing such word-order


a rhetorical figure of repetition in which the same word or phrase is repeated in (and usually at the beginning of successive lines, clauses, or sentences)


term designating mood or atmosphere of a work, although in some more restricted uses it refers to the author's attitude to the reader or subjective matter


metrical unit of verse having one stressed syllable followed by one unstressed syllable (tender)

Figure of speech

expression that departs from accepted literal sense or from the normal order of words, or in which an emphasis is produced by patterns of sound


a metrical foot made up of 2 unstressed syllables followed by a stressed syllable; or in quantitive verse, 2 short syllables followed by a long one. It was a Greek marching beat and is used in English poetry to echo energetic movement or solemn complaint


a verse stanza of 5 lines, includes English limerick, japanese tanka, and spanish quintilla










no conjunctions


a poetic and rhetorical device in which normally unassociated ideas, words, or phrases are placed next to one another

epigrammatic close

catchy; memorable

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