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Feedback is not necessary in the communication process when the sender and receiver are both confident that they understand each other.


____ is the tendency to fill in gaps of missing information by assuming that what we don't know is consistent with what we already know.


____ is the tendency to overestimate our value by attributing successes to ourselves (internal causes) and attributing failures to others or the environment (external causes).

self-serving bias

Nonverbal communication is less informative than verbal communication. .


Organizational silence occurs when ____.

employees believe that telling managers about problems will not make a difference

In the perceptual process, ____ is the process of noticing or becoming aware of particular stimuli.


In communicating feedback to employees, managers need to recognize that feedback can be constructive or destructive.


During a job interview, interviewers can use their knowledge of face and body movements to determine when interviewees are telling the truth. This knowledge is called _____.


Someone experiencing a(n) ____ would be likely to take any negative criticism of his or her department personally.

self-serving bias

According to attribution theory, ____ makes managers more likely to attribute workers' problems or failures to internal rather than external causes.

the fundamental attribution error

The three formal communication channels in organizations are categorized as ____.

downward, horizontal, and upward

Perception is the process by which individuals attend to, organize, interpret, and retain information from their environments.


The two primary types of grapevine communications networks are ____.

cluster and gossip

The last step of empathetic listening requires managers to ____.

respond with feelings and then facts

____ is a technique of understanding the speaker's perspective and personal frame of reference and giving feedback that conveys that understanding to the speaker.

Empathetic listening

In empathetic listening, ____ is important because it demonstrates that you understand the speaker's emotions.

reflecting feelings

Because of ____, people exposed to the same information will often disagree about what they saw or heard.

perceptual filters

The hurried communication of vague, unclear messages is a common problem associated with ____ communication


Communication is the process of transmitting information from one person or place to another.


The ____ is the system of official channels that carry organizationally approved messages and information.

formal communication channel

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