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The first Americans, who were ancestors of Native Americans, migrated to the New World about fifty to ten thousand years ago from what region of the world?


What allowed early Americans to start permanent villages?


What are the three major pre-Columbian civilizations?

Aztec, Maya, Inca

Property rights among the Indians were held ________.


What two characteristics were found in most Indian religions?

polytheism and animism

The histories and religious beliefs of most early American people have been preserved in ________

oral traditions

What contributed to the decline of feudalism?

the Protestant Reformation

What person sailing for Spain became obsessed with the idea of sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean to reach China and Asia in 1492?

Christopher Columbus

What has been called the Columbian Exchange?

the two-way transfer of plants and animals throughout America and Europe

What was one of the lessons the English learned from the failure of the Roanoke colony?

more than one person was needed to fund such adventures

What was the one crop that attributed to the success of the new settlement of Jamestown Virginia, during the colonial period?


Why is 1607 often regarded as the first year of American history?

It was the year Jamestown England's first lasting colony, was established.

Those who were willing to sign a contract to work for a specified number of years for someone who would pay their way to the colonies were known as ________.

indentured servants

What was the House of Burgesses?

the first legislative body in English America

Maryland was established as a haven for what religious group, even though they were never in the majority when it came to numbers?


Which religious group insisted that the Church of England could be reformed in America?


These acts dictated where colonial producers could ship their goods, stipulated that colonists must transport their goods in English ships, and listed a group of products that colonists were permitted to sell only to England.

Navigation Acts

The colony of New York began as a _______ colony based on claims by Henry Hudson in 1609.


Which colony was to be a Holy Experiment of the Quakers?


What was one of the chief motives for the founding of Georgia by James Oglethorpe and his friends?

to create a buffer between Spanish Florida and the Carolinas

The pattern of trade in which fish, grains, spices, sugar, ships, slaves, and gold were traded between the New England colonies, the West Indies, and Africa:

triangular trade

Thinkers during the Age of Enlightenment stressed _________

the power of human reason

The Great Awakening referred to a renewed interest in ________

religion and spirituality

The Stamp Act provoked a stronger backlash than the Sugar Act because _________

it was a direct tax on the colonists with the revenue used to pay colonial officials

The Stamp Act of 1765 _______

required colonists to pay taxes on all printed document

Colonial resistance to this act was the first in which the colonists identified Parliament rather than the King as the opposition ________

Stamp Act

The purpose of the Committees of Correspondence was to _________

disseminate information quickly from one region to another

The Battles of Lexington and Concord were a result of General Gage's orders to ________

carry out the search and seizure of colonial stores of weapons

The person who did most of the writing on the Declaration of Independence was _______

Thomas Jefferson

The document signed on July 4, 1776 _______

Declaration of Independence

Washington took his men and crossed the Delaware on Christmas night in 1776 in order to ______

give his men a much needed morale boost with a victory at Trenton

The Battle of Saratoga _______

convinced the French to enter the war on the American side

Cornwallis surrendered, and the war was for all intents and purposes ended, after the Battle of _______


What was not a weakness of the Articles of Confederation?

the central government's lack of power in dealing with the Indians

The Articles of Confederation __________

became the first constitution of the United States in 1781

The Land Ordinance of 1785 _______

created a system for surveying and selling the western lands

This event, which focused on closing down the court system in MAssachusetts because it was the legal instrument of foreclosure on debts and farms, added urgency to the movement to produce a new national constitution.

Shays Rebellion

Which of the following became the most divisive element at the Constitutional Convention?

how each state would be represented in the legislature

In the Constitutional Convention of 1787, for the purpose of political representation, slaves were classified as _______

three-fifths of a free person

The Constitutional Convention took place in the city of _______


Many Anti-federalists were concerned that the original draft of the Constitution did not _______

include a bill of rights

If you were a Federalist, you __________

were in favor of the Constitution

The first ten amendments to the Constitution are known as the __________

Bill of Rights

The Judiciary Act of 1789

set up the federal court system

_________ was elected to be the first President of the United States by the Electoral College.

George Washington

The power of Congress to do anything necessary and proper to carry out its delegated powers:

implied powers

Britains capture of American sailors for the purpose of forcing them into service in the British navy was called __________


The Supreme Court case of Marbury v. Madison is significant for establishing the doctrine of ___________

judicial reviews

What patriotic song was written during the War of 1812?

the Star Spangled Banner

What was not a major cause of the War of 1812?

British retaliation for the Boston Tea Party

What was not recognized as something needed for the country to be successful after the War of 1812?

A general increase of taxes on U.S.-made products

The peace treaty ending the War of 1812 was negotiated at


The Market Revolution refers to the period in America when ___________

the period when a growing number of farmers began to focus on single crops that they could sell, rather than trying to be self-sufficient.

The Monroe Doctrine of 1823 _________

declared the Western Hemisphere off-limits to further European colonization.

The Erie Canal was important for what reason

linking the eastern states with those in the Midwest.

The revolution in southern agriculture took place after Eli Whitney invented the _________

cotton gin

As a result of the Missouri Compromise _________

slavery was limited to areas south of 36 degrees 30 minutes north latitude

_______ invented the mechanical reaper.

Cyrus McCormick

John Deere helped the farmer by inventing the ________

steel plow

________ founded the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints (Mormons).

Joseph Smith

Jackson and his supporters maintained that a corrupt bargain had been struck between John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay, after Clay became Adams's _________

secretary of state

In the 1844 presidential election, the Democratic Party's platform called for __________

the re-annexation of Texas and the re-occupation of Oregon

The first presidential candidate of the Democratic Party was ___________

Andrew Jackson

The Trail of Tears was the name given to the forced march of the ______ nation to land in Oklahoma.


The Underground Railroad was ___________

a network of people who maintained safe houses and hid out runaway slaves and helped them escape to freedom

The issue that was debated diplomatically between the Americans and the Mexicans concerning Texas was ___________

what physical feature was supposed to serve as the true border between Mexico and Texas.

Texas gained admittance into the United States in 1845 ________

through the efforts of the out-going president, John Tyler, who pushed Congress to annex Texas through a joint resolution

Texas won its independence from Mexico at the Battle of _________

San Jacinto

The commander-in-chief of the newly-created Texas army was __________

Sam Houston

In the 1844 presidential election, the Democratic Party's platform called for _______

the re-annexation of Texas and the re-occupation of Oregon

The founder of the Mormons was _________

Joseph Smith

Manifest destiny was used to describe the belief that _______

the United States was fated to possess all the land between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans

The Mexican American War was not popular with many northerners because _________

they considered it a strategy to expand slavery into new western territory

What was not one of the views on how to deal with slavery in the territory gained from Mexico after the Mexican American War?

let the slaves decide the issue

The Free Soilers argued that the new territories should _________

be free of slavery

Popular sovereignty refers to the idea that the citizens of a territory should be allowed to vote upon the slavery issue.


The Dred Scott decision ___________

said that Mr. Scott was still a slave, the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional, and Congress had no power to prohibit slavery in any territory.

Who won the election of 1860 __________

Abraham Lincoln

The first state to secede from the Union in 1860 was ___________

South Carolina

__________ was elected President of the Confederate States of America

Jefferson Davis

The first shots of the Civil War were fired at _________

Ft. Sumter

What was an advantage of the South during the Civil War?

It was fighting a defensive war on its home ground

What was not an advantage of the North during the Civil War?

It was fighting a defensive war on its home ground

The Emancipation Proclamation of 1862 ________

applied only to those areas in rebellion against the Union

The reason for the high casualty rate during the Civil War was __________

the use of new, higher level of technology and the use of old tactics

The Legacy of Reconstruction for most African Americans was _________

poverty and discrimination

What did reconstruction not do?

do away with Jim Crow laws

The federal government's attempt to resolve the issues resulting from the end of the war that roughly lasted until 1877 was known as __________


The result of the Election of 1876 and the Compromise of 1877 was ____________

the end of Reconstruction

The ______________ divided the southern states into five military districts with military commanders taking control of state governments.

Military Reconstruction Act

This organization was created by congress to help the freed slaves. Its greatest accomplishment came in the area of education.

Freedmen's Bureau

The __________ Amendment made slavery illegal in the United States and its territories.


The __________ Amendment defines citizenship.


Northern-born white men who moved South after the Civil war, whose goal it was to get elected to government office, were known as _____________.


The result of the Election of 1876 and the Compromise of 1877 was _________

the end of Reconstruction

In the sharecropping system __________

a family farmed a plot of land owned by someone else and shared the crop yield with the owner

Plessy v Ferguson is considered important because ___________

it established the "separate-but-equal" doctrine

Who was Magellan and what happened to him?

He was the first to circumnavigate the world and he was killed in the Philippines.

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