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98 terms

1301 US History Final

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The first Americans, who were ancestors of Native Americans, migrated to the New World about fifty to ten thousand years ago from what region of the world?
Siberia
What allowed early Americans to start permanent villages?
Farming
What are the three major pre-Columbian civilizations?
Aztec, Maya, Inca
Property rights among the Indians were held ________.
collectively
What two characteristics were found in most Indian religions?
polytheism and animism
The histories and religious beliefs of most early American people have been preserved in ________
oral traditions
What contributed to the decline of feudalism?
the Protestant Reformation
What person sailing for Spain became obsessed with the idea of sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean to reach China and Asia in 1492?
Christopher Columbus
What has been called the Columbian Exchange?
the two-way transfer of plants and animals throughout America and Europe
What was one of the lessons the English learned from the failure of the Roanoke colony?
more than one person was needed to fund such adventures
What was the one crop that attributed to the success of the new settlement of Jamestown Virginia, during the colonial period?
tobacco
Why is 1607 often regarded as the first year of American history?
It was the year Jamestown England's first lasting colony, was established.
Those who were willing to sign a contract to work for a specified number of years for someone who would pay their way to the colonies were known as ________.
indentured servants
What was the House of Burgesses?
the first legislative body in English America
Maryland was established as a haven for what religious group, even though they were never in the majority when it came to numbers?
Catholics
Which religious group insisted that the Church of England could be reformed in America?
Puritan
These acts dictated where colonial producers could ship their goods, stipulated that colonists must transport their goods in English ships, and listed a group of products that colonists were permitted to sell only to England.
Navigation Acts
The colony of New York began as a _______ colony based on claims by Henry Hudson in 1609.
Dutch
Which colony was to be a Holy Experiment of the Quakers?
Pennsylvania
What was one of the chief motives for the founding of Georgia by James Oglethorpe and his friends?
to create a buffer between Spanish Florida and the Carolinas
The pattern of trade in which fish, grains, spices, sugar, ships, slaves, and gold were traded between the New England colonies, the West Indies, and Africa:
triangular trade
Thinkers during the Age of Enlightenment stressed _________
the power of human reason
The Great Awakening referred to a renewed interest in ________
religion and spirituality
The Stamp Act provoked a stronger backlash than the Sugar Act because _________
it was a direct tax on the colonists with the revenue used to pay colonial officials
The Stamp Act of 1765 _______
required colonists to pay taxes on all printed document
Colonial resistance to this act was the first in which the colonists identified Parliament rather than the King as the opposition ________
Stamp Act
The purpose of the Committees of Correspondence was to _________
disseminate information quickly from one region to another
The Battles of Lexington and Concord were a result of General Gage's orders to ________
carry out the search and seizure of colonial stores of weapons
The person who did most of the writing on the Declaration of Independence was _______
Thomas Jefferson
The document signed on July 4, 1776 _______
Declaration of Independence
Washington took his men and crossed the Delaware on Christmas night in 1776 in order to ______
give his men a much needed morale boost with a victory at Trenton
The Battle of Saratoga _______
convinced the French to enter the war on the American side
Cornwallis surrendered, and the war was for all intents and purposes ended, after the Battle of _______
Yorktown
What was not a weakness of the Articles of Confederation?
the central government's lack of power in dealing with the Indians
The Articles of Confederation __________
became the first constitution of the United States in 1781
The Land Ordinance of 1785 _______
created a system for surveying and selling the western lands
This event, which focused on closing down the court system in MAssachusetts because it was the legal instrument of foreclosure on debts and farms, added urgency to the movement to produce a new national constitution.
Shays Rebellion
Which of the following became the most divisive element at the Constitutional Convention?
how each state would be represented in the legislature
In the Constitutional Convention of 1787, for the purpose of political representation, slaves were classified as _______
three-fifths of a free person
The Constitutional Convention took place in the city of _______
Philadelphia
Many Anti-federalists were concerned that the original draft of the Constitution did not _______
include a bill of rights
If you were a Federalist, you __________
were in favor of the Constitution
The first ten amendments to the Constitution are known as the __________
Bill of Rights
The Judiciary Act of 1789
set up the federal court system
_________ was elected to be the first President of the United States by the Electoral College.
George Washington
The power of Congress to do anything necessary and proper to carry out its delegated powers:
implied powers
Britains capture of American sailors for the purpose of forcing them into service in the British navy was called __________
impressment
The Supreme Court case of Marbury v. Madison is significant for establishing the doctrine of ___________
judicial reviews
What patriotic song was written during the War of 1812?
the Star Spangled Banner
What was not a major cause of the War of 1812?
British retaliation for the Boston Tea Party
What was not recognized as something needed for the country to be successful after the War of 1812?
A general increase of taxes on U.S.-made products
The peace treaty ending the War of 1812 was negotiated at
Ghent
The Market Revolution refers to the period in America when ___________
the period when a growing number of farmers began to focus on single crops that they could sell, rather than trying to be self-sufficient.
The Monroe Doctrine of 1823 _________
declared the Western Hemisphere off-limits to further European colonization.
The Erie Canal was important for what reason
linking the eastern states with those in the Midwest.
The revolution in southern agriculture took place after Eli Whitney invented the _________
cotton gin
As a result of the Missouri Compromise _________
slavery was limited to areas south of 36 degrees 30 minutes north latitude
_______ invented the mechanical reaper.
Cyrus McCormick
John Deere helped the farmer by inventing the ________
steel plow
________ founded the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints (Mormons).
Joseph Smith
Jackson and his supporters maintained that a corrupt bargain had been struck between John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay, after Clay became Adams's _________
secretary of state
In the 1844 presidential election, the Democratic Party's platform called for __________
the re-annexation of Texas and the re-occupation of Oregon
The first presidential candidate of the Democratic Party was ___________
Andrew Jackson
The Trail of Tears was the name given to the forced march of the ______ nation to land in Oklahoma.
Cherokee
The Underground Railroad was ___________
a network of people who maintained safe houses and hid out runaway slaves and helped them escape to freedom
The issue that was debated diplomatically between the Americans and the Mexicans concerning Texas was ___________
what physical feature was supposed to serve as the true border between Mexico and Texas.
Texas gained admittance into the United States in 1845 ________
through the efforts of the out-going president, John Tyler, who pushed Congress to annex Texas through a joint resolution
Texas won its independence from Mexico at the Battle of _________
San Jacinto
The commander-in-chief of the newly-created Texas army was __________
Sam Houston
In the 1844 presidential election, the Democratic Party's platform called for _______
the re-annexation of Texas and the re-occupation of Oregon
The founder of the Mormons was _________
Joseph Smith
Manifest destiny was used to describe the belief that _______
the United States was fated to possess all the land between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans
The Mexican American War was not popular with many northerners because _________
they considered it a strategy to expand slavery into new western territory
What was not one of the views on how to deal with slavery in the territory gained from Mexico after the Mexican American War?
let the slaves decide the issue
The Free Soilers argued that the new territories should _________
be free of slavery
Popular sovereignty refers to the idea that the citizens of a territory should be allowed to vote upon the slavery issue.
True
The Dred Scott decision ___________
said that Mr. Scott was still a slave, the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional, and Congress had no power to prohibit slavery in any territory.
Who won the election of 1860 __________
Abraham Lincoln
The first state to secede from the Union in 1860 was ___________
South Carolina
__________ was elected President of the Confederate States of America
Jefferson Davis
The first shots of the Civil War were fired at _________
Ft. Sumter
What was an advantage of the South during the Civil War?
It was fighting a defensive war on its home ground
What was not an advantage of the North during the Civil War?
It was fighting a defensive war on its home ground
The Emancipation Proclamation of 1862 ________
applied only to those areas in rebellion against the Union
The reason for the high casualty rate during the Civil War was __________
the use of new, higher level of technology and the use of old tactics
The Legacy of Reconstruction for most African Americans was _________
poverty and discrimination
What did reconstruction not do?
do away with Jim Crow laws
The federal government's attempt to resolve the issues resulting from the end of the war that roughly lasted until 1877 was known as __________
Reconstruction
The result of the Election of 1876 and the Compromise of 1877 was ____________
the end of Reconstruction
The ______________ divided the southern states into five military districts with military commanders taking control of state governments.
Military Reconstruction Act
This organization was created by congress to help the freed slaves. Its greatest accomplishment came in the area of education.
Freedmen's Bureau
The __________ Amendment made slavery illegal in the United States and its territories.
13th
The __________ Amendment defines citizenship.
14th
Northern-born white men who moved South after the Civil war, whose goal it was to get elected to government office, were known as _____________.
carpetbaggers
The result of the Election of 1876 and the Compromise of 1877 was _________
the end of Reconstruction
In the sharecropping system __________
a family farmed a plot of land owned by someone else and shared the crop yield with the owner
Plessy v Ferguson is considered important because ___________
it established the "separate-but-equal" doctrine
Who was Magellan and what happened to him?
He was the first to circumnavigate the world and he was killed in the Philippines.