Anatomy and Physiology: Chapter 6
Terms in this set (41)
What are the five primary functions of the skeletal system?
Storage of minerals and lipis
Blood cell production
What are the 6 bones shapes?
What connects the diaphysis and the epiphysis?
Which bone type forms a sturdy protective layer that surrounds the medullary cavity?
Which bone type makes up most of the epiphysis?
A superficial layer that covers spongy bone
What accounts for almost two-thirds of a bone's weight?
What does calcium phosphate fuse with to make hydroxyapatite?
Mature bone cells
Where would you find an osteocyte?
In the lacunae
What are the two major functions of osteocytes?
They maintain the protein and mineral content of the surrounding matrix
They participate in the repair of damaged bone
What connects lacunae together and with sources of nutrients such as blood vessels?
Produce new bone matrix
How do osteoblasts create new bone matrix?
Through a process called ossification
Organic matrix before calcium salts are deposited
What are two functions of osteoprogenitor cells?
Maintain population of osteoblasts
Important in the repair of a fracture
Cells that remove and recycle bone matrix
Basic functional unit of mature compact bone
What is inside the haversian canal?
What passageway supplies blood to osteons deeper in the bone and to tissues of the medullary cavity?
Where is red bone marrow found and what does it do?
It is found between the trabeculae of spongy bone
Deliver nutrients to the trabeculae and removes waste generated by the osteocytes
Where is spongy bone located?
Where bones are not heavily stressed or where stresses arrive from many directions
What is the function of red bone marrow?
Blood cell formation
What is the function of yellow bone marrow?
Superficial layer of compact bone that covers all bones
What are the three functions of the periosteum?
Isolates bones from surrounding tissues
Provides a route for the circulatory and nervous supply
Participates in bone growth and repair
An incomplete cellular layer that lines the medullary cavity
The deposition of calcium salts
What are the two major forms of ossification?
Endochondral ossification - Ossification of cartilage
Intramembranous ossification - Ossification of fibrous connective tissue
Where ossification begins
What are the three major sets of blood vessels that develop?
Nutrient artery and vein
The process of the organic and mineral components of the matrix being recycled and renewed
How do heavily stressed bones change?
They change to become thicker and stronger
Why is calcitrol important and how is it synthesized?
It is important in the absorption of calcium and phosphate ions and is synthesized in the kidneys from a related steroid called cholecalciferol
How are vitamins C, A, K, and B12 important in normal bone growth and maintenance?
Vitamin C - Important for osteoblast differentiation
Vitamin A - Stimulates osteoblast activity and important for normal bone growth in children
Vitamin K and B12 - Required for the synthesis of proteins in normal bone
What are the hormones calcitonin and parathyroid important for?
They are important in the storage, absorption, and excretion of calcium ions
What are the three ways the parathyroid hormone can increase blood calcium levels?
Stimulating osteoclast activity and enhancing the recycling of materials by osteocytes
Increasing the rate of intestinal absorption of calcium ions
Decreasing the rate of excretion of calcium ions by the kidneys
What are the two ways calcitonin can decrease blood calcium levels?
Inhibiting osteoclast activity
Increasing the rate of excretion of calcium ions by the kidneys
What are the steps to repair a fracture?
Large blood clot/fracture hematoma develops
Internal spongy bone callus & External cartilage and bone callus develops
Cartilage of external callus becomes bone and the broken ends of the bone are united by struts of spongy bone
Inadequate ossification which leads to bones of the skeleton becoming thinner and weaker
When the reduction in bone mass is sufficient to compromise normal function
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