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76 terms

Science chapters 1-6

life science
the study of all living things
scientific method
a series of steps followed to solve problems
an explaination that is baced on prior scientific reasearch or observations and that can be tested
controlled experiment
an experiment that only tests one factor at a time by useing a comparison of a control group with an exparimental group
a factor that changes in an experiment in order to test a hypothesis
a pattern, plan, representation, or discription designed to show the structure or workings of an object, system or concept.
an explanation that ties together many hypothesis and explainations
a summary of many experimental results and observations; a law tells how things work
the application of science for practical purposes; the use of tools, machines, materials, and processes to meet human needs
compound light microscope
an instument that maginifies small objects so that they can be seen easily by useing two or more lenses
electron microscope
a microscope that focuses a beam of electrons to maginfy objects
a measure of a surface or region
a measure of a body or region in three demintional space
the measure of the amount of matter in an object
a measure of how hot or cold something is
the smallest unit that can perform all life processes; cells are covered by a membrain and have dna and cytoplasm
anything that causes a reaction or change an organisum or any part of an organisum.
the maintnance of a constant internal state in a changeing environment
sexual reproduction
reproduction in which the sex cells from two parents unite, producing offsping that share traits from both parents.
sexual reproduction
reproductin that does not involve the unionof sex cells andin which one parent produces offspiring identical to itself
the passing of genetic traits from parent to offspring.
the sum of all chemical processes that occur in an organisum.
an organisum that can make its own food by using energy from its surroundings
an organisum that eats other oganisums or organic matter
an organisum that gets energy by breaking down remains of dead organisms or or animal wasts and consuming or absorbing the nutrients
a molecule that is made up of amino acids and that is needed to build and repair body stuctures and to regulate processes in the body
a class of energy giving nutrients that includes sugars, starches, and fiber; contains carbon hydrogen and oxygen
a type of biochemical that does not dissolve in water; fats and steriods are lipids
adenosine triphosphate, a molecule that acts as the main energy source for for cell processes (in the mitochondria)
a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a sturctual component in cell membrains
nuecleic acid
a molecule made up of subunits called nuecleotides
cell membrain
a phospholipid layer that covers a cells surface; acts as a barrier between the inside of a cell and a cells environment.
one of the small bodies in a cells cytoplasm that are speciize to prerform a specific function
in a eukaryotic cell, a membrain bound organelle that contains the cell's DNA and has a role in processes such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction.
an organisum that consists of a single cell and does not have a nuecleus
an organisum made up of cells thathave a nuecleus enclosed by a membrain; eukaryotes include animals, plants, or fungi,but not archaea or bacteria
cell wall
a rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrain and provides support to the cell in plant cells only
cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; the site of protien syntheisis
endoplasmic reticulum
a system of membrains that is found in a cells cytoplasmand that assists in the production, processing and transporting of proteins and in the production of lipids.
in eukaryotic cells the cell organelle is surounded by two membrains and that is the site of cellular resparation.
golgi complex
cell organelle that helps make and package materials to be transported out of the cell
a small cavity or sac that contains materials in a eukaryotic cell
a cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes
a group of simular cells that perform a common function
a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
organ system
a group of organs that work together to form body functions
a living thing; any thing that can carry out life processes on its own
the arrangemant of parts in an organism
the special, normal, or proper activity of an organ or part
the movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density
the diffution of water through a semipermiable membrain
passive transport
the movement of substances accros a cell membrain without the use of energy by the cell
active transport
the movement of substances accros a cell membrain that reqires the cell to use energy
a process in which a cell membrain surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell
the process in which a cell releases a particle by enclosing the particle in a vesicle that then move to the cell surface and fuses with the cell membrain.
the process by which plants, alge, and some bacteria use sunlight carbon dioxide and water to make food.
cellular respiration
the process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from food
the breakdown of food without the use of oxygen
cell cycle
the life cycle of a cell
in a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nuecleus that are made up of dna and protien; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of dna
homologous chromosomes
chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes and the same structure
in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same numer of chromosomes
the division of the cytoplasum of the cell
the passing of genetic traits from parent to ofspring
dominate trait
the trait that completly masks the recessive trait
recessive trait
a trait that is completely covered by the dominate trait
one set of instructions for an inherited trait
one of the alternative forms of agene that govern a characteristic, such as hair color
an organisms appearance or other detectible characteristic
the entire genetic makeup of an organism; also the combination of genes for one or more traits
a process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreses to half the originalnumber by two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells
sex chromosome
one of the pairs of chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual
a diagram that shows the occurence of a genetic trait in several generations in a family
DeoxyriboNucleic Acid, a molecule that is present in all living cellsand that contains all the information that determinds the traits that a living thinginharits and needs to live.
in a nucleic- acid chain a subunit that consits of a sugar, aphospate and a nitrogenous base
a change in the nucleotide-base sequence of a gene or DNA molecule.