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life science

the study of all living things

scientific method

a series of steps followed to solve problems


an explaination that is baced on prior scientific reasearch or observations and that can be tested

controlled experiment

an experiment that only tests one factor at a time by useing a comparison of a control group with an exparimental group


a factor that changes in an experiment in order to test a hypothesis


a pattern, plan, representation, or discription designed to show the structure or workings of an object, system or concept.


an explanation that ties together many hypothesis and explainations


a summary of many experimental results and observations; a law tells how things work


the application of science for practical purposes; the use of tools, machines, materials, and processes to meet human needs

compound light microscope

an instument that maginifies small objects so that they can be seen easily by useing two or more lenses

electron microscope

a microscope that focuses a beam of electrons to maginfy objects


a measure of a surface or region


a measure of a body or region in three demintional space


the measure of the amount of matter in an object


a measure of how hot or cold something is


the smallest unit that can perform all life processes; cells are covered by a membrain and have dna and cytoplasm


anything that causes a reaction or change an organisum or any part of an organisum.


the maintnance of a constant internal state in a changeing environment

sexual reproduction

reproduction in which the sex cells from two parents unite, producing offsping that share traits from both parents.

sexual reproduction

reproductin that does not involve the unionof sex cells andin which one parent produces offspiring identical to itself


the passing of genetic traits from parent to offspring.


the sum of all chemical processes that occur in an organisum.


an organisum that can make its own food by using energy from its surroundings


an organisum that eats other oganisums or organic matter


an organisum that gets energy by breaking down remains of dead organisms or or animal wasts and consuming or absorbing the nutrients


a molecule that is made up of amino acids and that is needed to build and repair body stuctures and to regulate processes in the body


a class of energy giving nutrients that includes sugars, starches, and fiber; contains carbon hydrogen and oxygen


a type of biochemical that does not dissolve in water; fats and steriods are lipids


adenosine triphosphate, a molecule that acts as the main energy source for for cell processes (in the mitochondria)


a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a sturctual component in cell membrains

nuecleic acid

a molecule made up of subunits called nuecleotides

cell membrain

a phospholipid layer that covers a cells surface; acts as a barrier between the inside of a cell and a cells environment.


one of the small bodies in a cells cytoplasm that are speciize to prerform a specific function


in a eukaryotic cell, a membrain bound organelle that contains the cell's DNA and has a role in processes such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction.


an organisum that consists of a single cell and does not have a nuecleus


an organisum made up of cells thathave a nuecleus enclosed by a membrain; eukaryotes include animals, plants, or fungi,but not archaea or bacteria

cell wall

a rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrain and provides support to the cell in plant cells only


cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; the site of protien syntheisis

endoplasmic reticulum

a system of membrains that is found in a cells cytoplasmand that assists in the production, processing and transporting of proteins and in the production of lipids.


in eukaryotic cells the cell organelle is surounded by two membrains and that is the site of cellular resparation.

golgi complex

cell organelle that helps make and package materials to be transported out of the cell


a small cavity or sac that contains materials in a eukaryotic cell


a cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes


a group of simular cells that perform a common function


a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body

organ system

a group of organs that work together to form body functions


a living thing; any thing that can carry out life processes on its own


the arrangemant of parts in an organism


the special, normal, or proper activity of an organ or part


the movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density


the diffution of water through a semipermiable membrain

passive transport

the movement of substances accros a cell membrain without the use of energy by the cell

active transport

the movement of substances accros a cell membrain that reqires the cell to use energy


a process in which a cell membrain surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell


the process in which a cell releases a particle by enclosing the particle in a vesicle that then move to the cell surface and fuses with the cell membrain.


the process by which plants, alge, and some bacteria use sunlight carbon dioxide and water to make food.

cellular respiration

the process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from food


the breakdown of food without the use of oxygen

cell cycle

the life cycle of a cell


in a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nuecleus that are made up of dna and protien; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of dna

homologous chromosomes

chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes and the same structure


in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same numer of chromosomes


the division of the cytoplasum of the cell


the passing of genetic traits from parent to ofspring

dominate trait

the trait that completly masks the recessive trait

recessive trait

a trait that is completely covered by the dominate trait


one set of instructions for an inherited trait


one of the alternative forms of agene that govern a characteristic, such as hair color


an organisms appearance or other detectible characteristic


the entire genetic makeup of an organism; also the combination of genes for one or more traits


a process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreses to half the originalnumber by two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells

sex chromosome

one of the pairs of chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual


a diagram that shows the occurence of a genetic trait in several generations in a family


DeoxyriboNucleic Acid, a molecule that is present in all living cellsand that contains all the information that determinds the traits that a living thinginharits and needs to live.


in a nucleic- acid chain a subunit that consits of a sugar, aphospate and a nitrogenous base


a change in the nucleotide-base sequence of a gene or DNA molecule.

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