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Music History 3
Terms in this set (73)
A multi-movement work for soloists and orchestra, showcases the virtuosity of soloists.
A solo passage heard in a concerto, aria, or any large orchestral work, often of a virtuosic nature, suggests an improvised style. It is associated with Mendelssohn.
A string- instrument technique, two parts are produced by playing on two strings simultaneously. It is associated with Mendelssohn.
A sustained note over which harmonies change. It is associated with Mendelssohn.
Formal structure often used in first movement of sonata cycle, consists of exposition, (statement of two or more contrasting themes), development, and recapitulation, also known as sonata-allegro form. It is associated with Mendelssohn.
French for "study" , solo instrumental work intended to develop technical facility, focuses on one or more specific technical challenges. It is associated with Liszt.
A basic theme is repeated throughout a work in different guises, the theme may be changed rhythmically, melodically or harmonically, unlike a "variation," the transformed theme takes on a new identity in a new context.
Significant trend in 19th-century music, instrumental music with extra-musical associations, (literary, poetic, visual) descriptive title identifies the connection, some works include a written text or "program" provided by the composer. It is associated with Smetana.
One of the most popular forms of orchestral program music, single movement work, generally in free form, with literary or pictorial associations invented by Franz Liszt.
Nationalism in Music
Important element of 19th century musical style, patriotism expressed through music, influence of folk song and dance, myths and legends, landscapes, historical events. It is associated with Smetana.
The musical setting of a poem, for solo voice, generally with piano accompaniment, applies to songs in any language.
Lied (pl. lieder)
The musical setting of a German poem, for a solo voice, generally with piano accompaniment, flourished in the 19th century. It is associated with Schumann.
A song structure where the same music is performed for each verse of the poem as a result, little connection can be achieved between the words and music. It is associated with Schumann.
Modified Strophic Form
A song structure that allows for some repetition of music, some changes to the melody, harmony, and accompaniment take place to reflect the text, such as a shift to tonic major or tonic minor key. It is associated with Schumann.
A song structure that avoids repetition of entire sections of the music, as a result, melody, harmony, and piano accompaniment are able to reflect the meaning of the text.
A collection of art songs united by a central theme or narrative thread, intended to be performed together, poetic text drawn from same author. It is associated with Schumann.
Classical formal structure often used in sonata cycle, section A recurs, with alternating sections creating contrast, Section A heard three times or more in the tonic key, most frequently ABACA or ABACABA. It is associated with Brahms.
Thematic material presented "upside down."
All voices sing the same rhythm, results in a blocked chordal texture (homophonic), delivers the text with clarity and emphasis.
A temporary shift of the metric accents, notes grouped in threes are momentarily grouped in twos or vice-versa.
Italian for "air" a solo song with orchestral accompaniment heard in an opera, oratorio, or cantata, highly emotional, often virtuosic, many have lyrical or dramatic character. It is associated with Verdi.
Italian for "beautiful singing", a style used in early 19th century Italian opera, demonstrated in the works of Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti, and (early) Verdi, emphasized purity of tone and lyrical melodies of a highly ornamented nature. It is associated with Verdi.
The text of an opera, oratorio, or cantata, usually written by someone other than the composer. It is associated with Verdi.
A speech-like style of singing heard in an opera, oratorio, or cantata, used for "dialogue" between characters and to advance the plot, often used to precede an aria. It is associated with Verdi.
A musical number in an opera featuring any number of soloists, but generally smaller group than a "chorus" often serves as a musical and dramatic climax, each person expresses his/her own emotions directly to the audience.
German for "total art work", an ideal expounded by Wagner in his writings, achieved through the perfect union of text, music, and stagecraft (costumes, scenery, lighting). It is associated with Wagner.
Term used by Wagner to describe the synthesis of music and drama, served to distinguish his operatic style from the "traditional" operas of his day. It is associated with Wagner.
German for "leading motive", a device perfected by Wagner in his music dramas, a melodic fragment imbued with meaning, representing a character, place, object, or emotion, undergoes thematic transformation as the opera unfolds. It is associated with Wagner.
From Greek chroma for "color" liberal use of chords based on notes outside of the key, frequently involves modulations to distant keys, used as an expressive device. It is associated with Wagner.
German for "heroic tenor" , a male voice with a high range, possessing incredible strength and stamina.
A half-diminished seventh chord heard in the opening measures of Tristan und Isolde, formed by the notes F-B-D#-G#, Serves as a leitmotif throughout the opera for lover's passion, demonstrates the heightened chromaticism that forms the basis of Wagner's harmonic language.
A multi-movement orchestral work, developed in the 18th century, especially by Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. It is typically in four movements and generally includes at least one movement in sonata form.
Material heard in one movement recurs in later movement, creates structural unity in a multi-movement work, a characteristic employed increasingly by Romantic composers in various genres, but notably in their symphonies. It is associated with Mahler.
Derived from French glisser, to slide, on the harp, a quick strumming of all the strings with a broad sweeping hand movement creating beautiful, shimmering effects, on the piano, a rapid ascending a descending "strumming" of the keys (white or black). It is associated with Ravel.
Whole Tone Scale
A non-traditional scale employed by composers of the late 19th and 20th centuries, consists of six different pitches, all spaced a whole-tone (whole step) apart, for example, C-D-E-F#-G#-A#-(C). It is associated with Ravel.
A scale consisting of five different pitches, C-D-E-G-A, can be rendered easily by playing the five black keys on the piano common to the folk music of many European and Asian cultures. It is associated with Ravel.
Musical styles influenced by painting of Monet and his circle of painters. It is characterized by whole-tone scale, pentatonic scale, unsolved dissonance, parallel chords, ninth chords, and floating rhythm to convey mood rather than present detailed music picture. It is associated with Ravel.
A common trait in 20th-century music, the time signature changes frequently and unpredictably, a rejection of standard metrical patterns in favor of non-symmetrical groupings. It is associated with Bartók.
A short rhythmic or melodic pattern repeated throughout a section or a work. It is associated with Bartók.
The simultaneous use of two or more keys. It is associated with Bartók.
Quotation in Music
Music that parodies another composition or style, draws a melody from a pre-existing work and presents it in a new guise. It is associated with Bartók.
The use of non-traditional scales, in particular, those scales that date back to antiquity, for example, Lydian mode.
A method of composition developed by Schoenberg, an approach used to organize atonal music; based on fixed order of the twelve chromatic pitches forming a tone row; also referred to as dodecaphonic music (derived from the Greek for "twelve"). It is associated with Webern.
Fixed order of the twelve chromatic pitches; basis of a twelve-tone composition, undergoes manipulations including: transposition, inversion, retrograde, and retrograde-inversion. It is associated with Webern.
Writing the tone row backward.
Writing the tone row upside down and backwards.
A rhythmic device in which the note values of a melody are shortened, as a result, the music sounds faster.
From the Latin for "law"; strict imitation of a musical line at a fixed interval throughout, can be a complete polyphonic composition or a technique used within a work. It is associated with Schoenberg.
German for "tone-color melody." A concept developed by Schoenberg in the early 20th century. Individual notes of a melody are distributed among several instruments and often over a wide range. Creates an angular melody and sparse sound. Often compared to pointillism in painting. It is associated with Schoenberg.
A term derived from the post-Impressionist style of painting that used dots of pure color on the canvas. In music, this dappled effect was achieved through the use of Klangfarbenmelodie and the delicate weaving of the contrapuntal lines.
German for "speech-voice." A vocal technique developed by Schoenberg and used for the first time in his song cycle Pierrot Lunaire. The singer/reciter performs what sounds like "pitched speaking." The singer initiates a note and then drops the pitch slightly. Indicated with an "X" narked on the stem of the note. It is associated with Schoenberg.
A poetic form developed in the 14th century. Generally, the poem consisted of four verse: the first verse was repeated partially in the second verse, and completely in the fourth verse. It often took its shape from the poem's structure. It is associated with Schoenberg.
A percussion instrument resembling a small upright piano. Metal bars are struck by hammers that have been activated by a keyboard produces a delicate, silvery sound. It is associated with Berg.
A dissonant chord consisting of major and minor seconds, often employed in atonal music. It is associated with Berg.
Mode of Limited Transposition
Any scale type that can only be transposed once. First mode is the whole tone scale. Second mode is octatonic scale whose pattern alternates semi-tones and tones (half steps and steps). Absence of a central pitch pull to a tonic. It is associated with Messiaen.
French for "mute." An instruction given to string and brass instruments to use their mutes. Creates softer dynamics, veiled, subdued instrumental effects.
Developed by Ligeti, the weaving of many separate melodic strands into a complex polyphonic fabric, the sheer density of the music renders the individual lines imperceptible. It is associated with Ligeti.
A female voice with an 'upper extension' of high notes and a light quality or color which allows the voice to be capable of rapid and highly ornamented passages. It is associated with Verdi.
The use or an instance of simultaneous contrasting rhythms. E.g. Eighth notes against triplets. It is associated with Schumann.
A group of piano pieces that have a common theme and are intended to be played together. It is associated with Schumann.
The ability to perform with exceptional ability, technique, and artistry. It is associated with Liszt.
A musical composition or a mass, usually Roman Catholic, that honours the dead. It is associated with Brahms.
Theme and Variations
Composition procedure in which a theme is stated and then altered in successful statements. It is used as an independent piece or as a movement (usually second) of a sonata cycle. It is associated with Webern.
It describes the absence of tonality (key center) in a work by giving the twelve tones of the chromatic scale equal importance. Its music moves from one level of dissonance to another without relaxation. It is associated with Schoenberg.
A method of composition in which one or more musical elements (such as pitch, timbre, dynamics, texture, and rhythm) is subject to ordering in a fixed series, most commonly the twelve-tone principle introduced by Schoenberg in the 1920s. The term is now reserved, in some writings, only for music that goes beyond the pitch serialism of Schoenberg and applies series methods to other elements. It is associated with Webern.
A reductive style or school of modern music utilizing only simple sonorities, rhythms, and patterns, with minimal embellishment or orchestrational complexity, and characterized by protracted repetition of figurations, obsessive structural rigor, and often a pulsing, hypnotic effect. It is associated with Pärt.
A bell-like style developed by Estonian composer Avro Pärt and it achieved by weaving conjunct lines that hover around a central pitch. It is associated with Pärt.
The system of describing dances in ballet by signs for the steps written alongside the melodies. It is associated with Prokofiev.
French for "on point," it instructs the ballet dancers to dance on the tips of their toes. It is associated with Prokofiev.
A movement of the 1920s, involving Hindemith, Stravinsky, etc, that sought to avoid the emotionalism of late romantic music by reviving the use of counterpoint, forms such as the classical suite, and small instrumental ensembles. It is associated with Bartók.
Early twentieth century style in paintings, a movement that distorted external reality in order to express an inner reality. In music it was written in a subjective hyper-expressive manner that favoured atonal language, extremely wide leaps in the melody, use of instruments in their extreme registers, the tone colours clash rather than blend, and a harsh, emotional vocal style called sprechstimme. The term refers especially to the dramatic works of Schoenberg and Berg. It is associated with Schoenberg.
A group of orchestral movements drawn from a larger dramatic work such as ballet. It is programmatic in nature and is played in a concert setting which is outside of its original dramatic context.
It is based on the style of overtures to romantic operas, became established in the 19th century as an independent, one-movement work, which took either the classical sonata form or the free form of a symphonic poem.
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