What would a sociologist be most likely to say about why an individual chooses a person to marry?
a. there is no accounting for personal feelings like love b. people's actions reflect human free will c. society guides human behavior more than most people realize d. in the case of love, opposites attract
Peter Berger described using the sociological perspective as seeing the _________ in the ________
a. good; worst tragedies b. new; old c. specific; commonplace d. general; particular
People who grew up during the years right after WWII would be called
a. subculture b. social group c. counter culture d. cohort
The text's discussion supports the conclusion that life-course stages
a. are shaped by society and have nothing to do with biology b. are much the same throughout the world c. are linked to biology, but they are most defined by society d. have changed little over recent centuries
In the socialization process, the special significance of the peer group is that it
a. has a greater effect than parents on children's long-term goals b. lets children escape the direct supervision of parents c. gives children experience in an impersonal setting d. allows children to share experiences with people who differ from themselves in age and social background
According to George Herbert Mead, children learn to "take the role of the other" as they model themselves on important people in their lives, such as parents. Mead referred to these important people as
a. role models b. looking- glass models c. significant others d. the generalized other
The special contribution of schooling to the socialization process includes
a. exposing the child to people whose backgrounds differ from their own b. receiving love from caring adults c. teaching children to be highly flexible and able to express their individuality d. helping children break free of gender roles
Which of the following concepts refers to an individual person's fairly consistent pattern of acting, thinking and feeling?
a. socialization b. behavior c. human nature d. personality
Which theory developed by the psychologist John B. Watson claims that most human behavior is not instinctive but learned within a social environment?
a. behaviorism b. biological psychology c. evolutionary psychology d. naturalism
In Freud's model of personality, the ________ represents the presence of culture within the individual.
a. id b. ego c.supergo d.eros
George Herbert Mead considered the self to be
a. the part of an individual's personality composed of self- awareness and self-image b. the presence of culture within the individual c. basic drives that are self- centered d. present in infants at the time of their birth
When Charles Horton Cooley used the term "looking-glass self," he was referring to the fact that
a. people are self- absorbed b. people see themselves as they think others see them c. people see things only from their own point of view d. our actions are a reflection of our cultural values
Sociologists use the concept of "empirical evidence" to refer to information
a. based on a society's traditions b. that squares with common sense c. people can verify with their senses d. that most people agree is true
The ideal of objectivity means that a researched
a. must not care personally about the topic being studied b. must try to be personally neutral about the outcome of the research c. must study issues that have no particular value to society as a whole d. must carry out research that will encourage desirable social change
Drawing conclusions about all of humanity based on information drawn only from males describes the problem called
a. interference b. overgeneralization c. gender blindness d. using double standards
Which theoretical approach highlights the fact that it is not so much what people do that matters as much as the meaning they attach to their behavior?
a. structural- functional approach b. social-conflict approach c. symbolic- interaction approach d. social-exchange approach
The basic idea of the symbolic-interaction approach is that society is
a. an arena of conflict between categories of people b. the reality people construct as they interact with one another c. a system that operates to benefit people d. a collection of structures that operate together in an orderly way
Which of the following theoretical approaches paints societies in broad strokes at a macro-level?
a. both the structural-functional and social-conflict approaches b. both the structural-functional and symbolic-interaction approaches c.both the social- conflict and symbolic-interaction approaches d.only the symbolic-interaction approach
Which theoretical approach is closest to that taken by early sociologists Auguste Comte and Emile Durkehim?
a. structural-funcitonal approach b. social-conflict approach c. symbolic-interaction approach d. social-exchange approach
The theoretical approach in sociology that views society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability is the
a. structural-functional approach b. social-conflict approach c. symbolic-interaction approach d. social-exchange approach
which of the following concepts refers to relatively stable patterns of social behavior?
a. social structure b. social dynamics c.social functions d. social dysfunctions
Making use of the sociological perspective encourages
a. challenging commonly held beliefs b. accepting conventional ideas c.the belief that society has little effect on the average individual d. people to become isolate from one another
The pioneering sociologist who studied patterns of suicide in Europe was
a. Margaret Mead b. Auguste Comte c. Emile Durkheim d. Karl Marx