discovering computers ch. 3
Terms in this set (105)
Open Source Software
Public Domain Software
serves as the interface between the user, the application software, and the computer's hardware. To use application software, such as a word processing program, your computer must be running system software — specifically, an operating system. Three popular personal computer operating systems are Windows, Mac OS, and Linux.
Each time you start a computer, the operat- ing system is loaded (copied) from the computer's hard disk into memory. Once the operating sys- tem is loaded, it coordinates all the activities of the computer. This includes starting application software and transferring data among input and output devices and memory.
is a type of system software that assists users with controlling or maintaining the operation of a computer, its devices, or its software. Utility programs typically offer features that provide an environment conducive to successful use of application software.
Malware (Malicious Software)
which is a program that acts with-
out a user's knowledge and deliberately alters the computer's operations. A computer virus is a type of malicious software.
is an on-screen work area that has a graphical user interface.
is a small image displayed on the screen that represents a program, a document, or some other object.
is a graphical element that you activate to cause a specific action to occur. One way to activate a button is to click it.
Press release button on mouse (usually left button)
is a small symbol displayed on the screen that moves as you interact with
the mouse or other pointing device. Common
pointer shapes are an I-beam, a pointing hand, and a block arrow.
contains a list of commands from which you make selections.
is an instruction that causes a program to perform a specific action.
is a rectangular area of the screen that displays data and information.
The top of a window has a ____ bar, which is a horizontal space that contains the window's name.
is a named collection of stored data, instructions, or information. A file can contain text, images, audio, and video. To distinguish among various files, each file has a file name.
is a unique combination of letters of the alphabet, numbers, and other characters that identifies a file. The title bar of the document window usually displays a document's file name.
is a window that provides information, presents available options, or requests a response. In some cases, when you instruct a program to perform an activity such as print, the pro- gram displays a _____ box. They often contain option buttons, text boxes, check boxes, and command buttons.
is application software that assists people in becoming more effective and efficient while performing their daily business activities. Business software includes programs such as word processing, spreadsheet, Popular Business Programs database, presentation, note taking, personal information manager, business software for phones, business software suites, project management, accounting, document management, and enterprise computing software.
Word Processing Software
sometimes called a word processor, allows users to create and manipulate documents containing mostly text and sometimes graphics. Millions of people use word processing software every day to develop documents such as letters, memos, reports, mailing labels, newsletters, and Web pages.
is a collection of electronic drawings,
photos, and other images. Word processing software usually includes public-domain images. You can find additional public-domain and
proprietary images on the Web or purchase them on optical disc.
the portion of the page outside the main body of text, including the top, the bottom, and both sides of the paper.
allows users to type words in a paragraph continually without pressing the enter key at the end of each line. When you modify paper size or margins, the word processing software automatically rewraps text so that it fits in the adjusted paper size and margins.
is the process of moving different portions of the document on the screen into view.
Spelling Checker/Spell Check
which reviews the spelling of individual words, sections of a document, or the entire document. The spelling checker compares the words in the document with an electronic dictionary that is part of the word processing software. You can customize the electronic dictionary by adding words such as personal names.
is text that appears at the top of each page. Page numbers, company names, report titles, and dates are examples of items included in headers and footers.
a footer is text that appears at the bottom of each page. Page numbers, company names, report titles, and dates are examples of items included in headers and footers.
Create a Document
you enter text or numbers, insert images, and perform other tasks using an input device such as a keyboard, mouse, digital pen, or microphone. If you are using Microsoft Word to design a flyer, for example, you are creating a document.
Edit a Document
means to make changes to its existing content. Common editing tasks include inserting, deleting, cutting, copying, and pasting. Inserting text involves adding text to a document. Deleting text means that you are removing text
or other content.
The process of removing a portion of the document and storing it in a temporary storage location, sometimes called a clipboard.
Creating duplicate items in a document. Also transferred to the clipboard.
The process of transferring an item from a clipboard to a specific location in a document.
removing a portion of the document and storing it in
a temporary storage location, sometimes called
a clipboard. A clipboard also contains items that you copy (duplicate) in a document. Pasting is the process of transferring an item from a clipboard to a specific location in a document.
Change the appearance. Formatting is important because the overall look of a document significantly can affect its ability to communicate clearly. Examples of formatting tasks are changing the font, font size, and font style.
is a name assigned to a specific design of characters. Two basic types of fonts are serif and sans serif.
indicates the size of the characters in a particular font. Font size is gauged by a measurement system called points. A single point is about 1/72 of an inch in height
Adds emphasis to a font. Bold, italic, underline, and color are examples of font styles.
The computer transfers the docu- ment from memory to a storage medium such as a USB flash drive or hard disk. Once saved, a document is stored permanently as a file on the storage medium.
The computer places the contents of the document on paper or some other medium. You can print the same document many times, with each copy looking just like the first.
allows users to organize data in rows and columns and perform calculations on the data. These rows and columns collectively are called a worksheet. For years, people used paper to organize data and perform calculations by hand.
The rows and columns collectively.
is the intersection of a column and row. Each worksheet has more than 17 billion cells in which you can enter data. The spreadsheet software identifies cells by the column and row in which they are located. Cells can contain three types of data: labels, values, and formulas.
Or text entered in the cell helps organize the worksheet.
Many worksheet cells contain a number, called a ____, that can be used in a calculation.
performs calculations on the data in the worksheet and dis- plays the resulting value in a cell, usually the cell containing the formula. When creating a worksheet, you can enter your own formulas.
is a predefined formula that performs common calculations such as adding the values in a group of cells or generating a value such as the time or date.
Many worksheet cells contain a number, called a value, that can be used in a ________.
A more powerful feature of spreadsheet software is its capability of recalculating the rest of the worksheet when data in a worksheet changes.
where you change certain values in a spreadsheet to reveal the effects of those changes.
which depicts the data in graphical form. A visual representation of data through charts often makes it easier for users to see at a glance the relation- ship among the numbers.
shows a trend during a period of time, as indicated by a rising or falling line. For example, a line chart could show the total expenses for each of the six months.
Column or Bar Chart
displays bars of various lengths to show the relationship of data. The bars can be horizontal, vertical, or stacked on top of one another. For example, a column chart might show the total expenses, with each bar representing a different category of expense in a given month
which has the shape of a round pie cut into slices, shows the relationship of parts to a whole. For example, you might use a pie chart to show the percentage each expense category contributed to the total expenditures.
is a collection of data organized in a manner that allows access, retrieval, and use of that data. In a manual database, you might record data on paper and store it in a filing cabinet. With a computerized database, such as the one shown in Figure 3-11, the computer stores the data in an electronic for- mat on a storage medium such as a hard disk.
is application software that allows users to create, access, and man- age a database. Using database software, you can add, change, and delete data in a data- base; sort and retrieve data from the database; and create forms and reports using the data in the database.
Each row, contains data about a given person, product, object, or event.
Each column, contains a specific category of data within a record.
is a request for specific data from the database. Users run queries to receive data.
is application software that allows users to create visual aids for presenta- tions to communicate ideas, messages, and other information to a group. The presentations can be viewed as slides, sometimes called a slide show, that are displayed on a large monitor or on a projection screen
(bring in) the graphics into a slide.
Note Taking Software
is application software that enables users to enter typed text, hand- written comments, drawings, or sketches any- where on a page and then save the page as part of a notebook.The software can convert handwritten comments to typed text or store the notes in handwritten form. Users also can include audio recordings as part of their notes.
Personal Information Manager (PIM)
is application software that includes an appoint- ment calendar, address book, notepad, and other features to help users organize personal information.
Business Software Suite
is a collection of individual programs available together as a unit. Business software suites typically include, at a minimum, the following programs: word processing, spreadsheet, presentation, and e-mail. Popular business software suites include Microsoft Office, Apple iWork, Corel WordPerfect Office, and Google Docs.
Business Software For Phones
Business software available for phones enables users to create documents and work- sheets, manage databases and lists, create
slide shows, take notes, manage budgets and finances, view and edit photos, read electronic books, plan travel routes, compose and read e-mail messages, send instant messages, send text and picture messages, view maps and directions, read the latest news articles, and browse the Web.
Project Management Software
allows a user to
plan, schedule, track, and analyze the events, resources, and costs of a project. Project management software helps users manage project variables, allowing them to complete
a project on time and within budget
helps companies record and report their financial transactions. With accounting software, business users perform accounting activities related to the general ledger, accounts receiv- able, accounts payable, purchasing, invoicing, and payroll functions. Accounting software also enables business users to write and print checks, track checking account activity, and update and reconcile balances on demand.
Document Management Software
provides a means for sharing, distributing, and search- ing through documents by converting them into a format that can be viewed by any user. The converted document, which mirrors the original document's appearance, can be viewed and printed without the software that created the original document. Some document man- agement software allows users to edit and add comments to the converted document.
PDF (Portable Document Format)
A popular file format that document management software uses to save converted documents. Developed by adobe. Because of the widespread use of PDF files, some current business programs such as Microsoft Office include a feature that allows users to save their documents as PDF files. To view and print a PDF file, you need Acrobat Reader software which can be downloaded for free.
Enterprise Computing Software
Computer Aided Design
(CAD) software is a sophisticated type of application software that assists a professional user in creating engineering, architectural, and scientific designs. For example, engineers create design plans
for vehicles and security systems. CAD software eliminates the laborious manual drafting that design processes can require. Three-dimensional CAD programs allow designers to rotate designs of 3-D objects to view them from any angle.
Desktop Publishing Software (DTP)
Enables professional designers to create sophisticated documents that contain text, graphics, and many colors. Is ideal for the production of high quality color documents such as textbooks, corporate newsletters, marketing literature, product calendars, and annual reports.
is the process of arranging text and graphics in a documenton a page-by-page basis.
Paint software, also called illustration software, allows users to draw pictures (Figure 3-22), shapes, and other graphical images with various on-screen tools such as a pen, brush, eyedropper, and paint bucket.
Image Editing Software
provides the capabilities of paint software and also includes the capability to enhance and modify existing images and pictures. Modifications can include adjusting or enhancing image colors, adding special effects such as shadows and glows, creating animations, and image stitching, which is the process of combining multiple images into a larger image.
Professional Photo Editing Software
is a type of image editing software that allows photographers, videographers, engineers, scientists, and other high-volume digital photo users to edit and customize digital photos Professional photo editing software allows users to save images in a wide variety of file formats.
Video Editing Software
Allows professionals to modify a segment of a video, called a clip. For example, users can reduce the length of a video clip, reorder a series of clips, or add special effects such as words that move horizontally across the screen.
Audio Editing Software
Lets users modify audio clips, produce studio-quality soundtracks, and add audio to video clips. Audio editing soft- ware usually includes filters, which are designed to enhance audio quality
Multimedia Authoring Software
allows users to combine text, graphics, audio, video, and animation in an interactive application. With this software, users control the placement of text and images and the duration of sounds, video, and animation. Once created, multimedia presentations often take the form of interactive computer-based presentations or Web-based presentations designed to facilitate learning, demonstrate product functionality, and elicit direct-user participation. Training centers, educational institutions, and online magazine publishers all use multimedia authoring software to develop interactive applications.
Web Page Authoring Software
helps users of all skill levels create Web pages that include graphical images, video, audio, animation, and other special effects with interactive content. In addition, many Web page authoring programs allow users to organize, manage, and maintain Web sites.
Personal Finance Software
is a simplified accounting program that helps home users and small office/home office users balance their checkbooks, pay bills, track personal income and expenses, set up budgets, manage home inventory, track investments, and evaluate financial plans. Personal finance software helps determine where, and for what purpose, you are spending money so that you can manage your finances
offers access to account balances, provides bill payment services, and allows you to download monthly transactions and statements from the Web directly to your computer.
assists in the preparation of legal documents and provides legal information to individuals, families, and small businesses (Figure 3-29). Legal software provides standard contracts and documents associated with buying, selling, and renting property; estate planning; marriage and divorce; and preparing a will or living trust.
Tax Preparation Software
which is available both as packaged software and as Web applica- tions, can guide individuals, families, or small businesses through the process of filing federal taxes (Figure 3-30). These programs forecast
tax liability and offer money-saving tax tips, designed to lower your tax bill. After you answer a series of questions and complete basic forms, the software creates and analyzes your tax forms to search for potential errors and deduction opportunities
Photo Editing And Management Software
Instead of professional photo editing software, many home and small business users work with easier-to-use personal photo editing software, which is available both as packaged software and as Web applications.
Personal photo editing software
allows users to edit digital photos by removing red-eye, erasing blemishes, restoring aged photos, adding spe- cial effects, enhancing image quality, or creating electronic photo albums. When you purchase a digital camera, it usually includes photo editing software (Figure 3-33). Some digital cameras
Clip Art/Image Gallery
which is a collection
of clip art and photos. Some programs have links to additional clips available on the Web or are available as Web applications. You also can purchase clip art/image gallery software that contains thousands of images
Travel And Mapping Software
enables users to view maps, determine route directions, and locate points of interest (Figure 3-38). Using travel and mapping software, which is available both as packaged software and as Web applica- tions, you can display maps by searching for an address, postal code, telephone number, or point of interest (such as airports, lodging, and his- torical sites). This software often provides driv- ing directions when a user enters a starting and destination point.
home design/landscaping software
Homeowners or potential homeowners can use home design/landscaping software to assist them with the design, remodeling, or improvement of a home, deck, or landscape
provides valuable and thorough information for all individu- als. Popular reference software includes encyclopedias, dictionaries, and health/ medical guides.
is software that teaches a particular skill. Educational soft- ware exists for just about any subject, from learning how to type (Figure 3-39) to learn- ing how to cook.
Computer Based Training (CBT)
also called computer-aided instruction (CAI),
is a type of education in which students learn by using and completing exercises with instructional software. CBT typically consists of self-directed, self-paced instruc- tion about a topic
Installed software has two disadvantages:
(1) it requires disk space on your computer, and
(2) it can be costly to upgrade as vendors release new versions.
Web application hosts often store users' data and information on their servers, which sometimes is called ______ storage.
is the electronic equivalent of a user manual
which provides updates and more comprehensive resources to respond to technical issues about software
Web-based Training (WBT)
is a type of CBT (computer-based training) that uses Internet technology and consists of application software on the Web. Similar to CBT, WBT typically consists of self-directed, self-paced instruction about a topic. WBT is popular in business, industry, and schools for teaching new skills or enhancing existing skills of employees, teachers, or students.
Distance Learning (DL)
is the delivery of education at one location while the learning takes place at other locations. DL courses provide time, distance, and place advantages for students who live far from a college campus or work full time.
E-learning, short for electronic learning, is the delivery of education via some electronic method such as the Internet, networks, or optical discs. To enhance communications, e-learning systems also may include video conferencing, e-mail, blogs, wikis, newsgroups, chat rooms, and groupware.