COPD

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What are the three subtypes of COPD?
Chronic bronchitis
Emphysema
Chronic obstructive asthma
What is the triad of COPD symptoms?
Dyspnoea
Cough
Sputum - 60mls max
What is the definition of COPD on spirometry (in terms of FEV/FVC and predicted FEV1)?
FER (FEV1/FVC) <0.7
< 80% predicted FEV1
What should you look for in a COPD patient on CXR?
Rapidly tapering vascular shadow
Hyperlucency
Squared ribs
Flattened diaphragm
Bullae
What are some important differentials for COPD?
Heart failure
Asthma
Bronchiectasis
Bronchiolitis obliterans
Diffuse panbronchiolitis
What medications might be useful in COPD?
Short-acting beta-agonists (salbutamol)
Short-acting muscarinic antagonists (ipratropium bromide)
Long-acting beta-agonists (salmeterol)
Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (tiotropium bromide)
Inhaled corticosteroids
Inhaled N-acetylcysteine
What non-pharmacological measures might be useful in COPD?
Smoking cessation
Pulmonary rehabilitation
Oxygen therapy
What are the indications for oxygen therapy?
Sats<88%
PaO2<55
Which bugs often cause infective exacerbations of COPD?
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Haemophilus influenzae
Moraxella catarrhalis
What dose of oral prednisolone is typically used in COPD exacerbations?
25mg daily
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