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59 terms

Bio Exam 4

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The axon
intitiates impulses and transmits impulses, generally away from the cell body.
Which of the following is NOT true about the myelin sheath?
It decreases the speed of nerve impulse conduction.
Dendrites
Recieve impulses and carry them toward a cell body.
The sodium/potassium pump is primarily responsible for the
resting potential
A nerve impulse is
a change in the distribution of positive and negative ions on the outer and inner surfaces of the neuron membrance that opens adjacent channels and propagates its flow.
A nerve impulse
is an all or nothing event that occurs following a threshold depolarization.
The point at which voltage gated Na channels open intiating an action potential is called
threshold
Depolarization during an action potential is primarily due to the movement of
Na+ to the inside
Repolarization during an action potential is primarily due to
K+ to the outside
When the dorsal rool of a spinal nerve is cut,
incoming sensory nerve impulses are lost.
The primary functions of the spinal cord involve
relfex actions and communication between the brain and spinals nerves.
A nerve is
composed of the long fibers of long axons.
Which part of a simple reflex arc takes the message away from the CNS?
motor neuron
The membranes that protect the brain and spinal cord are called
meninges
Which is NOT a correct association of brain structures and functions?
Limbic system- heart rate
Which part of the brain contains highest control centers for the heartbeat, respiration, temp, and thirst?
Hypothalamus
Consciousness is best associated with
the cerebrum.
True or False: Individuals can remain "alive" for long periods of time without cerebral function.
True
When individuals experience pain and pleasure, the _____ has been stimulated.
Limbic system
The two major types of sensory receptors, bases on the origin of stimuli, are
exteroceptors and interoceptors
Perception of stimuli occurs
in the cerebrum
When a stimulis is continuous but sensory receptors no longer respond to it, the process is called
sensory adaptation
Which portion of the brain may be called the "gateway to consciousness"?
Thalamus
Which portion of the brain is necessary for coordination and balance?
Cerebellum
Which is NOT a correct association of sensory receptors?
Thermoreceptors- pressure waves sensed as "hearing"
Taste buds and olfactory cells are considered
chemoreceptors
The receptors that detect position and movement of limbs are called
proprioceptors
On the retina there is an oval, yellowish area with a depression in which vision for color is most acute. This are is called the
fovea centralis
The structure that regulates the size of the opening for light in the eye and is similar to a camera diaphram, is the
iris
The sclera is continuous with the
cornea
The ___ controls the change in shape of the lens needed for near and far vision.
Ciliary muscle
Which types of receptor is found in the retina?
rods and cones
Which of the following is NOT necessary to "see" and object?
frontal lobe of the cerebrum
Which of the following is most closely associated with color vision?
Cones
If the cornea is uneven, light rays are not focused evenly on the retina and a fuzzy image is formed. This condition is called
astigmatism
The malleus, incus, stapes are
located between the tympanic membrane and the oval window.
Which correctly traces the path of a sound vibration unitl the signal is sent to the brian?
auditory canal>tympanic membrane>malleus>incus>stapes>oval window>spiral organ>cochlear nerve
From your understanding of the anatomy of the ear, what is the most likely explanation for a dogs ability to hear higher frequencies(pitch)?
A wider range to the tectorial membrane and hair cells.
The spiral oregan (organ of Corti) consists of the
hair cells and tectorial membrane
The sense of equilibrium is accomplished by hair cells associated with the
ampulla and semicircular canals
Which of these would you NOT expect to find associated with a long bone?
Smooth muscle
Which is NOT a correct association of bone structures and functions?
canaliculi-large central cavity in the center of the bone shaft
Which of the following is NOT a function of bones?
provide a non-living "concrete" architecture
The type of bone tissue that has lacunae, concentric circles around osteons, and is found in the mid portion of a long bone is
compact bone
A bone marrow transplant normally used to
supply blood-cell forming material
In young people who are still developing, a band of cartilage called a ____ remains between the primary ossification cener and each secondary ossicfication center.
growth plate
_____ is a condition in many older women in which the bones become weak and then.
Osteoporosis
Which is NOT a correct association of facial bones?
zygomatic bones- bridge of the nose
Which of the following bones is NOT part of the axial skeleton?
Scapula
Which of the following bones is NOT part of the pelvic girdle?
Femur
The radium is to the ulna as the
fibula is to the tibia
Classification of joints is primarily based on
movability
Which of the following attach muscle to bone?
Tendons
What is the correct order that a motor nerve stimulation encounters structures in triggering a contraction?
motor nerve>synaptic cleft>sarcolemma>sarcoplasmic reticulum>troponin
Name the neuromuscular transmitter that is released at the axon bulb
acetylcholine
A maximal sustained muscle contraction is called a
tetanus
Skeletal muscles
work in antagonistic pairs
Which part of a muscle twith occurs when the sarcomere distance is decreasing?
Contraction period
In relaxed muscle, calcium is
stored in the endoplamic reticulum