Create an account
large airway obstruction (blockage)
increase work of breathing, slow breaths, large tidal volume, big breaths and audible wheezing
small airway obstruction (blockage)
ex. asthma and copd; rapid breathing, small tidal volume, increased effort, long exhales
apnea followed by deep breathing = neurological origin; slows blood flow to the brain stem and slows impulses sending info to respiratory centers of brain stem
inadequate alveolar breathing related to metabolic demands (overlooked because breathing is normal); occurrs when tidal volume and respiratory rate reduce (decreased resp rate)
CO2 removal can't keep up with CO2 production and level of CO2 increases in arterial blood and makes blood more acidic
blue discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by increased amounts of reduced hemoglobin
causes of cyanosis
causes of? -decreased arterial O2, pulmonary/cardiac right to left shunts (lungs/heart blood doesn
caused by external pressure (ie exerted by tumor, fluid, or air in lung space) causing alveoli to collapse because of pressure on lung
results from removal of air because of destroyed alveoli or from inhaling pure O2 (ie. drugs- becomes hypoxemic b/c can't exchange gases or ie after surgery due to inhaling anesthetics)
persistent abnormal dialation of the bronchi- persistent dialation hard to maintain pressure on inside and outside b/c can't adequately empty lung; too much equal pressure in atm and inside of lung- want different pressures
presence of air or gas in the pleural space caused by a rupture in the visceral pleura (surrounds lungs) or parietal pleural and chest wall; air separates the visceral and parietal pleurae, it destroys the neg pressure of the pleural space and disrupts the equilibrium of lung causing it to collapse
unexpected in healthy people (men) happens suddenly- spontaneous rupture of blebs (blisters) on visceral pleura; unknown cause
cause- chest trauma, ie. stab wound or rib fracture, bullet- anything that tears the pleura
ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome)
characterized by acute lung inflammation and diffusion (much spreading) alveolarcapillary injury ; main causes: sepsis and multiple trauma
lipoprotein that reduced surface tension of pulmonary fluids allowing exchange of gas in alveoli of lungs
obstructive pulmonary disease
airway obstruction that is worse with expiration; common symptoms- dyspnea, wheezing; common obstructive (blockage) disorders- asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis
most common pleural abnormality- disease resulting in episodic narrowing and inflammation of airways
COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
lung changes with emphysema and chronic bronchitis; a main cause is cigarette smoke
hypersecretion of mucus and chronic cough over 3 months of a year for 2 years. Inflammation and fibrosis of bronchial wall.
abnormal enlargement of gas exchange airways lead to destruction of alveolar walls without obvious fibrosis-loss of elastic recoil of bronchi walls
chronic bronchitis features
features: shortness of breath, abnormal blood gases leading to pulmonary hypertension and edema, hypoxemia and cyanosis
features: overventilation, dyspnea, resp muscle overuse,airway resp collapse, pulmonary hypertension
respiratory manifestations = dyspnea and increase resp. rate; death of tissue b/c bad blood supply (infarction) causes pain assoc with breathing leading to gas exchange problems (hypoxemia); it is the block of part of pulmonary vascular bed by an embolus ie blood clot, fat, air bubbles
primary pulmonary hypertension
rare family illness when small pulmonary arteries are blocked and pressure is increased
secondary pulmonary hypertension
increase pulmonary artery pressure because left ventricular failure
Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.
Having trouble? Click here for help.
We can’t access your microphone!
Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again
Reload the page to try again!Reload
Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom
Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom
It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.
Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.
For more help, see our troubleshooting page.
Your microphone is muted
For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.
Star this term
You can study starred terms together