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A series of military expeditions to regain the Holy Land (Jerusalem) from the Turks, started by Pope Urban II; crusaders went to save their souls, or to gain land and wealth

First Crusade

The only crusade to successfully capture the Holy Land for a time, but crusaders killed many Muslims and Jews within Jerusalem.

Children's Crusade

Saddest crusade when young people tried to get to the Holy Land but most died or were put into slavery.

Second Crusade

Two kings led this crusade but failed to recapture any city in Holy Land so they came home in disgrace.

Third Crusade

Three kings led this crusade, but one drowned and the other two quarreled; then King Richard made a truce with Muslim leader, Saladin.

Fourth Crusade

Group of French knights attacked Christian cities: Zadar (powerful trade center) and Constantinople so Pope Innocent III excommunicated them.

Holy Land

Jerusalem (and the surrounding cities and land)

Crusade Results

Kings gained power and crusades brought Europeans and Asians a renewed interest in trade.

barter economy

Goods and services were exchanged/traded for other goods & services (money not used)

domestic system

Manufacturing that took place in workers' homes rather than in a shop or factory

medieval bankers

made loans (and charged interest) and exchanged money currencies


Wealth/money that is earned, saved and invested to make profits

market economy

Economy in which manufacturing, banking, and investing capital are controlled by individual persons.

merchant guild

included all skilled workers in a town; protected their trade rights and helped in times of need


A guild member that made a masterpiece & could open his own shop

craft guild

Skilled workers of a single type of craft joined together to form a guild, setting rules for wages, hours, and working conditions


A boy, whose parents paid a master to house, feed, clothe and train the boy who wished to join a craft guild


Skilled adult worker who was paid wages by a master


A place where people exchange or buy goods; also became a social event with entertainment


At first only a few nobles and clergy received an education, but later universities taught many in England and Italy (math, religion, medicine, latin)

middle class

Merchants and master workers made up the middle class that favored the kings who protected trade, business and property over nobles and the church

Black Death

A terrible plague (disease) that swept through Europe from fleas on rats, killing 1/3 to 1/2 of the population

Townspeople's rights

Townspeople had freedom, their own courts, could trade in their town market, & never had to work on the manors.

vernacular languages

Everyday speech that varied from place to place spoken by people with little education


Traveling singer who wrote poems about love and chivalry

scientific advancements

There church allowed only a few medieval improvements in farming, math and optics


Used vernacular language in his book THE DIVINE COMEDY and became known as the father of the Italian language

Geoffrey Chaucer

English diplomat who wrote THE CANTERBURY TALES, using vernacular language (of the English)


Philosophy of faith and reason

Thomas Aquinas

Greatest medieval philosopher and a monk who wrote SUMMA THEOLOGIAE that said science and reason do not conflict with faith


new style of medieval architecture where churches had high walls, tall spires, flying buttresses and stained glass windows

Hundred Years' War

series of conflicts between France and England over land and who would be king

Joan of Arc

young French girl that led thousands of French into battle against the English and won. Later captured, executed and became a saint.

Strong Governments

While France, England and Spain became powerful nations with strong kings, Italy and Germany (Holy Roman Empire) remained weak

Ferdinand and Isabella

King and Queen who united Spain but started the Spanish Inquisition

Habsburg family

European family that gained power through arranged marriages to become very strong Holy Roman Emperors

Babylonian Captivity

Name for the years that the popes were forced to live in Avignon, France and not in Rome, Italy

John Wycliffe

Priest that criticized the church for immorality and pope's leadership; was called a heretic and exiled.

Great Schism

Period of time during which there were 2-3 popes at one time

Louis XI

The strong king that united France and gained power for the monarchy

Results of the Hundred Year's War

France won, but much of their land was destroyed. England's Parliament became strong and cannons and long bows were used for the 1st time


The prophet and founder of Islam around 610 in the Arabian Peninsula (Middle East)


Follower of Islam who worship the Qur'an in a mosque and follow the Five Pillars of Islam


Had leading trading cities between Europe and the Holy land because it was in the middle

medieval town

Gave citizens rights but had no lord to protect them. They were also dirty, dark and polluted.

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