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A series of military expeditions to regain the Holy Land (Jerusalem) from the Turks, started by Pope Urban II; crusaders went to save their souls, or to gain land and wealth
The only crusade to successfully capture the Holy Land for a time, but crusaders killed many Muslims and Jews within Jerusalem.
Saddest crusade when young people tried to get to the Holy Land but most died or were put into slavery.
Two kings led this crusade but failed to recapture any city in Holy Land so they came home in disgrace.
Three kings led this crusade, but one drowned and the other two quarreled; then King Richard made a truce with Muslim leader, Saladin.
Group of French knights attacked Christian cities: Zadar (powerful trade center) and Constantinople so Pope Innocent III excommunicated them.
Kings gained power and crusades brought Europeans and Asians a renewed interest in trade.
Economy in which manufacturing, banking, and investing capital are controlled by individual persons.
included all skilled workers in a town; protected their trade rights and helped in times of need
Skilled workers of a single type of craft joined together to form a guild, setting rules for wages, hours, and working conditions
A boy, whose parents paid a master to house, feed, clothe and train the boy who wished to join a craft guild
At first only a few nobles and clergy received an education, but later universities taught many in England and Italy (math, religion, medicine, latin)
Merchants and master workers made up the middle class that favored the kings who protected trade, business and property over nobles and the church
A terrible plague (disease) that swept through Europe from fleas on rats, killing 1/3 to 1/2 of the population
Townspeople had freedom, their own courts, could trade in their town market, & never had to work on the manors.
Everyday speech that varied from place to place spoken by people with little education
There church allowed only a few medieval improvements in farming, math and optics
Used vernacular language in his book THE DIVINE COMEDY and became known as the father of the Italian language
English diplomat who wrote THE CANTERBURY TALES, using vernacular language (of the English)
Greatest medieval philosopher and a monk who wrote SUMMA THEOLOGIAE that said science and reason do not conflict with faith
new style of medieval architecture where churches had high walls, tall spires, flying buttresses and stained glass windows
Joan of Arc
young French girl that led thousands of French into battle against the English and won. Later captured, executed and became a saint.
While France, England and Spain became powerful nations with strong kings, Italy and Germany (Holy Roman Empire) remained weak
European family that gained power through arranged marriages to become very strong Holy Roman Emperors
Name for the years that the popes were forced to live in Avignon, France and not in Rome, Italy
Priest that criticized the church for immorality and pope's leadership; was called a heretic and exiled.
Results of the Hundred Year's War
France won, but much of their land was destroyed. England's Parliament became strong and cannons and long bows were used for the 1st time
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