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Chapter 14 Social Studies

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crusades
A series of military expeditions to regain the Holy Land (Jerusalem) from the Turks, started by Pope Urban II; crusaders went to save their souls, or to gain land and wealth
First Crusade
The only crusade to successfully capture the Holy Land for a time, but crusaders killed many Muslims and Jews within Jerusalem.
Children's Crusade
Saddest crusade when young people tried to get to the Holy Land but most died or were put into slavery.
Second Crusade
Two kings led this crusade but failed to recapture any city in Holy Land so they came home in disgrace.
Third Crusade
Three kings led this crusade, but one drowned and the other two quarreled; then King Richard made a truce with Muslim leader, Saladin.
Fourth Crusade
Group of French knights attacked Christian cities: Zadar (powerful trade center) and Constantinople so Pope Innocent III excommunicated them.
Holy Land
Jerusalem (and the surrounding cities and land)
Crusade Results
Kings gained power and crusades brought Europeans and Asians a renewed interest in trade.
barter economy
Goods and services were exchanged/traded for other goods & services (money not used)
domestic system
Manufacturing that took place in workers' homes rather than in a shop or factory
medieval bankers
made loans (and charged interest) and exchanged money currencies
capital
Wealth/money that is earned, saved and invested to make profits
market economy
Economy in which manufacturing, banking, and investing capital are controlled by individual persons.
merchant guild
included all skilled workers in a town; protected their trade rights and helped in times of need
master
A guild member that made a masterpiece & could open his own shop
craft guild
Skilled workers of a single type of craft joined together to form a guild, setting rules for wages, hours, and working conditions
apprentice
A boy, whose parents paid a master to house, feed, clothe and train the boy who wished to join a craft guild
journeyman
Skilled adult worker who was paid wages by a master
fairs
A place where people exchange or buy goods; also became a social event with entertainment
education
At first only a few nobles and clergy received an education, but later universities taught many in England and Italy (math, religion, medicine, latin)
middle class
Merchants and master workers made up the middle class that favored the kings who protected trade, business and property over nobles and the church
Black Death
A terrible plague (disease) that swept through Europe from fleas on rats, killing 1/3 to 1/2 of the population
Townspeople's rights
Townspeople had freedom, their own courts, could trade in their town market, & never had to work on the manors.
vernacular languages
Everyday speech that varied from place to place spoken by people with little education
troubadour
Traveling singer who wrote poems about love and chivalry
scientific advancements
There church allowed only a few medieval improvements in farming, math and optics
Dante
Used vernacular language in his book THE DIVINE COMEDY and became known as the father of the Italian language
Geoffrey Chaucer
English diplomat who wrote THE CANTERBURY TALES, using vernacular language (of the English)
scholasticism
Philosophy of faith and reason
Thomas Aquinas
Greatest medieval philosopher and a monk who wrote SUMMA THEOLOGIAE that said science and reason do not conflict with faith
Gothic
new style of medieval architecture where churches had high walls, tall spires, flying buttresses and stained glass windows
Hundred Years' War
series of conflicts between France and England over land and who would be king
Joan of Arc
young French girl that led thousands of French into battle against the English and won. Later captured, executed and became a saint.
Strong Governments
While France, England and Spain became powerful nations with strong kings, Italy and Germany (Holy Roman Empire) remained weak
Ferdinand and Isabella
King and Queen who united Spain but started the Spanish Inquisition
Habsburg family
European family that gained power through arranged marriages to become very strong Holy Roman Emperors
Babylonian Captivity
Name for the years that the popes were forced to live in Avignon, France and not in Rome, Italy
John Wycliffe
Priest that criticized the church for immorality and pope's leadership; was called a heretic and exiled.
Great Schism
Period of time during which there were 2-3 popes at one time
Louis XI
The strong king that united France and gained power for the monarchy
Results of the Hundred Year's War
France won, but much of their land was destroyed. England's Parliament became strong and cannons and long bows were used for the 1st time
Muhammad
The prophet and founder of Islam around 610 in the Arabian Peninsula (Middle East)
Muslim
Follower of Islam who worship the Qur'an in a mosque and follow the Five Pillars of Islam
Italy
Had leading trading cities between Europe and the Holy land because it was in the middle
medieval town
Gave citizens rights but had no lord to protect them. They were also dirty, dark and polluted.