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Pathophysiology- Chapter 16
Terms in this set (65)
What kind of control mechanism is indicated when increased blood glucose levels stimulate increased secretion of insulin?
c. Negative feedback control
What is the most common cause of endocrine disorders?
d. Benign tumor
Choose the statement that applies to type 1 diabetes mellitus.
a. Onset often occurs during childhood.
Why does polyuria develop with diabetes mellitus?
c. Osmotic pressure due to glucose
What is the cause of diabetic ketoacidosis?
d. Increased catabolism of fats and proteins
What is a precipitating factor for diabetic ketoacidosis?
c. Serious infection
Which of the following may cause insulin shock to develop?
a. Strenuous exercise
Which of the following indicates hypoglycemia in a diabetic?
d. Staggering gait, disorientation, and confusion
Which of the following are signs of diabetic ketoacidosis in an unconscious person?
c. Deep rapid respirations and fruity breath odor
Immediate treatment for insulin shock may include:
b. consumption of fruit juice or candy.
What causes loss of consciousness in a person with diabetic ketoacidosis?
c. Metabolic acidosis
Which of the following does NOT usually develop as a complication of diabetes?
How do many oral hypoglycemic drugs act?
d. To stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin
Diabetes may cause visual impairment through damage to the lens; this is referred to as:
Which of the following applies to diabetic macro-angiography?
1. It affects the small arteries and arterioles.
2. It is related to elevated serum lipids.
3. risk of M.I. and peripheral vascular disease.
4. It frequently causes damage to the kidneys.
c. 2, 3
Why is amputation frequently a necessity in diabetics?
a. Necrosis and gangrene in the feet and legs
A type of diabetes that may develop during pregnancy and disappear after delivery is called:
d. gestational diabetes.
Which one of the following develops hypoglycemia more frequently?
a. Type 1 diabetic patients
Which of the following hormonal imbalances causes Addison's disease?
b. Decreased glucocorticoids
Which of the following hormonal imbalances causes myxedema?
d. Deficit of T3 and T4
Which of the following hormonal imbalances causes diabetes insipidus?
c. Deficit of ADH
What is caused by hyperparathyroidism?
c. Bone demineralization
What is caused by hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism?
1. Skeletal muscle twitching or spasm
2. Weak cardiac contraction
3. Increased secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH)
4. Decreased serum phosphate level
a. 1, 2
Which of the following applies to acromegaly?
c. It results from excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH).
Which of the following may cause goiter?
3. Lack of iodine in the diet
c. 1, 2, 3
Which signs are typical of Graves' disease?
b. Exophthalmos and tachycardia
Characteristics of Cushing's syndrome include all of the following EXCEPT:
c. Staring eyes with infrequent blinking
Which of the following is an effect of long-term glucocorticoid therapy?
a. Decreased secretion from the adrenal cortex gland
Which of the following is an effect of Addison's disease?
d. Poor stress response
What is the most common cause of type 1 diabetes mellitus?
b. Destruction of pancreatic cells by an autoimmune reaction
Why does glucosuria occur in diabetics?
c. The amount of glucose in the filtrate exceeds the renal tubule transport limit.
Which of the following are common early signs of a pituitary adenoma?
1. Persistent headaches
c. 1, 2
Which of the following does NOT apply to inappropriate ADH syndrome?
c. Excessive sodium is retained.
What is/are the effect(s) of thyrotoxic crisis?
a. Hyperthermia and heart failure
Which of the following conditions may precipitate or exacerbate hyperglycemia?
b. Cushing's disease
Which of the following conditions may cause immunosuppression?
c. Cushing's disease
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma (HHNC) more frequently develops in patients with:
b. type 2 diabetes.
Which of the following is recommended for immediate treatment of hypoglycemic shock?
1. If conscious, immediately give sweets and sugar.
2. A.L.O.C.=N.P.O and IV 50% Glucose.
3. Treat immediately with insulin.
4. Give large quantity of clear fluids for shock.
a. 1, 2
All these tissues use glucose without the aid of insulin EXCEPT:
Differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes include which of the following?
d. Type 1 diabetes occurs more frequently in children and adolescents, and type 2 diabetes occurs more often in adults.
Complications of diabetes mellitus include:
a. peripheral neuropathy.
b. frequent infections.
d. A, B, and C.
Answer=D. A, B, and C.
Which of the following often causes hyperparathyroidism?
d. Radiation involving the thyroid gland and neck area
Dwarfism is caused by:
b. a deficit of somatotropin (GH).
Which of the following results from a deficit of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)?
c. Diabetes insipidus
Goiters occur more frequently in persons living in the:
a. Great Lakes or mountainous regions.
Which of the following is caused by Graves' disease?
Goiters may be caused by:
b. either hypothyroid or hyperthyroid conditions.
Severe impairment of all aspects of growth and development, including difficulty feeding, mental retardation, and stunted skeletal growth, are associated with:
A benign tumor of the adrenal medulla that secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine is called:
The anterior pituitary gland secretes all of the following hormones EXCEPT:
Which of the following applies to oxytocin?
1. It stimulates contraction of the uterus after delivery. 2. It stimulates ejection of breast milk during lactation. 3. It stimulates mammary gland production of milk. 4. It is released from the adenohypophysis.
a. 1, 2
Which of the following is a major function of the hormone norepinephrine?
b. Visceral and cutaneous vasoconstriction
Early signs of hyperglycemia include polyphagia, which means:
Which of the following hormones is involved in both the stress response and the anti-inflammatory response?
Polydipsia occurs with diabetes mellitus when:
c. polyuria causes dehydration.
Metabolic syndrome is marked by:
a. abnormal lipid and glucose metabolism.
Compensation mechanisms occurring in the early stage of diabetic ketoacidosis include:
a. Kussmaul's respirations.
Which of the following may occur with a pituitary adenoma?
b. Headache and seizures
Which of the following may cause hypertension?
Catabolic effects of Cushing's syndrome include:
Blood glucose levels are increased by:
5. parathyroid hormone (PTH)
b. 1, 2, 3
Which of the following are likely present in a patient immobilized for a long period of time?
c. Hypercalcemia and low serum PTH levels
Which of the following may cause high serum levels of parathyroid hormone?
b. Chronic renal failure
Diabetic retinopathy results from:
d. obstruction or rupture of retinal blood vessels.
Why does hypocalcemia cause tetany?
b. Nerves to skeletal muscle are more excitable.
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