Dahlia is trying to make partner at one of the city's most prestigious law firms. It is generally understood that associates remain hard at work in the office until at least 7 or 8 each evening. This is an element of one of the firm's social ________. A) roles B) schemas C) norms D) attitudes
We tend to like people we see again and again: Social psychologists refer to this phenomenon as the effect of ________. A) attitude comparison B) role norming C) assumed similarity D) mere exposure
D) mere exposure
Which of the following is NOT mentioned in your text as a factor that might encourage groupthink? A) a strong, directive leader B) a strong group identity C) the presence of conflicting information D) a sense that the decision is urgent
C) the presence of conflicting information
In a classic rope-pulling experiment, Ringelmann (1913) found that groups of three men pulled at 85% of their expected capability, whereas groups of eight men pulled at 37% of their expected capability. Which social psychology concept probably offers the best mechanism by which these results might be explained? A) the reciprocity norm B) diffusion of responsibility C) cognitive dissonance D) the fundamental attribution error
B) diffusion of responsibility
Your text states that "group members will work harder if they feel that their contributions to the group are known . . . ." Keeping group member contributions identifiable may therefore guard against: A) social inhibition B) the dominant response bias C) social facilitation D) social loafing
D) social loafing
In determining the causes of others' behavior, we overemphasize ________ factors; this is the ___________. A) person; self-serving bias B) person; fundamental attribution error C) situational; self-serving bias D) situational; fundamental attribution error
B) person; fundamental attribution error
Activation of the amygdala and activation of the prefrontal cortex have ___________ effects on aggression. A) opposite B) identical C) similar D) different
Which of the following terms relevant to prejudice and discrimination is correctly matched with the concept of which it is an example? A) stereotype - behavior B) prejudice - schema C) discrimination - attitude D) None of these is correctly matched.
D) None of these is correctly matched.
The tendency to perform tasks better in the presence of others is called _______. By contrast, the tendency to perform tasks more poorly in others' presence of others is termed _________. A) social arousal; social inhibition B) social excitation; social inhibition C) social arousal; social suppression D) social facilitation; social inhibition
D) social facilitation; social inhibition
Which of the following alternatives best expresses your text's assessment of the influence of individual differences in the tendency to conform? A) Individual differences in the tendency to conform are minimal at best. B) There are significant individual differences in the tendency to conform. Their influence often opposes that of the situation. C) There are significant individual differences in the tendency to conform. Their influence is just as strong as the effect of the situation. D) There are significant individual differences in the tendency to conform, but their influence is generally overshadowed by the effect of the situation.
D) There are significant individual differences in the tendency to conform, but their influence is generally overshadowed by the effect of the situation.
Shannon's class presentation is better-performed than the same speech she practiced alone at home the previous evening. Tracy's class presentation, though, is worse than the same speech she practiced alone. What might you conclude on the basis of this information? A) Shannon had learned her presentation better than Tracy had learned hers. B) Tracy had learned her presentation better than Shannon had learned hers. C) Shannon's arousal level in the classroom was higher than Tracy's. D) Tracy's arousal level in the classroom was higher than Shannon's.
A) Shannon had learned her presentation better than Tracy had learned hers.
One makes an attribution when one: A) forms an evaluation of an object, person, event, or behavior B) resolves the conflict between two contradictory thoughts C) is influenced by a persuasive message D) decides on the causes of an individual's behavior
D) decides on the causes of an individual's behavior
Which of the following characteristics of a close relationship is correctly defined? A) interdependence-a sense of trust; unconditional giving and receiving of love B) commitment-caring, warmth, acceptance, and social support C) passion-partners display positive affect toward each other D) intimacy -feelings and actions that serve to maintain the relationship
C) passion-partners display positive affect toward each other
Which alternative below correctly defines informational conformity? A) A change in behavior in response to authority B) A change in behavior or attitudes reflecting a desire for accurate knowledge C) A strong emotional reaction that leads people to resist pressures to conform D) A change in behavior or attitudes reflecting the desire to be liked
B) A change in behavior or attitudes reflecting a desire for accurate knowledg
Which of the following best describes the positive feelings we may experience at a basketball game where our team wins? A) Social roles B) Self esteem C) Social identity D) Social norms
C) Social identity
The "Golden Rule" of "doing unto others" reflects the ________ norm. The "Christian duty" of helping others with no expectation of return reflects the __________. A) social responsibility; reciprocity B) social responsibility; social altruism C) reciprocity; social altruism D) reciprocity; social responsibility
D) reciprocity; social responsibility
Probably, he cheated on the test because he is a dishonest person." This is a ____________ attribution. A) person B) situation C) fundamental D) self-serving
Social psychologist Leon Festinger is associated with the study of: A) persuasion techniques B) cognitive dissonance C) conformity D) obedience
B) cognitive dissonance
How might the presence of a single dissenter influence the degree of conformity seen in a study modeled on Asch's classic investigation? A) It would have no effect. B) It would reduce it, but only slightly. C) It would greatly reduce it. D) The effect of a single dissenter would depend on other aspects of the situation.
C) It would greatly reduce it.
According to cognitive dissonance theory, which of the following individuals would be most likely to rate the same concert as enjoyable? A) someone who was given the tickets by a sibling B) someone who had low expectations for the concert C) someone who waited 7 hours in the rain to get tickets D) someone who decided to go at the last minute
C) someone who waited 7 hours in the rain to get ticket
Sometimes, we change our attitudes or behaviors to match those of other people because we want to be liked. This is called ________ conformity. A) social B) informational C) normative D) affiliative
Which alternative best captures the relationship between frustration and aggression? A) Frustration always leads to aggression. B) Frustration and aggression are actually unrelated. C) Frustration is an important factor in aggression. D) Frustration is a byproduct of aggression.
C) Frustration is an important factor in aggression.
If we do well on a test, we say, "I got an A!" If we do poorly, we say, "She gave me an F." This best illustrates: A) the self-perception effect B) the fundamental attribution error C) a diffusion of responsibility D) the self-serving attributions
D) the self-serving attributions
Which alternative below correctly defines psychological reactance? A) A change in behavior in response to authority B) A change in behavior or attitudes reflecting a desire for knowledge C) A strong emotional reaction that leads people to resist pressures to conform D) A change in behavior or attitudes reflecting the desire to be liked
C) A strong emotional reaction that leads people to resist pressures to conform
The likelihood that an individual will help someone in an emergency situation is ___________ correlated with the number of other people present. A) negatively B) positively C) not D) curvilinearly
Which of the following statements is true with respect to the perception of physical attractiveness? A) Unique or distinctive faces are seen as more attractive that more typical ones. B) A preference for slender bodies is universal. C) The preference for attractive faces begins to emerge during the elementary school years. D) None of these statements is true.
D) None of these statements is true.
In Juanita's community, girls are not expected to enjoy or excel at mathematics. Juanita's algebra grades drop. By the time she is a high-school junior, she in enrolled only in consumer mathematics courses. Which concept does Juanita's example BEST illustrate? A) cognitive dissonance B) social identity C) fundamental attribution error D) self-fulfilling prophecy
D) self-fulfilling prophecy
During which stage of Latané and Darley's model of helping might diffusion of responsibility prevent an emergency victim from receiving aid? A) Noticing the event B) Interpreting the event as an emergency C) Assuming responsibility to help D) Diffusion of responsibility will not occur during the stages of Latané and Darley's models.