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168 terms

Linux+

STUDY
PLAY
During Linux installation, you need to configure a minimum of how many user accounts?
two
Filesystem that performs journaling
ext3
Shares password databases among Linux systems
Network Information Service (NIS)
Program started by the BIOS that loads the Linux kernel into memory from a hard disk partition inside the computer
boot loader
command that halts the system immediately and powers down the computer
poweroff
Allows you to choose the operating system upon system startup
dual booting
Specify a commands' working parameters
arguments
Channel that allows a user to log in
terminal
Alter the way a command works
options
Traditional filesystem still used on most Linux computers
ext2
In Linux, what is used to accept input from the user and pass input to the kernel for processing?
Shell
To find all of the commands that have the word list in their name or description, you would type what?
man -k list
What metacharacterindicates background command execution?
&
What is the shell that is used by default in Linux?
BASH
Which Linux Command displays your login name?
whoami
What is the most common method of installing Linux?
DVD installation
Because you need to document so many pieces of hardware and software information, you should create a ______ that contains all important installation information as well as hardware information.
Preinstallation checklist
What are specific letters that start with a dash (-)?
Options
What directory contains system commands and utilities?
/usr
What filesystem is compatible with the Windows FAT filesystem?
VFAT
Hard disks can contain how many major partitions?
4
The command that displays the calendar for the current month is what?
cal
what is the metacharacter for command termination?
;
Which Linux command gets you out of your current shell?
exit
The recommended size for the /home directory is _____ per user.
200 MB
What command will confirm the system directory that you are currently in?
pwd
What metacharacter can also be used to refer to the current user's home directory?
~
To move from the /home/joe/test/data to the home/joe directory, what command would you use?
cd../..
If you type enough unique letters of a directory and press the _____ key, the BASH shell will find the intended file or directory being specified and fill in the appropriate information.
Tab
Most files on a Linux system that contain configuration information are what kind of files?
text files
To view a list of files and their type, use the ____ switch to the ls command.
-F
The ____ symbol indicates a linked file.
@
The ____ command can be used to provide a long listing for each file in a certain directory.
ls -l
Using wildcard metacharacters, how can one indicate a number is either 1, 2, 3, or 4?
[1-4]
The ____ command displays the last five lines of a text file
tail -5
Extended regular expression metacharacters
?, +, {}, |
The ____ regular expression metacharacter matches 0 or more occurrences of the previous character.
*
What key combination, commonly used in the vi editor command mode, displays current line statistics?
ctrl + g
The ____ can be used with LISP artificial intelligence programming language and supports hundreds of keyboard functions like the vi editor.
Emacs editor
The ____ editor is functionally analogous to the Windows Wordpad and Notepad editors.
gedit
Displays files in reverse order
tac command
Displays lines of test that match extended regular expressions
egrep comand
Identifies a channel that passes information from one process in memory to another, and in some cases can be mediated by fiels on the hard drive
named pipe
Special file that serves as placeholders to organize other files
directory
Displays the first ten lines of a text file
head command
A file that represents a device on the system, such as a hard disk or serial port
Special device file
Files that have an association with one another
Linked files
A file that contains the most recent entries at the bottom of the file
log file
A file that allows a process on another computer to write to a file on the local computer while another process reads from that file
socket file
In the FHS, the ____ directory contains the Linux kernel and files used by the boot loader
/boot
In FHS, the ____ directory is the root user's home directory
/root
In the FHS, the ____ directory contains most system commands and utilities
/usr
Copying a file can be accomplished using what command?
cp
What command takes a list of arguments specifying the absolute or relative pathnames of files to remove?
rm
The fastest method to search for files in the Linux Directory tree is to use what command?
locate command
You can see the contents of a certain variable in memory by using the ____ metacharacter with the echo command
$
The ____ section of a filesystem is the section that contains information about the filesystem in general.
superblock
To create a hard link, you must use the ____ command
ln
The section of an inode that stores permissions is called the _____ of a file.
mode
In a file's mode, if a permission is unavailable, a ____ character replaces its position in the mode
-
If a user has _____ permission for a file, they can open. read, and edit the contents of a file
write
When using the chmod command for a specific file, the ______ argument would add read permissin and remove write permission for the group persmission
g+r-w
When using the chmod command, the mode rwx can be replaced by the number____.
7
To set all of the special permission on a certain file or directory, you can use the command _____, where name is the name of the file or directory.
chmod 7777 name
Command used to change the permissions for a certain file or directory
chmod
Command used to view you current user name
whoami
Command used to view your group memberships and primary group
groups
Command used to change the group owner of a file or directory
chgrp
Command used to test network connectivity
ping
Command used to change the ownership of a file or directory
chown
Command used to display BASH shell aliases
alias
Special variable on the system used to take away permissions on new files and directories immediately after they are created.
umask
Command used to quickly create an empty file.
touch
Devices that transfer data in a character-by-character fashion are referred to as______devices.
character
The ____ device file represents the first primary partition on the second IDE hard disk drive (primary slave).
/dev/hdb1
The ____ device file represents the second serial port on the system (COM2).
/dev/ttyS1
The ____ filesystem is used by software programs that write to a CD-RW or DVD-RW drive.
udf
The _____ filesystem contains most of the operating system files.
root
To format a filesystem with a specified filesystem type, you can use the ____ option with the mkfs command.
-t
To mount all filesystems in the /etc/fstab file that are intended to mount at boot time, you can simply type the ____ command.
mount -a
CD-ROMs typically use the _____ filesystem
iso9660
Linux requires how many partitions at minimum?
two
Data is read off of hard disks in concentric circles called what?
tracks
To create partitions after installation, you can use the _____ command
fdisk
The easiest method for monitoring free space by mounted filesystems is to use the _____ command
df
Errors on a filesystem are often referred to as filesytem ____ and are common on most filesystems.
corruption
To check a filesystem for errors, you can use the _____ command, which can check filesystems of many different types.
fsck
You can edit the quotas for certain users by using the _____ command
edquota
Directory that stores devices files
/dev
Indicates a particular device
minor number
File on the hard disk representing a device on a Linux system
device file
Command used to create modify system parameters
tune2fs
The first readable sector of a hard disk, where partition definitions are stored
MBR
File that contains a list of devices that are currently used on the filesystem and their major numbers
/proc/devices
Rigid quota limits that the user cannot exceed
hard limits
Points to the device driver for a device in the Linux kernel
major number
Hard disk quotas that the user can exceed for a certain period of time.
Soft limits
Each SCSI device is assigned a unique ID number known as a _____.
target id
Most Parallel SCSI controllers support up to ____ devices.
15
The highest priority SCSI device is given a SCSI ID of______.
7
The _____ standard supports speeds of up to 80 MB/s.
SCSI-3 Ultra2 Wide
Raid level _____ is often referred to as disk mirroring.
1
Raid level ____ is commonly referred to as disk striping with parity
5
A Fedora 13 CD installation requires ___ CDs.
six
In Fedora Linux, a ____ file is a script file that speifies the choices that you would normally choose when you install the operating system
kickstart
If a Linux installaion ends abnormally and the screen displays a "fatal signal _____" error message, it indicates an error known as a segmentation fault.
11
Some installation fail to place a boot loader on the hard disk properly; this is often the case with large hard disk drives that have over ____ cylinders.
1024
_____ installation log files are create by the Fedora installation program.
two
to verify hardware settings, you can examine the contents of the _____ directory.
/proc
The ____ file in the /proc directory contains a list of memory address ranges reserved for device use.
ioports
The ____ in the /proc directory contains statistics on the performance of the processor.
loadavg
A remote disk to which a computer connects using iSCSI
iSCSI target
File that contains a lists of packages that were installed as well as a list of those that were not installed
/root/install.log
A type of RAID level 0 that consists of two hard disks that are seen as one large volume.
spanning
A unique identifier for each devie attached to any given node in a SCSI chain
Logical Unit Number (LUN)
File that lists all of the system events that occurred during the installation, such as the creation of user and group accounts
/root/install.log.syslog
A version of RAID controlled by the system BIOS
firmware RAID
A protocol that may be used to install Fedora via the network.
Network File System (NFS)
A type of RAID level 0 in which an individual file is divided into sections and saved concurrently on multiple disks.
disk striping
The situation in which a program has accessed an area of RAM that was not assigned
segmentation fault
The file descriptor stdin is represented by the number____.
0
The file descriptor stderr is represented by the number___.
2
You can ue the BASH shell to redirect standard output and standard error from the terminal screen to a file on the filesystem using the ___ shell metacharacter followed by the absolute or relative pathname of the file
>
You can redirect a file to the standard input of a command using the ____ character.
<
The ____ command can be used to replace characters in a file sent via Standard Input
tr
You can send the standard output of one command to another command as standard input using the ____ shell metacharacter.
|
The ____ command count the number of lines, words, and characters in a file
wc
The ____ command can be used to extract, manipulate, and format text using pattern-action statements
awk
Most configuration files on Linux systems are delimited using ____ characters
colon
To see a list of the environmental variables and their current values on a system, you can use the ____ command
set
The _____ command could be used to view the contents of the environment variable that represents the BASH shell prompt.
echo $PS1
To see a list of all exported environment and user-defined variables in the shell, you can use the ____ command
env
The _____ environment fiel is always executed immediately after login for all users on the system, and sets most environment variables, such as HOME and PATH.
/etc/profile
If you have _____ permission to a shell script, you cn execute the shell script like any other executable program on the system.
read and execute
The test statement ____ would be used to determine if A is numerically greater than B
[ A -gt B ]
Labels representing command input and output
file descriptors
Any error messages generated by a command
stderr
Shell variables that are typically set by the system and contain information that the system and programs access regularly
environment variables
Files that are typically used to create custom programs that perform administrative tasks on Linux systems.
shell scrpits
The first line in a shell script, which specifies the pathname to the shell that interprets the contents of the shell script
hashpling
The information that is processed by the command during execution
stdin
Constructs that alter the flow of a program based on whether a command in the program completed successfully or based on a decision that the uer makes given a question posed by the program
a decision construct
The normal output of a command
stdout
A filter command that takes information from standard input and sends that information to a file, as well as to standard output.
tee
The Linux kernel is stored in the _____ directory.
/boot
_____ of the GRUB boot loader typically resided on the Master boot record
Stage 1
To create an encrypted password for use in the /boot/grub/grub.conf, you can use the ____ command
grub-md5-crypt
In the /etc/lilo.conf file, the ____ keyword specifies the absolute pathname to the Linux kernel.
image=
In the /etc/lilo.conf file, the ____ keyword specifies the file that contains the physical layout of the disk drive.
install=
A Linux system in runlevel ___ is a system that has no daemons active in memory and is ready to be powered off
0
After the entries in /etc/inittab have been executed, the ____ file is executed to perform tasks that must occur after system startup.
/etc/rc.d/rc.local
You can use the ____ command to start, stop, or restart any daemons listed within the /etc/rc.d/init.d directory.
service
Which utility can be used to modify runtime configuration files so that they start and stop daemons when entering a particular runlevel?
ntsysv
___ is a freely available version of X Windows used in many Linux Distributions.
XFree86
The two most common dsktop environments that are used on Linux are ____and____.
kde and gnome
The ______ window manager is used for the GNOME desktop in Red Hat Fedora Core 2
metacity
If your system uses the X.org implementation of X Windows, the mouse, keyboard, monitor, and video adapter card information is stored in the ____ file in text format
/etc/x11/xorg.conf
To configure your keyboard, you can use the _____ command from either a GUI or terminal environment and restart X Windows
system-config-keyboard
After configuring X Windows, you can fine-tune the vsync and hsync of the video card using the ____ utility withing the desktop environment.
xvidtune
Programs that tell X Windows how to draw teh graphics and display the reult
X Client
A LILO version available for Intel Pentium and Itanium computers that use Extensible Firmware Interface (EFI).
ELILO
Utility used to configure video card and monitor
Display settings
Modifies the look and feel of X Windows
Window manager
A system process tha performs useful tasks, such as printing, scheduling, and operating system maintenance
daemon
Another name for runlevels
initstates
Partition to which the MBR points
active partition
Most common boot loader on modern Linux systems.
Grand unified bootloader
Used to run multiple OSs at the same time
virtualization software