Among all forms of life, humans stand out as the only species that
a. has biological instincts b. has patterned ways of life c. relies on culture to ensure survival d. makes use of tools
Which of the following most closely conveys the point f the Sapir-Whorf thesis?
a. People perceive the world through the cultural lens of language b. Language involves attaching labels to the real world c. Most ideas "feel" the same even if they are expressed in different languages d. Each word in English has its counterpart in all other languages
Critics of the Sapir-Whorf thesis point out that
a. language does not determine reality b. all languages use mostly the same symbols c. language is found only in some human cultures d. language determines reality more than Sapir and Whorf realized
Which one is NOT one of the values central to U.S. culture, as identified by the sociologist Robin Williams?
a. material comfort b. belief in tradition c. equal opportunity d. racism and group superiority
_________ are rules about everyday casual living; _________ are rules with great moral significance
a. Mores; folkways b. Taboos; mores c. Folkways; mores d. Prescriptive norms; proscriptive norms
The social standing of women and men in hinting and gathering societies is
a. unequal, with men controlling farming b. unequal, with women raising the young while men secure food c. equal, with women hunting animals and men gathering vegetation d. fairly equal, with men and women making vital contributions to survival
Horticulture societies are those in which
a. people use simple hand tools to raise crops b. people have learned to raise animals c. people hunt animals and gather vegetation d. people are nomadic
Multiculturalism is defined as
a. efforts to encourage immigration to the U.S. b. efforts to establish English as the official language of the U.S. c. the idea that the U.S. should have one dominant culture that unites the population d. an educational program recognizing the cultural diversity of the U.S. and programing equality of all cultural traditions
Which of the following adds to the creation of a global culture?
a. the flow of goods from country to country b. the flow of information around the world c. the flow of people form country to country d. all of the above
The theoretical approach that highlights the way any cultural pattern helps meet human needs is the
a. structural-functional approach b. social-conflict approach c. symbolic-interaction approach d. sociobiology approach
Culture acts as a constraint on human freedom because
a. much culture is habit and cultural patterns are repeated again and again b. humans cannot create new culture for themselves c. culture encourages change d. most people are not capable of making decisions about how to live
Culture is a source of human freedom because
a. culture does not guide behavior b. as cultural creatures, humans must make and remake the world for themselves c. all culture changes so quickly d. culture has become too weak to influence our thoughts and actions
The process by which people act and react in relation to others is called
a. social status b. social interaction c. social reaction d. social exchange
Sociologists use which of the following concepts to refer to the behavior people expect of someone who holds a particular status?
a. master status b. role c. role exit d. status set
When interacting with people whose cultural background differs from our own, we find that
a. telling jokes is the best way to "break the ice" b. people everywhere enjoy the same jokes c. Humor can bridge cultural differences d. what is funny to people in one society is often lost on those from another society.
Paul Ekman claims that a major function of emotions is to
a. let us be "ourselves" b. support group life by forging connections with others c. limit the power of society over us d. give people a feeling of independence from others
Which concept is used to refer to the process by which people creatively shape their world as they interact?
a. role set b. role exit c. social construction of reality d. taking the role of the other
The type of research called "ethnomethodology" involves
a. tracking people's roles over the life course b. studying for the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings c. studying unfamiliar cultural systems d. the study of interaction in terms of theatrical performance
The Thomas theorem states that
a. people rise to their level of incompetence b. a role is as a role does c. people know the world only through the roles they perform d. situations defined as real are real in their consequences