35 terms

APES Chapter 5 Vocab

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Ecosystem diversity
the variety of ecosystems withen a give region
Species diversity
the variety of species withen a give region
Genetic diversity
the variety of genes withen a give region
Species richness
the number of species in a given area
Species evenness
the relative proportion of different species in a given area
Phylogenies
the branching patterns of evolutionary relationships
Evolution
a change in the genetic composition of a population over time
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Microevolution
evolution occurring below the species level
Realized niche
the range of abiotic and biotic conditions under which a species actually lives
Distribution
areas of the world in which a species lives
Niche generalists
a species that can live under a wide range of abiotic range of abiotic or biotic conditions
Niche specialists
a species that is specialized to live in a specific habitat or to feed on a small group of species
Sympatric specification
the evolution of one species into two, without geographic isolation
Genetically modified organisms
an organism produced by copying genes from a species with a desirable trait and inserting them into another species
Range of tolerance
the limits to the abiotic conditions that a species can tolerate
Fundamental niche
the suite of ideal environmental comditions for a species
Fossils
the remains of an organism that has been preserved in rock.
Mass extinction
a large extinction of species in a relatively short period of time.
Reproductive Isolation
the result of two populations within a species evolving separately so they can no longer interbreed and produce viable offspring.
Allopatric Speciation
the process of speciation that occurs with geographic isolation.
Founder Effect
a change in population descended from a small number of colonizing individulals
Geographic Isolation
physical seperation of a groap of individuals from others of the same species
Recombination
The genetic process by which one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome during reproductive cell division.
Phenotype
A set of traits expressed by an individual.
Evolution by Artificial Selection
A change in the genetic composition of a population as a result of humans selecting which individuals breed, typically with a preconceived set of traits in mine.
Evolution by Natural Selection
A change in the genetic composition of a population over time as a result of the environment determining which individuals are most likely to survive and reproduce.
Fitness
an individual's ability to survive and reproduce
Adaptation
a trait that improves an individual's fitness
Genetic drift
a change in the genetic composition of a population over time as a result of random mating
Bottleneck effect
a reduction in the genetic diversity of a population caused by a reduction in its size
Macroevolution
process when genetic changes bring new species, so larger categories of organisms
Genes
physical locations on chromosomes within each cell of an organism, determine range of traits
Genotype
complete set of genes
Mutation
random change in genetic code, caused by mistake in copying process of genes
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