135 terms

Sociology Final

The sociological imagination allows people to understand that...
personal feelings may be shaped by social context
From a sociological perspective, romantic love is:
shaped by social and historic influences
When a sociologist visits a coffeehouse, he or she is able to identify a variety of behaviors and interactions among patrons within a broad context. The ability to interpret the events taking place within the coffee house is referred to as:
sociological imagination
What is it called when we "think ourselves away" from the familiar routine in order to see things in a broader context?
Sociological imagination
The two-way process by which people shape their social world through individual actions and are themselves reshaped by society is called:
According to Emile Durkheim, all parts of society must work in harmony as an integrated whole in order to function over time. he called this social cohesion:
organic solidarity
________ shows what events have occurred; ________ explains why the events have occurred.
Factual research; theory
According to August Comte, the knowledge of society is based on...
Scientific evidence
Herbert Spencer's view of society includes what?
That the primary feature of society is its interactive parts that contribute to the function of the whole.
Two men are having lunch together, laughing and being playful with one another. Which of the following perspectives would analyze their relationship by looking for clues to interpret and study their behavior?
A symbolic interactionist
Max Weber contended that a bureaucratic structure is the most efficient organizational type. What is an example of a bureaucratic organization?
a hospital
What was a latent function of the 9/11 attacks?
More Americans recognized the impact of international events on their everyday lives
How does the research of sociologists differ from that of physicists?
There is little difference in the research processes employed by sociologists and physicists.
All cultures in the world posses:
Some form of a family system
How does reggae music illustrate the effects of globalization on culture?
Reggae combines African, Rastafarian, and American jazz rhythms.
Lera Borodinsky argues that mental representations of inanimate objects like forks and frying pans are heavily dependent on the object's grammatical gender in your native language. What study is this related to?
linguistics relativity hypothesis
The linguistics relativity hypothesis was developed by:
Edward Sapir
In what ways can nationalism contradict globalization?
Local identities may take precedence over worldwide concerns
Mary is a student at a large university. She not only is expected to attend classes every day but must attend her sorority meetings, develop her homework and study for classes and exams. All these responsibilities associated with her status as a student are called:
role set
Semiotics is...
the analysis of verbal and nonverbal cultural meanings
Developing countries that have begun to successfully embark on a process of industrialization are called:
newly industrializing economies (NIEs)
The functional perspective explains cultural practices by looking at...
social events that can be explained in terms of the contributions they perform to society.
Sociologists engage in historical analysis because...
a time perspective is frequently needed to make sense of a research problem
What are characteristics of Postindustrial societies?
Less faith in science, greater gender equality, people moving away from cities, shallow lives. (NOT - production of goods through mass employment in business and commercial operations)
Events in the developing world have little effect on Americans because they are so far away.
The only valid way to study a large population is to include every member of the population in the study group.
Securing informed consent from research subjects makes it easier for sociologists to establish rapport with their subjects and get work done.
Historical analysis often uses sources like newspapers and contemporary descriptions to supplement to subject's account.
Assimilation is the process by which different cultures are absorbed into a single mainstream culture
The level of material culture in a society completely determines other aspects of cultural development.
Accepted rules, values, laws, and principles of behavior that people observe and follow on how to behave properly are called culture.
The material goods in a culture influence the way of life of its people in significant ways.
As individuals, we create and change the structures within our social world. In turn we are influenced and affected by those same structures.
When we try to understand a culture on its own terms, we are practicing cultural relativism.
The process of self-development through which an individual formulates a unique sense of self and his or her relationship to the rest of the world is called...
What is an example of the process of socialization?
Learning occurs throughout the entire life course
Although scientists have developed alternate theories of child development, all theories share a common understanding of the...
importance of human contact
What type of behavior is an example of Piaget's sensorimotor stage?
A baby learns about his/her world by handling different objects in his/her crib.
According to Jean Piaget, the ability to understand and perfomr simple intellectual tasks involving visible objects does not take place until the...
generalized other stage
According to Jean Piaget, children develop their way of thinking based on the....
stages of cognitive development
According to Merry White, while there are many similarities between Japanese and American teenagers, which of the following illustrates a difference between the two groups?
Japanese teenagers attain greater academic achievement
Why does the family have such a powerful impact as an agent of socialization?
Families begin the socialization process before there are any other competing influences
A child brushing their teeth because they want to have a clean mouth illustrates which of Kohlberg's moral stages?
What norm for young people was especially strong in pre-modern Japan?
the need for experimentation during the teen years
When parents remind their children that they should not chew with their mouths open the parents are engaging in...
While nature sets limits, socialization plays a large role in determining who we are.
True (according to Giddens)
Arthur is playing with his toys and pretending to be his father. According to George Herbert Mead, by seeing himself from his father's point of view, Arthur is...
internalizing his father's values and attitudes
Humor makes us laugh because almost all jokes contain...
an incongruity between a conventional reality and a subversive one
John rell all his friends and family that life on Mars does exist. Sociologists would suggest that his reality can be explained by the...
Thomas Theorem
Ethnomethodology is...
the study of how people make sense of what others say and do inthe course of day-to-day social interaction
Two people walking on a city sidewalk quickly glance at each other and then look away as they pass. Erving Goffman would call this type of interaction...
Civil inattention
According to Edward T. Hall, spacing for encounters with friends and close acquaintances is the...
Personal distance zone. There can be some intimacy of contact but it is limited.
The belief that individuals are permanently fixed within the social roles of their particular culture is mistaken because...
social roles are negotiated and dynamically constructed
Keeping your many roles separate is an example of...
audience segregation
During the day Thomas is a very good college student, at night he parties hard. Sociologically this can be defines as
audience segregation
An ethnomethodologist would most likely study...
the conversations among roommates in a college dormitory.
The process of developmental socialization takes place when we are already adults. What is an example of this?
An architect who takes more classes to get better at their profession
According to George Herbert Mead, a distinct sense of self is developed in the play stage through the process of "taking the role of the other"
Ageism in the United States is no longer a problem and has always been socially acceptable...
Socialization is a process in which culture stamps people into molds, ultimately undermining their individuality
In the United States, the elderly are a homogenous group with little variation in class and preferences
According to the sociological definition of encounters, all of our encounters are face-to-face.
According to Jean Piaget, not all adults have accomplished the formal operational stage
According to Sigmund Freud, the Id or Inborn Drive in our personality is the drive that constantly seeks pleasure
In an exchange, a task can be adequately performed by only one of the parties
Research shows that adults react differently toward a child depending on the child's sex
Sociology has developed a single comprehensive theory about how the self develops
In-Group membership is often temporary
Bert is a New York Yankees dan who watches them play every time they play. To him, Red Sox fans are an ______.
Out group
John graduates from college with a degree in business administration and gets a job with a large firm. While working there, he becomes friends with a man who invites him to weekly poker games. Sometimes these poker games are the only thing John looks forward to in a week. What does this illustrate?
The way that secondary groups can lead to close personal ties of primary groups
Town hall meetings where citizens can discuss, debate, and vote on issues illustrates what?
a situation that facilitates relationships and social interaction
A 28 year old woman is on the verge of a big promotion at work. Because she did not finish college until she was 25, she wonders about getting her career moving. She decided to attend her 10 yr high school reunion only if she gets promoted. What type of group are her old classmates?
A reference group
What is the relationship between large and small groups?
Larger groups are less intimate but more stable than cliques.
Solomon Asch's experiment in which a group of subjects were asked to compare the length of lines demonstrates...
Groups have great powers to induce conformity
When group members withhold their reservations and criticisms for the sake of consensus, they are engaging in...
Sociologists refer to the web of direct and indirect ties connecting individuals to others who influence them as...
social networks
Formal organizations...
often employ explicit rules, regulations, and procedures.
Bureaucracies are arranged in a way that breaks down hierarchies so that everyone feels equal.
While the percentage of women senior executives has increased, the number of women in key corporate positions continues to lag.
How do Japanese corporations differ from Max Weber's model followed by most business organizations in the west?
Japanese corporations encourage consensus building
What is an advantage of information technology in organization?
It enables organizations to become more decentralized, allowing for greater flexibility.
Robert Michels saw that power is inevitably concentrated at the top in large-scale organizations and in societies dominate by such organizations. He called this...
the iron law of oligarchy
According to Robert Merton, one of the principle reasons people turn to deviant behavior in the United States is that...
The goal of success is shared by a majority of people, but not everyone has means to achieve that goal
If you live in a high-crime area, you may befriend people who are involved in a criminal activities, thus increasing your opportunity to learn criminal behavior. This theory is known as...
Differential association
According to Edwin Sutherland, criminals adopt criminal behavior because they..
Are exposed to environments that encourage illegal activity
"Powerful groups label individuals as deviant as a way to control those who are less powerful" is in line with what theory?
Conflict theory
Because laws represent the interests of those in power, crimes committed by the upper class are typically treated more leniently than crimes committed by lower classes. This is an example of....
conflict theory
What is a likely explanation for why violent crime is so prevalent in the United Staes in contrast to other Western societies?
A larger deviant population
Is a stockbroker misleading clients about a level of risk an example of corporate crime?
Americans' beliefs about capital punishment are similar to that of Europeans.
Under what circumstances does a deviant label lead from primary to secondary deviance?
When the deviant label is accepted by the individual and sees their self as deviant
According to Emile Durkheim's functionalist theory, the function of deviance is to help clarify moral boundaries and affirm social norms.
Our social networks can only consist of our closest friends and family.
even "deviant" groups have their own norms to which members are expected to confrom.
There is a social tie between me and my best friends' uncle even though I have never met him.
Everything about bureaucracies is bad because they constitute an iron cage of rules and regulations
Human resource management is a style that sees human resource issues as the responsibility of the whole organization, not just the human resources department.
Deviance is an objective or unchanging phenomenon that transcends culture, history, and situational context.
Studies show that Western companies cannot successfully operate with the kind of bottom-up decision making used in Japan.
The term "sanction" refers only to responses meant to punish nonconformity
The size of a group does not effect how it operates or what sort of relationships are possible within it because group dynamics are the same no matter what size.
As a sociological concept, race refers to...
Physical variations in human beings singles out by members of a community or society as socially significant
As a sociological concept, ethnicity refers to...
Cultural practices and outlooks, including language, history, ancestry, religion, and styles of dress or adornment, that tend to set people apart.
Racism that includes not simply the opinions of a small segment of the population, but systematically pervades all of a society's structures and operations is...
institutional racism
Preconceived opinions or attitudes held by members of one group toward another are defined as...
People who are blamed for things that are not their fault are...
Why has racism flourished in the United States?
White Europeans had traditionally associated white with good and black with bad
In several parts of the former Yugoslavia, certain minority ethnic groups were executed by the majority ethnic group. This is an example of...
When ethnic groups have achieved a distinct but equal status, the society is said to exhibit...
Global migration patterns are a result of the combination of ____, the movement of people into a country; and _____, the movement of people out of a country.
Immigration; Emigration
What is meant by the feminization of migration patterns?
Women migrants have increase in part because of the changes in the global labor market.
When a group takes over the attitudes and languages of the dominant community, they have engaged in....
What are the sociologically defined characteristics of a minority group?
a disadvantaged group
A family of orientation is...
The family into which a person is born
A family of procreation is....
A family a couple initiated through marriage and children
The increase in the number of husbands who stay at home to care for children while their wives pursue careers is embedded within a feminist analysis of the family.
According to sociologists and historians, families of the past...
experienced many of the same problems as today
What is a characteristic of the American workweek in this time of rapid innovation?
Americans are spending more time at work and less time on vacation
The largest group of families today is those in which both the husband and wife work.
What percentage of American children live in a household in which the husband works for pay and the wife stays home with the kids?
25 percent
What advantages do female-headed African American families have over female-headed whit families?
Female-headed African American families have more extended kinship relationships
Which Latino group has more wealth in family business ownership, lower levels of fertility and non marital fertility than other Latinos?
Cuban Americans
What is not a reason people get divorced more frequently?
Violence within the American family...
has parental stress as well as cultural encouragement
What does romantic love provide?
Intrinsic satisfaction
There are no clear cut biological races of human beings.
Ethnic differences are learned behaviors
An individual must be prejudiced in order to discriminate
There are few disparities in terms of the health of members of different racial and ethnic groups in the United States.
Although both individual and institutional racism seems to be declining in the United States, the differences between white and nonwhite ethnic groups are long enduring.
Monogamy is the most common form of marriage in the world as a whoel
The American family of the colonial period was the model of stability, with most marriaes lasting at least 25 years
The most dramatic increase in labor force participation among women after WWII occurred among married women with young children.
Rising divorce rates indicate that people aare increasingly unwilling to remain in an unfulfilling relationship
A continued relationship with both parents following divorce helps children cope better.