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32 terms

earth science

chapter 2
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naturally occurring, solid, orderly crystalline structure, inorganic, well defined chemical composition
5 characteristics of minerals
mineral
any naturally occurring solid that posses and orderly crystalline structure and has a well defined chemical composition
rock
solid mass of minerals
element
substance that cannot be broken down any further
ionic bonds
bonding where electrons are transferred
covalent bonds
bonding where electrons are shared
metallic bonds
bonding where valence electrons are free to mingle about
mineral properties
luster, light transmission, color, streak, habit, tenacity, and hardness
luster
quality of light reflected
opaque
no light transmitted
translucent
light but no image
transparent
light and an image
hardness
resistance to being scratched
cleavage
shape when cut
silicon and oxygen
two main components of minerals
silicate minerals
minerals that are mostly silicon and oxygen
isotope
same protons different neutrons
tenacity
resistance to breaking
light silicates
have no iron or magnesium (non ferromagnesian)
non ferromagnesian
have no iron or magnesium (light silicates)
feldspar
widest mineral group
quartz
entirely silicon and oxygen
muscovite
mica family excellent cleavage
clay
product of weathering
dark silicates
ferromagnesian minerals
olivine group
glass luster conchoidal fracture
small rounded crystals
no cleavage
pyroxene group
complex minerals in the mantel
augite
most common pyroxene mineral
basalt part of the crust
amphibole group
hornblende different from augite because cleaves at 60 and 120 degrees
calcite
reactive version of dolomite
halite
salt
gypsum
plaster