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bio ch 6
Terms in this set (82)
Describe human activities that can affect the biosphere.
agriculture, city development, industrial growth
Describe the relationship between resource use and sustainable development.
resource use will eventually run out, but sustainable development will last forever
Humans and other organisms change the environment when they
obtain food, eliminate wastes, and prepare places to live.
Because Earth is like an island, life is limited to
life is limited to the resources that are here
Humans affect regional and global environments through three major activities:
agriculture, development if cities and suburbs, industrial growth
How does agriculture affect regional and global environments
particularly monoculture, which is the cultivation of a single crop, bc if disease hits then all the crop is bad
How does the development if cities and suburbs affect regional and global environments
including conversion of farmland and destruction of habitats for other organisms
How does industrial growth affect regional and global environments
which consumes energy and emits pollutants
In economic terms, ecosystems are providers of
are providers of goods and services (natural resources).
Healthy ecosystems produce or replace
Humans must be careful about the use of
nonrenewable resources, such as fossil fuels, which cannot be replaced.
provides for human needs while preserving the ecosystems that provide renewable resources
positive consequences of agriculture
provides food and jobs
positive consequences of development
provides jobs and living space
positive consequences of industrial growth
provides jobs and Money
How can development be sustainable?
by giving back to the environment by planting trees, and using renewable resources
if sustainable development is not achieved then the earth will go over its carrying capacity
What will happen if sustainable development is not achieved?
Describe how human activities affect soil and land.
Describe how human activities affect water resources.
mismanaged waste dump
Describe how human activities affect air resources.
Soil is a renewable resource, but it must be managed properly.
is the wearing away of surface soil by water and wind.
In dry climates, farming and overgrazing change farmland into deserts, a process called
is loss of forests. Because healthy forests hold soil in place, deforestation increases erosion.
Sustainable uses of soil include
include leaving stems and roots of previous crops in place, crop rotation, contour plowing, terracing, selectively harvesting mature trees, and tree farms.
The amount of fresh water is limited, and some sources cannot be replaced.
is a harmful material that can enter the biosphere.
come from industrial chemicals, residential sewage, and other sources.
Many chemical pollutants become concentrated in organisms at higher trophic levels of the food chain through
Sustainable uses of freshwater resources include
include conservation, pollution control, and watershed protection.
Clean air is important to human health and Earth's climate.
Pollution reduces air quality.
a mixture of chemicals formed from emissions from cars and industry.
Burning fossil fuels releases compounds that join with water in air, forming
Greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, can cause
cause global warming
are microscopic particles that cause health problems.
One way of sustaining air quality is
is controlling automobile emissions.
What is topsoil
the fertile, upper part of the soil.
How does topsoil form?
long interactions btw soil and the plants growing in it
healthy soil supports both agriculture and the forestry
How does plowing land increase the rate of soil erosion?
strips down the land until only topsoil is left
What happens to farmland during desertification?
erosion, dust storms, unworkable
Are mature forests a renewable resource? Why or why not?
no because they take centuries to regrow
What happens to soil when rain forest is cut down?
good for one year, bad the rest
Describe an example of biological magnification
if a pollutant such as DDT, mercury, or PCB is picked up by an org and is not broken down or eliminated from its body, so when it is eaten the element is transferred at the bottom of the other animal who is eaten, then the top predator receives the largest concentration of that chemical bc he eats a collection of animals that contained it
What is a "dead zone," and what is its cause?
"oxygen poor areas " caused by sewage stimulating blooms of bacteria and algea that rob water of its oxygen
Why is watershed management important to maintaining good water quality in a large river or lake?
Raw sewage also contains microorganisms that can spread disease and harm the environment
what is the name for the mixture of chemicals that forms as a gray-brown haze in the atmosphere?
Which component of acid rain kills plants and harms soil
by damaging the plant's leaves and changing the chemistry of soils and surface water
Which is the name for the bits of ash and dust put into the air by certain kinds of diesel engines?
Which is a pollutant of soil and water that is now dropping steadily due to laws that affected the automobile industry
The sum of all the genetic diversity among all the organisms in the biosphere
three general types of biodiversity:
ecosystem diversity, species diversity, Genetic biodiversity
the variety of habitats, communities, and ecological processes in the biosphere.
the number of different species in an area or in the biosphere.
the total of all genetic information carried in living things.
Biodiversity benefits humans through its
benefits humans through its contributions to medicine and agriculture and through the provision of ecological goods and services.
Human activities threaten biodiversity.
Development splits ecosystems into pieces, resulting in
The smaller the pieces of a habitat,
the less likely that species in the habitat can survive.
Other threats to biodiversity include
hunting, introduced species, pollution, and climate change.
Conservation efforts are focused on three things:
Protecting single species, protecting habitats and ecosystems, considering local interests
is the focus of groups such as the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA), which oversees species survival plans (SSPs).
Protecting single species
Protecting habitats and ecosystems
is the main thrust of global efforts
biologists are particularly concerned about ecological hot spots which are
which are places where significant numbers of habitats and species are in immediate danger of extinction.
Considering local interests
part of developing plans to replace harmful activities with ones that conserve environments and biodiversity.
Why is biodiversity one of Earth's greatest natural resources?
it contributes to medicine and agriculture, and the provision of ecosystem goods and services
The current rate of species loss is 10 times the typical rate of extinction.
false it is 1000 x
The smaller a habitat "island," the larger the number of species that can live there.
false, the fewer
Habitat fragmentation increases the impact of hunting on endangered species.
Endangered species can become invasive and threaten biodiversity.
False, introduced species
The increased concentration of carbon dioxide in air is making oceans more acidic and putting stress on coral reefs.
What are five ways that human activity reduces biodiversity?
altering habitats, hunting, introducing invasive species, releasing pollution into food webs, contributing to climate change
Identify three reasons why endangered species are hunted.
meat, hides, skin, body parts hold medicine
How can introduced species lead to economic losses
no predator causes it to grow and kick the other org out of the area
How does climate change threaten biodiversity?
is org adapted tolerance abiotic conditions change then org move to find a more suitable environment
What is the main purpose of biodiversity conservation today?
to keep it
Why have ecologists identified ecological hot spots?
to make sure that the places biodiversity is most needed in is conserved
What are some of the challenges that conservationists face?
protecting areas that are large enough and that contain the right resources to protect biodiversity, biodiversity causes ppl to change their habits or the way they earn money
What are some strategies that encourage conservation? Provide an example of one of these strategies.
offer tax credits to ppl who "go green", land is a national park which brings in $$$,paying ppl, carbon credits
how to conserve biodiversity
protect individual species, preserve habitats and ecosystems, and make certain that human neighbors of protected areas benefit from participating in conservation efforts
Why is preserving entire ecosystems a better idea than protecting single species from extinction?
bc 1 species doesn't have biodiversity
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