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Psychology: Chapter 11 Personality

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Personality
unique core set of characteristics that influence the way one thinks, acts, and feels
Temperament
distinct patterns of emotional reactions and behaviors observed early in life
Psychoanalytic Perspective
Personality is formed very early in life and is strongly influenced by process of which we are unaware such as internal conflicts, aggression, sexual urges
What does Freud believe the development of personality depends on?
the expression of the unconscious processes and how caregivers respons
ID
most primitive part of the mind, activities of which occur at the unconscious level and are guided but he pleasure principle
EGO
uses the reality principle to manipulate situations, plan for the future, solve problems, and make decisions; negotiates between the ID and the environment.
SUPEREGO
structure of the mind that guides behavior to follow the riles of society, parents, or authority figures
Freud's psychosexual stages
1. Oral stage 2. Anal stage 3. Phallic stage 4. Latency period 5. Genital stage
Oral Stage
Sucking, chewing and gumming. Must overcome weaning in this stage.
Anal Stage
Eliminating waste, control of bodily functions. Must overcome toilet training in this stage.
Phallic Stage
Sexual feelings and self awareness. Must overcome autoeroticism in this stage.
Latency Period
Time where child develops mentally, physically, and emotionally
Genital Stage
Sexuality and focus on relationships. Must overcome sexuality and aggression in this stage
Defense Mechanism
Reduces anxiety caused by conflict between the ID, EGO, and SUPEREGO
Defense Mechanism: Sublimation
redirecting unacceptable impulses into acceptable outlets
Defense Mechanism:Identification
unconsciously modeling our feelings or actions on the behaviors of someone we admire
Defense Mechanism: Displacement
Shifting negative feel ins and impulses to an acceptable target
Defense Mechanism: Repression
anxiety-producing info is pushed into the unconscious
Defense Mechanism: Rationalization
creating an acceptable excuse for an uncomfortable situation
Defense Mechanism: Projection
Attributing your own anxiety-provoking thoughts and impulses to someone else
Defense Mechanism: Denial
refusing to recognize a distressing reality
Neo-Freudian Theorist:Alfred Adler
Humans are not just pleasure seekers, but conscious and intentional in their behavior
Adler's theory of individual psychology
unique strigile with feelings of inferiority
Neo-Freudian Theorist: Carl Jung
Personality is made up of ego,personal unconscious, collective unconscious
Personal Unconscious
The items from your own personal unconscious range. Ranging from easily retrievable to repressed memories.
Collective Unconscious
Universal experiences of human kind passed from generation to generation
Jung's theory of Analytic Psychology
emphasis on positive and spiritual aspects of human nature
Non-Freudian theorist: Karen Horney
emphasized role of relationships between children and their caregivers; thought people dealt with this anxiety by pulling away from people, moving towards people, or moving against people ( control)
Karen Horney's theory of basic anxiety
individuals respond to feelings of helplessness and isolation created by inadequate parenting
Behavioral Perspective
explains how the environment shapes personality and specifically how classical conditioning and reinforcers influence behavior. Observation and modeling also play a role In personality development
Behaviorist Learning Theories
personality is a compilation of collection of behaviors, all of which have been shapes through a lifetime of learning
Rotter's View of Control
Internal and External. Internal locus of control is when one believes the causes of life events reside in ones self. External locus of control is when one believes cause of life events resides outside ones self such as luck.
Humanistic Perspective
We have capabilities we can and should exploit as we strive for personal growth; the choices we make i life influence our personalities the focus is on the positive aspects of human nature
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
A continuum of drives that are universal and ordered in terms of their strength (from basic psychological needs to self transcendence). We respond to need in a similar order but have the ability to make choices in our lives, striving to reach our fullest potential.
Roger's Humanistic Perspective
Self Concept, Ideal Self, Unconditional Positive Regard
Self Concept
knowledge of ones own strengths, abilities, behavioral patterns, and temperament
Ideal Self
the self concept we strive for
Unconditional Positive Regard
total acceptance of a child regardless of behavior
Social-Cognitive Perspective
Emphasizes realtionships, environmental influences, individual behavior, and mental processes that come together to form personality
Bandura's Social Cognitive Perspective
This theory emphasizes cognitions, reinforcers, and environmental factors that will impact and shape personality. Prior experiences will shape personality. Self Efficacy is associated with Bandura
Self-efficacy
our own personal belief about our ability and effectiveness in reaching goals
Biological Perspective
Physiological and genetic factors, including gene-environment reactions, influence personality development; hormones and neuro transmitters influence personality expression
Trait Perspective
Focuses on personality traits and dimensions; theories describe and predict behavior, focusing on the present rather than the past
Train Theories: Allport
created a comprehensive list of vocabulary/terminology used in personality research so when researchers study a topic they all use universal definitions
Train Theories: Cattell
He grouped the personality terminology into two different categories: Surface Traits, Source Traits
Surface Trait
easily observable personality characteristics
Source Trait
foundational qualities that give rise to surface traits; product of both hereditary and environment
Train Theories: Eysenck
Said that we can describe personalities using 3 dimensions: Introversion-Extraversion, neuroticism, psychotocism
Introversion
quiet, careful, enjoys time alone
extroversion
outgoing, active
Character traits of neuroticism from an individual who has high neuroticism to low
restless, moody, excitable->calm,reliable, emotionally stable
Character traits of psychoticism from an individual who has high psychotocism to low
cold, impersonal, antisocial->warm, caring, empathetic
The five factor model
Openness to experience, conscientiousness (organization,details), extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness (easygoing)
Test-Retest Reliability
how consisted results are when the same person is tested multiple times
Interrater Reliability
consistency across people scoring on an assessment
Validity
a valid measure is one that can be shown to measure what it intends to measure
Projective Personality Test
test taker is shown a stimulus with no meaning and then is prompted to respond to it, thus projecting meaning onto it
Strengths of Projective Personality Test
unstructured nature, provokes less rsistance
Limits of Projective Personality Test
problems with reliability because answers are subjected to interpretation
Projective Personality Test Examples
Rorschach Inkblot test, Thematic Apperception test
Objective Personality Test
standard set of questions with previous established answers
Strengths of Objective Personality Test
Scored in a standardized way, free of bias or interpretation
Limits of Objective Personality Test
dishonesty of test takers
Examples of Objective Personality Test
Minnesota Multi-phasic Personality Inventory, Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire