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443 terms

1st Semester Psychology

terms, definitions, old test questions
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consciousness
our awareness of ourselves and our environment
biological rhythms
periodic fluctuations in our bodies physiological states, including annual variations in appetite, 90-minute sleep cycles, the 28-day menstrual cycle, and circadian rhythms.
circadian rhythm
any regular bodily rhythm (body temperature and sleep-wakefulness) that follow a 24-hour cycle
REM sleep
sleep stage in which the brain and eyes are active, muscles are relaxed, and vivid dreaming occurs.
aka: paradoxical sleep
REM is an acronym for what?
rapid eye movement
alpha waves
slow brain waves characteristic of an awake, relaxed state.
occur in awake time into Stage 1 sleep
keyword: awake
sleep
natural, periodic, reversible loss of consciousness on which the body and mind depend on for healthy functioning
hallucinations
false sensory experiences that occur without any sensory stimulus
delta waves
large slow brain waves associated with deep sleep
keyword: "D"eep
occur in Stage 3/4 sleep
insomnia
sleep disorder in which the person regularly has difficulty in falling or staying asleep
narcolepsy
sleep disorder in which the victim suffers sudden, uncontrollable sleep attacks, often characterized by entry directly into REM sleep
sleep apnea
sleep disorder in which the person ceases breaking while asleep, briefly arouses to gasp for air, falls back asleep, and repeats this cycle throughout the night.
night terrors
person experiences episodes of high arousal with apparent terror. usually occur during stage 4 sleep.
dreams
vivid sequences of images, emotions, and thoughts, the most vivid of which occur during REM sleep.
manifest content
remembered story line. obvious.
latent content
underlying but censored meaning of a dream. he mains hidden until its symbolism is interpreted
REM rebound
tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation
hypnosis
social interaction in which one person (hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
posthypnotic suggestion
suggestion made during a hypnosis session that is to be carried out when the subject is no longer hypnotized
dissociation
split between different levels of consciousness, allowing a person to divide attention between two or more thoughts
psychoactive drugs
chemical substances that alter mood and perception. they work by affecting or mimicking the activity of neurotransmitters.
includes: stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens
tolerance
diminishing of a psychoactive drug's effect that occurs with repeated use, requiring progressively larger doses in order to produce the same effect
withdrawal
refers to the discomfort and distress that follow the discontinued use of addictive drugs
physical dependence
physiological need for a drug that is indicated by the present of withdrawal symptoms when the drug is not taken
psychological dependence
psychological need to use a drug
addiction
compulsive craving for a drug despite adverse consequences and withdrawal symptoms
depressants
psychoactive drugs that reduce neural activity and slow body functions
example: alcohol, opiates, and barbiturates
opiates
depressants derived from the opium poppy, that reduce neural activity and temporarily lessen pain and anxiety
example: opium, morphine, and heroin
barbiturates
depressants sometimes used to induce sleep or reduce anxiety
stimulants
psychoactive drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
example: caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, and cocaine
amphetamines
type of stimulant that speed up body functions and neural activity
methamphetamine
powerfully addictive stimulant that speeds up body functions and is associated with energy and mood changes
ie: "speed"
Ecstasy (MDMA)
both a (synthetic) stimulant and a mild hallucinogen. Produces short-term euphoria by increasing serotonin levels in the brain. Repeated use may permanently damage serotonin neurons, suppress immunity and disrupt cognition
hallucinogens
psychoactive drugs that distort perception and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input.
example: LSD and marijuana
LSD (lysergiv acid diethylamide)
powerful hallucinogen capable of producing vivid false perceptions and disorganization of thought processes. Produces unpredictable effects because it blocks the action of the neurotransmitter serotonin
THC
major active ingredient in marijuana. Classified as a mild hallucinogen
near-death experience
altered state of consciousness that has been reported by some people who have had a close brush with death.
dualism
philosophical belief that the mind and body are distinct entities- the mind non-physical and the body physical
monism
philosophical belief that the mind and body are different aspects of the same thing.
melatonin
sleep inducing hormone
adenosine
neurotransmitter that inhibits certain neurons making us sleepy
sleep spindles
bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain wave activity.
occur in Stage 2 sleep.
lucid dreams
aware during a dream to question whether or not we are intact actually dreaming
activation-synthesis theory
neural activity is random and dreams are the brain's attempt to make sense of it.
physiological function
dreams/REM provide sleeping brain with periodic stimulation (help develop and preserve neural pathways)
hypnotic ability
the ability to focus attention totally on a task to become imaginatively absorbed in it to entertain fanciful possibilities
age regression
supposed ability to relive childhood experiences
social influence theory
contends that hypnotic phenomena are not unique to hypnosis
cocaine
stimulant; rush of euphoria, confidence, and energy
cons- cardiovascular stress, suspiciousness, depressive crash
acid trip
perceiving uninterrupted stream of fantastic pictures, extraordinary shapes with intense, kaleidoscopic play of colors.
marijuana
mild hallucinogen; relaxes, disinhibits, and may produce euphoric high like alcohol PLUS amplifying sensitivity to colors, sounds, tastes, and smell.
cons- impaired learning and memory, increased risk of psychological disorders, lung damage.
heroin
depressant; rush of euphoria, relief from pain.
cons- depressed physiologically, agonizing withdrawal
caffeine
stimulant; increased alertness and wakefulness
cons- anxiety, restlessness, insomnia. uncomfortable withdrawal
nicotine
stimulant; arousal and relaxation, sense of well-being
cons- heart disease, cancer
alcohol
depressant; initial high followed by relaxation and disinhibition
cons- depression, memory loss, organ damage, impaired reactions
mind and body are distinct and seperable
socrates, plato and descartes believed that:
wundt; 1879
the first psychology laboratory was established by _____ in the year ______.
empiricism
the ideas of francis bacon provided an impetus for what came to be known as:
philosophy and biology
two historical roots of psychology are the disciplines of:
edward titchener
used the method of introspection to scientifically identify basic elements of mind
structuralism
early school of psychology that employed the method of introspection was known as:
functionalist
william james was a prominent american
healthy growth potential
humanistic psychologists focused attention on the importance of:
nature versus nurture
arguments as to whether psychological differences between men and women result from biological or social influences most clearly involves a debate over the issue of:
any action we can observe and record
in psychology "behavior" is best defined as:
edward titchener
who introduced the early school of structuralism
mary calkins
who was a student of william james and the first female president of the american psychological association
John B. Watson
who would be most likely to agree with the statement, "psychology should investigate only behaviors that can be observed"?
learning
ivan pavlov pioneered the study of:
different levels of analysis in exploring behavior and mental processes
biopsychosocial approach emphasizes the importance of:
nurture works on what nature endows
in concluding her report on the "nature-nurture debate in contemporary psychology," karen notes that:
psychodynamic
focusing on the extent to which personality is influenced by motives outside one's own awareness is most relevant to the _____ perspective.
behavior genetics
psychologists who study the degree to which genes influence our personality are working from the ____ perspective.
charles darwin
highlighted the reproductive advantages of environmentally adaptive traits
cognitive
the way the mind encodes, processes, stores, and retrieves information is the primary concern of the ____ perspective
personality psychologist
dr. aswad is studying peoples enduring inner traits. dr. aswad is most likely a(n):
introspection
research participants who carefully observe and report their immediate reactions and feelings in response to different musical sounds are using the method known as:
nurture; nature
the philosophical views of John Locke are to those of Rene Descartes as _____ is to _______.
behavioral
the psychological perspective that places the most emphasis on how observable responses are learned is the ______ perspective
neuroscience
professor lopez believes that severe depression results primarily from an imbalanced diet and abnormal brain chemistry. professor lopez favors a _____ perspective on depression.
behavioral
mrs. thompson believes that her son has become an excellent student because she consistently uses praise and affection to stimulate his learning efforts. her belief best illustrates a ____ perspective
psychodynamic
a clinical psychologist who explains behavior in terms of unconscious drives and conflicts is employing a _____ perspective
social-cultural
Dr. Kozak has concluded that the unusually low incidence of alcoholism among citizens of a small african country can be attributed to strong fundamentalistic religious influences in that region. This belief best illustrates a ____ perspective
developmental
Dr. Santaniello conducts basic research on how children's moral thinking changes as they grow older. it is most likely that dr. santaniello is a_____ psychologist
clinical psychology
which professional specialty focuses on the diagonosis and treatment of people with psychological disorders?
psychiatrist
specialist that is most likely to have a medical degree is a(n):
industrial/organizational
Dr. Lipka is involved in an applied research study of customer satisfaction with a newly developed line of facial cosmetics and other beauty aids. Dr. Lipka is most likely a(n) ____ psychologist
the scientific study of behaviors and mental processes
write the definition of psychology as written in your text book
every psychological event is simultaneously a biological event
write the important sentence from page 10 about the relationship of psychology and biology
events seem more predictable after they have occurred
which of the following best describes the hindsight bias?
researchers must be prepared to reject their own ideas in the face of conflicting evidence
the scientific attitude of humility is based on the idea that:
correlation does not prove causation
Mr. Brown has gathered evidence that the self-esteem of students is negatively correlated with their typical levels of anxiety. Before he uses this evidence to conclude that self-esteem reduces anxiety, Mr. Brown should first be reminded that:
ideas need to be tested against observable evidence
the scientific attitude of skepticism is based on the belief that:
theory; hypothesis
You decide to test your belief that men drink more soft drinks than women by finding out whether more soft drinks are consumed per day in the men's dorm than in the women's dorm. Your belief is a(n) ______, and your research prediction is a(n) _______.
operational definitions
to ensure that other researchers can repeat their work, psychologists use:
the sample will probably not be representative of the population of interest
your roommate is conducting a survey to learn how many hours the typical college student studies each day. She plans to pass out her questionnaire to the members of her sorority. You point out that her findings will be flawed because:
case study
which type of research would allow you to determine whether students; college grades accurately predict later income?
correlational
In a study of factors that might affect memory, research participants were assigned to drink either an alcoholic or a non alcoholic beverage prior to completing a memory test. Those who drank the nonalcoholic beverage participated in the ____ condition.
falsely perceive a relationship between two events when none exists
one reason researchers base their findings on representative samples is to avoid the false consensus effect, which refers to our tendency to:
from an alphabetical listing of all students, every tenth (or fifteenth) student should be asked to complete the questionnaire
A professor constructs a questionnaire to determine how students at the university feel about nuclear disarmament. Which of the following techniques should be used in order to survey a random sample of the student body?
a. every student should be sent the questionnaire
b. only students majoring in psychology should be asked to complete the questionnaire
c. only students living on campus should be asked to complete the questionnaire
d. from an alphabetical listing of all students, every tenth (or fifteenth) student should be asked to complete the questionnaire
people with small feet tend to have high IQs
if shoe size and IQ are negatively correlated, which of the following is true?
a. people with large feet tend to have high IQs
b.people with small feet tend to have high IQs
c. people with small feet tend to have low IQs
d. IQ is unpredictable based on a person's shoe size
illusory correlation
Joe believes that his basketball game is always best when he wears his old gray athletic socks. Joe is victim of the phenomenon called:
double blind procedure
to prevent the possibility that a placebo effect or researchers' expectations will influence a study's results, scientists employ:
the room lighting
In order to study the effects of lighting on mood, Dr. Cooper had students fill out questionnaires in brightly lit or dimly lit rooms. In this study the independent variable consisted of:
a. the number of students assigned to each group
b. the students' responses to the questionnaire
c. the room lighting
d. the subject matter of the questions asked
hindsight bias
according to emily's grandfather, Adolf Hitler's obvious emotional instability made it clear from the beginning days of his international conflicts that Germany would inevitably lose WWII. The grandfather's claim best illustrates:
operational definition
specification of how a researcher measures a research variable is known as a(n):
overconfidence
most likely to inhibit critical thinking
illusory correlations
tendency to notice and remember instances in which our premonitions of disaster are subsequently followed by harmful events is most likely to contribute to:
predictions
hypotheses are best described as:
population
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others agree with us
random sampling
In order to assess reactions to a proposed tuition hike at her college, Ariana sent a questionnaire to every fifteenth person in the college registrar's alphabetical listing of all currently enrolled students. Ariana employed the technique of:
critical thinking
when you question whether anecdotal evidence can be generalized to all people, you are applying:
a theory
according to professor Fayad, we like people who like us because their affection for us boosts our own self-esteem. His idea is an example of:
naturalistic observation
In order to study the development of relationships, Dr. Rajiv carefully observed and recorded patterns of verbal and nonverbal behaviors among men and women in singles bars. Which research method did Dr. Rajiv employ?
biopsychosocial
To fully appreciate the interaction of neural activity, mental processes, and the functioning of human communites it is most necessary to recognize peole are?
Biological
Dr. Wolski does research on the potentail relationship between neurotransmitter deficiencies and mood states. Which psychological speciality does Dr. Wolski's research best represent?
An extension of a neuron that carries information away from the cell body
An axon is?
Dendrites, to the cell body, to the axon
In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal travels from the ____ of a single neuron.
Ions
An action potential is generated by the movement of?
Polarization, depolarization
Resting potential is to action to potential as ____ is to ______.
Reabsorbtion
Reuptake refers to the?
Acetycholine
Transferring messages from a motor neuron to a leg muscle requires the neurotransmitter know as?
Frontal Lobes
Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in speaking?
Frontal lobe
Which portion of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in making plans and formulation judgements?
Brain stem
Which region of the brain appears to have the oldest evolutionary history?
corpus callosum
a wide band of axon fibers that transmits info between hemispheres?
Sensory cortex
Which part of your brain recieves information as to whether you are moving your legs?
Temporal, Parietal
The sense of hearing is to the ____ lobes as the sense of touch is to the _____ lobes.
Visiual perception
The surgical removal of a large tumor from Dane's occipital lobe resulted in the extensive loss of brain tissue. Dane is most likely to suffer some loss of?
cerebellum
after suffering an accidental brain injury, kira has difficulty walking in a smooth and coordinated manner. It is most probable that she has suffered damage to her:
Behavior genetics
The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and enviromental influences on behavior and personality traits is known as?
Synapses
the spatial junctions where impulses are chemically transmitted from one neuron to another are called:
Thalumus
brain structure replays information from the eyes to the visual cortex
Behaviorism
The school of thought in psychology that systematically avoided the study of conciousness during the first half of the last century was:
Biological rhythm
Those who emphasized that mood fluctuations may be indicative of seasonal affective disorder are highlighting the importance of:
regular body cycles that occur on a 24-hour schedule
Circadian rhythm refers to:
melatonin
bright light inhibits our feelings of sleepiness by influencing the production of:
Alpha waves
Jordanna has decided to go to bed early. Although her eyes are closed and she's very relaxed, she has not fallen asleep. An EEG is most likely to indicate the presence of :
90 minutes
The human sleep cycle repeats itself about every:
Dissociation
the divided consciousness theory of hypnosis states that hypnosis involves:
Age Regression
Under hypnosis, Mrs. Mohammed is encouraged by her therapist to vividly experience and describe the details of an argument she had with her father when she was a child. The therapist is employing a technique called:
Psychoactive
Chemical substances that alter perceptions and moods are called _____ drugs.
Tolerance
The need to take larger and larger doses of a drug in order to experience its effects is and indication of:
Withdrawl
The discomfort and distress that follow the discontinued use of certian drugs is called:
decrease self awareness and feelings of guilt
Alcohol consumption tends to:
endorphins, epinephrine
opiates resemble______ and amphetamines resemble the neurotransmitter _______.
neuron
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
dendrite
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receiv messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
axon
extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
myelin sheath
layer of fatty tissure segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables faster transmissions of neural impulses
action potential
neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
threshold
level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
synapse
junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron.
neurotransmitters
chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons
acetylcholine
neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and also triggers muscle contraction
endorphins
"morphine within"- natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
nervous system
body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous system
central nervous system
the brain and the spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body
nerves
neural "cables" containing many axons
sensory neurons
neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system
motor neurons
neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands
interneurons
central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
somatic nervous system
division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles' skeletal nervous system
autonomic nervous system
part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs; sympathetic, parasympathetic
sympathetic nervous system
division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
parasympathetic system
division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
reflex
simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response
neural networks
interconnected neural cells
endocrine system
body's "slow" chemical communication system; set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
hormones
chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another
adrenal glands
pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys; secretes adrenaline and arouses body in times of stress
pituitary gland
endocrine system's most influential gland; regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
lesion
tissue destruction
brainstem
oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skills; survival functions
medulla
base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
reticular formation
nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
thalamus
brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem
cerebellum
"little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; movement output and balance
limbic system
doughnut-shaped system of neural structures associated with emotions such as fear and aggression, and drives such as those for food and sex
amygdala
two lima bean-sized neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion
hypothalamus
neural structure that maintains activities (eating, drinkin, body temperature)
cerebral cortex
intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres
glial cells
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons
frontal lobes
portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements; personality, judgements
parietal lobe
portion off the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; touch and body position
occipital lobe
portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; visual areas
temporal lobes
portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; auditory areas
motor cortex
area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
sensory cortex
area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
association areas
areas of the cerebral cortex not involved in primary motro or sensory functions
aphasia
impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area or Wernicke's area
Broca's area
controls language expression
Wernicke's area
controls language reception
plasticity
brain's capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage
corpus callusum
large band of neural fibers connecting two brain hemispheres and carrying mesages between them
split brain
condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers between them
exaggerate their ability to have forseen the outcome of past events
The Hindsight Bias refers to people's tendency to
operational definitions
The process of replication is most likely to be facilitated by
population
In order to learn about the political attitudes of all students enrolled at Arizona State University, Professor Marlow randomly selected 800 of these students to complete a questionnaire. In this instance, all the students enrolled at Arizona State are considered to be a
population
In order to learn about the TV viewing habits of all the childern attending Oakbridge School, Professor DeVries randomly selected and interviewed 50 of the schools students. In this instance, all the children attending the school are considered to be a
naturalistic observation
In order to study the development of relationships, Dr.Rajiv carefully observed and recorded patterns of verbal and non-verbal behaviors among men and women in singles bars. Which research method did Dr.Rajiv employ?
correlation coefficients
Which of the folowing statistical measures is most helpful for indicating the extent to which high school grades predict college grades?
-0.67
Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the weakest degree of relationship between the two variables?
a. +0.10
b. -0.67
c. 0.00
d. -0.10
e. +0.59
students scores tended to be very similar to one another
Professor Woo noticed that the distribution of student's scores on her last biology class had an extremely small standard deviation. This indicates that the
2
On a 10-item test three students in Proffesor Hsin's advanced chemisty seminar, two students received score of 4 and one student received a score of 8. For this distribution of test scores, the standard deviation is equal to the square root of
far outweighed by gender similarities
Psychological differences between the genders are
Dendrites to the cell body to the axon
In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal travels from the ______ of a single neuron
action potential
brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron is called the:
action potential
The depolarization of a neural membrane can create a(n)
initiation of neural impulses
An all or none response pattern is characteristic of the
muscular paralysis
When the release of ACh is blocked the result is,
interneurons
The peripheral nervous system is to sensory neurons as the central nervous system is to
peripheral nervous system
Motor neurons are an important part of the
sympathetic nervous system
When Mr.Valdez thought his 1 year old daughter had fallen down the stairs his hearbeat accelerated, his blood pressure rose, and he began to perspire heavily. Mr Valdez's state of arousal was activated by his____ nervous system.
spinal cord
The knee-jerk reaction reflex is controlled by interneurons in the
interconnected clusters of neurons in the central nervous system
Neural networks refer to
the bloodstream
Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into
hormones
The chemical messengers of the endocrine system are called
MRI
The best way to detect enlarged fluid-filled brain regionsin some patients who have schizophrenia is to use a
PET scan
The concentration of glucose in active regions of the brain underlies the usefulness of a
medulla
Your life would be most immediatly threatened if you suffered the destruction of the
association areas
The process of anticipationg the you will be punished for misbehaving takes place within the
REM sleep
At 3 o'clock in the morning, John has already slept for 4 hours. As long as his sleep continues we can expect an increasing occurrence of
viral infections
Terry has not had a decent night of sleep in over a week. If this sleep deprivation continues, he will become increasingly susceptible to
drink a glass of wine 15 minutes before bedtime
what is bad advice for a person trying to overcome insomnia?
posthypnotic suggestion
While Bev was hyptonized, her therapist suggested that during the next several days she would have a strong desire to eat well balanced meals. The therapist was apparently making use of
in large doses it is a depressent, in small doses it a depressant.
Which of is true of alchohal
self conscious
Alcohol consumption is least likely to make people more
sensory adaptation
After listening to your high-volumne car stereo for 15 minutes, you fail to realize how loudly the music is blasting. This best illustrates
perceiving order in coincidental events
he King James Version of the Bible was completed when William Shakespeare was forty-six years old. In Psalm 46 of this translation, the forty-sixth word is "shake," and the forty-sixth word from the end is "spear." Before concluding that the biblical translators were trying to be humorous with these specific word placements, you would be best advised to recognize the danger of:
A. considering these facts as statistically significant.
B. randomly sampling biblical passages.
C. generalizing from extreme examples.
D. assuming that most people share your opinions.
E. perceiving order in coincidental events.
an experiment
in a test of the effects of sleep deprivation on problem- solving skills, research participants are allowed to sleep either 4 or 8 hours on each of three consecutive nights. this research is an example of:
independent variable
in an experiment to determine the effects of exercise on motivation, exercise is the:
double blind procedure
both the researchers and the participants in a memory study are ignorant about which participants have actually received a potentially memory- enhancing drug and which have received a placebo. this investigation involves the use of:
10,000
in a group of 5 individuals, two report annual incomes of $10,000, and the other three report incomes of $14,000, $15,000, $31,000, respectively. The mode of this group's distribution of annual incomes is:
9
during the past year, Zara and Ivan each read 2 books, but George read 9, Ali read 12, and Marsha read 25. The median number of books read by these individuals was:
random assignment
to assess the effect of televised violence on aggression, researchers plan to expose one group of children to violent movie scenes and another group to nonviolent scenes. In order to reduce the chance that the children in one group have more aggressive personalities than those in the other group, the researchers should make use of:
mean
When Mr. Adams calculated his students' algebra test scores, he noticed that two students had extremely low scores. Which measure of central tendency is affected most by the scores of these two students?
14
during the last Central High School basketball game, the starting five players scored 11, 7, 21. 14, and 7 points, respectively. For this distribution of scores, the range is:
the false consensus effect
an awareness of extensive cultural differences in attitudes and values is most helpful for avoiding:
the difference is not likely to be due to chance variation
when the difference between two groups is "statistically significant," this means that:
a. the difference is statistically real but of little practical significance
b. the difference is probably the result of sampling variation
c. the difference is not likely to be due to chance variation
d. all of the above are true.
can bias both scientific observation and interpretation of data
psychologists personal values:
a. have little influence on how their experiments are conducted
b. do not influence the interpretation of experimental results because of the use of statistical techniques that guard against subjective bias
c. can bias both scientific observation and interpretation of data
d. have little influence on investigative methods but a significant effect on interpretation
explain the research to the participants after the study has been completed
the American Psychological Association and British Psychological Society have developed ethical principles urging investigators to:
exaggerate their ability to have forseen the outcome of past events
The Hindsight Bias refers to people's tendency to
operational definitions
The process of replication is most likely to be facilitated by
population
In order to learn about the political attitudes of all students enrolled at Arizona State University, Professor Marlow randomly selected 800 of these students to complete a questionnaire. In this instance, all the students enrolled at Arizona State are considered to be a
population
In order to learn about the TV viewing habits of all the childern attending Oakbridge School, Professor DeVries randomly selected and interviewed 50 of the schools students. In this instance, all the children attending the school are considered to be a
naturalistic observation
In order to study the development of relationships, Dr.Rajiv carefully observed and recorded patterns of verbal and non-verbal behaviors among men and women in singles bars. Which research method did Dr.Rajiv employ?
correlation coefficients
Which of the folowing statistical measures is most helpful for indicating the extent to which high school grades predict college grades?
-0.67
Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the weakest degree of relationship between the two variables?
a. +0.10
b. -0.67
c. 0.00
d. -0.10
e. +0.59
students scores tended to be very similar to one another
Professor Woo noticed that the distribution of student's scores on her last biology class had an extremely small standard deviation. This indicates that the
2
On a 10-item test three students in Proffesor Hsin's advanced chemisty seminar, two students received score of 4 and one student received a score of 8. For this distribution of test scores, the standard deviation is equal to the square root of
far outweighed by gender similarities
Psychological differences between the genders are
Dendrites to the cell body to the axon
In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal travels from the ______ of a single neuron
action potential
brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron is called the:
action potential
The depolarization of a neural membrane can create a(n)
initiation of neural impulses
An all or none response pattern is characteristic of the
muscular paralysis
When the release of ACh is blocked the result is,
interneurons
The peripheral nervous system is to sensory neurons as the central nervous system is to
peripheral nervous system
Motor neurons are an important part of the
sympathetic nervous system
When Mr.Valdez thought his 1 year old daughter had fallen down the stairs his hearbeat accelerated, his blood pressure rose, and he began to perspire heavily. Mr Valdez's state of arousal was activated by his____ nervous system.
spinal cord
The knee-jerk reaction reflex is controlled by interneurons in the
interconnected clusters of neurons in the central nervous system
Neural networks refer to
the bloodstream
Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into
hormones
The chemical messengers of the endocrine system are called
MRI
The best way to detect enlarged fluid-filled brain regionsin some patients who have schizophrenia is to use a
PET scan
The concentration of glucose in active regions of the brain underlies the usefulness of a
medulla
Your life would be most immediatly threatened if you suffered the destruction of the
association areas
The process of anticipationg the you will be punished for misbehaving takes place within the
REM sleep
At 3 o'clock in the morning, John has already slept for 4 hours. As long as his sleep continues we can expect an increasing occurrence of
viral infections
Terry has not had a decent night of sleep in over a week. If this sleep deprivation continues, he will become increasingly susceptible to
drink a glass of wine 15 minutes before bedtime
what is bad advice for a person trying to overcome insomnia?
posthypnotic suggestion
While Bev was hyptonized, her therapist suggested that during the next several days she would have a strong desire to eat well balanced meals. The therapist was apparently making use of
in large doses it is a depressent, in small doses it a depressant.
Which of is true of alchohal
self conscious
Alcohol consumption is least likely to make people more
sensory adaptation
After listening to your high-volumne car stereo for 15 minutes, you fail to realize how loudly the music is blasting. This best illustrates
perceiving order in coincidental events
he King James Version of the Bible was completed when William Shakespeare was forty-six years old. In Psalm 46 of this translation, the forty-sixth word is "shake," and the forty-sixth word from the end is "spear." Before concluding that the biblical translators were trying to be humorous with these specific word placements, you would be best advised to recognize the danger of:
A. considering these facts as statistically significant.
B. randomly sampling biblical passages.
C. generalizing from extreme examples.
D. assuming that most people share your opinions.
E. perceiving order in coincidental events.
an experiment
in a test of the effects of sleep deprivation on problem- solving skills, research participants are allowed to sleep either 4 or 8 hours on each of three consecutive nights. this research is an example of:
independent variable
in an experiment to determine the effects of exercise on motivation, exercise is the:
double blind procedure
both the researchers and the participants in a memory study are ignorant about which participants have actually received a potentially memory- enhancing drug and which have received a placebo. this investigation involves the use of:
10,000
in a group of 5 individuals, two report annual incomes of $10,000, and the other three report incomes of $14,000, $15,000, $31,000, respectively. The mode of this group's distribution of annual incomes is:
9
during the past year, Zara and Ivan each read 2 books, but George read 9, Ali read 12, and Marsha read 25. The median number of books read by these individuals was:
random assignment
to assess the effect of televised violence on aggression, researchers plan to expose one group of children to violent movie scenes and another group to nonviolent scenes. In order to reduce the chance that the children in one group have more aggressive personalities than those in the other group, the researchers should make use of:
mean
When Mr. Adams calculated his students' algebra test scores, he noticed that two students had extremely low scores. Which measure of central tendency is affected most by the scores of these two students?
14
during the last Central High School basketball game, the starting five players scored 11, 7, 21. 14, and 7 points, respectively. For this distribution of scores, the range is:
the false consensus effect
an awareness of extensive cultural differences in attitudes and values is most helpful for avoiding:
the difference is not likely to be due to chance variation
when the difference between two groups is "statistically significant," this means that:
a. the difference is statistically real but of little practical significance
b. the difference is probably the result of sampling variation
c. the difference is not likely to be due to chance variation
d. all of the above are true.
can bias both scientific observation and interpretation of data
psychologists personal values:
a. have little influence on how their experiments are conducted
b. do not influence the interpretation of experimental results because of the use of statistical techniques that guard against subjective bias
c. can bias both scientific observation and interpretation of data
d. have little influence on investigative methods but a significant effect on interpretation
explain the research to the participants after the study has been completed
the American Psychological Association and British Psychological Society have developed ethical principles urging investigators to:
biological psychology
Professor Seif conducts research on the relationship between the limbic system and sexual motivation. Her research interests best represent the psychological specialty known as:
myelin sheath
The speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased by a(n):
myelin sheath
the slowdown of neural communication in multiple sclerosis involves a degeneration of the:
endorphins
opiate drugs occupy the same receptor sites as:
motor neurons
in order for you to be able to run, _______ must relay messages from your central nervous system to your leg muscles.
sympathetic nervous system
Your brother has been taking prescription medicine and experiencing a number of unpleasant side effects, including unusually rapid heartbeat and excessive perspiration. It is likely that he medicine is exaggerating activity in the:
somatic nervous system
voluntary movements, such as writing with a pencil, are directed by the:
under the influence of heroin the brain ceases production of endorphins.
the pain of heroin withdrawal may be attributable to he fact that:
mimic (a particular neurotransmitter)
the effect of a drug that is an agonist is to:
excess dopamine activity
patients who suffer from schizophrenia have been found to have ___________.
adrenal glands
epinephrine and norepinephrine are released by the:
pituitary
which endocrine gland regulates body growth?
PET scan
the concentration of glucose in active regina of the brain underlies the usefulness of a(n):
lapse into a coma
severing a cat's reticular formation from higher regions causes the cat to:
breathing, walking
the medulla is to the control of _______ as the cerebellum is to the control of _______.
hypothalamus
the brain structure that provides a major link between the nervous system and the endocrine system is the:
hypothalamus
if Dr. Rogers wishes to conduct an experiment on the effects of stimulating the reward centers of a rat's brain, he should insert an electrode into theL
hippocampus
the limbic system structure which processes new memories of facts and episodes is the _____.
alcoholism
research has suggested that a reward deficiency syndrome may contribute to:
broca's area
the part of the cerebral cortex that directs the muscle movements involved in speech is
plasticity
the capacity of one brain area to take over the functions of another damaged brain area is known as brain:
frontal lobe
following a nail gun wound to his head, jack became more uninhibited, irritable, dishonest, and profane. It is likely that his personality change was the result of injury to his:
frontal
this lobe coordinates messages from other lobes, permits and anticipates goal directed behavior and is linked to emotional control and temperament.
temporal
an area on the underside of the right_____ lobe enables us to recognize faces, whereas the left hemisphere of this lobe allows us to recognize the person's name.
parietal
the left and right ______ lobes enable mathematical and spacial reasoning
reticular formation
a network of neurons in the brainstem whose function is to alert and arouse higher parts of the brain
medulla
regulates heart and breathing
cerebellum
coordinates movement and balance as well as processing sensory input
amygdala
part of the limbic system that influences aggression and fear
EEG
in order to monitor electrical activity in the brain that is triggered by hearing one's own name, researchers would make use of an:
brainstem
reticular formation is located in the:
hypothalamus
the limbic system structure that regulates hunger is called the
hypothalamus
the brain structure that provides a major link between the nervous system and the endocrine system is the
limbic system
addictive drug cravings are likely to be associated with reward centers in the
hypothalamus
the part of the limbic system that plays an essential role in the formation of new memories is the _____
fMRI
the imaging technique that allows us to see areas of activity in the brain during various thinking activities without using radioactive material is_____
polarized with positively charged ions outside and negatively charged ions inside.
in a resting state, the axon is:
increases the speed of neural transmission
the myelin sheath that is on some neurons:
neurotransmitters
the chemical messengers released into the spatial junctions between neurons are called:
endorphins
opiate drugs occupy the same receptor sites as:
threshold
the level of neural impulse must exceed to cause a neuron to finer is called the _____
nervous system
the body's speedy, electrochemical information system is called the:
synaptic gaps
drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin will thereby increase the concentration of serotonin molecules in the:
ACh antagonist
botox injections smooth facial wrinkles because botulin is a(n):
low, low
depressed mood states are linked to ____ levels of serotonin and ____ levels of norepinephrine
dopamine
the tremors of parkinson's disease result from the death of nerve cells that produce
axons
nerves are neural cables containing many
interneurons
information travels from the spinal cord to the brain via:
motor neurons
in order for you to be able to run, _____ must relay messages from your central nervous system to your leg muscles
sensory neurons
in order for you to experience the pain of a sprained ankle, ______ must first relay messages from your ankle to your central nervous system
peripheral
the somatic nervous system is a component of the ____ nervous system
neural networks
the strengthening of synaptic connections facilitates the formation of
endocrine system
hormones are the chemical messengers of the:
epinephrine
if a professor accused you of cheating on a test, your adrenal glands would probably release _____ into your bloodstream,
norepinephrine
which chemical messenger is both a neurotransmitter and a hormone?
raises, dilates
in stressful situations, the sympathetic nervous system _______ blood sugar levels and ___ the pupils of the eyes.
melatonin
when light strikes the retina, it signals the superachiasmatic nucleus to alter ___ production by the pineal gland
awake and relaxed
a person who's EEG shows high proportion of alpha waves is most likely:
delta waves
the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep are called;
state 4
sleepwalking is most likely to be associated with ____ sleep
serial
conscious processing is _______
parallel
unconscious processing is _______
stage 2
sleep spindles predominate during which stage of sleep?
the bodes muscles remain relaxed while the brain and eyes are active
REM sleep is referred to as paradoxical sleep because:
adenosine
this inhibitory neurotransmitter increases throughout the day making us feel tired in the evening
would report a vivid dream if he were awakened during REM sleep
Forty-year-old Lance insisted that he never dreams. Research suggests that he probably:
sleep apnea
Mr. Dayton occasionally stopes breathing while sleeping. He wakes up to snort air for a few seconds before falling back to sleep. Mrs. Dayton complains that her husband snores. Clearly, Mr. Dayton duffers from:
night terrors
About three hours after he falls asleep, Bobby often sits up in bed screaming incoherently. His mother tries to awaken him, but with no success. His pulse races and he gasps for breath. The next morning, he remembers nothing. It appears that Bobby suffers from:
suppression of immune system
altered metabolic and hormonal functioning
impaired creativity
the effects of chronic sleep deprivation include:
serial processing; parallel processing
consciousness is to unconsciousness as ____ is to ________
superachiasmatic nucleus
the cluster of brain cells that control the circadian rhythm is the:
awake and relaxed
a person whose EEG shows a high proportion of alpha waves is most likely:
have very relaxed muscles
after sleeping for about an hour and a half, Jose enters a phase of paradoxical sleep. He is likely to:
relax and drink a glass of milk before bedtime
what is the best advice for a person concerned about occasional insomnia?
REM sleep; state 4 sleep
nightmares are to ______ as night terrors are to ________
is in REM sleep
a PET scan of a sleeping persons brain reveals increased activity in the visual and auditory areas. this most likely indicates that the sleeper:
latent
Jill dreams that she trips and falls as she walks up the steps to the stage to receive her college diploma. Her psychoanalyst suggests that the dream might symbolize her fear of moving on to the next stage of her life—a career. The analyst is evidently attempting to interpret the ________ content of Jill's dream.
the brain's efforts to integrate unrelated bursts of activity in visual brain areas with the emotional tone provided by limbic system activity.
According to the activation-synthesis theory, dreaming represents:
REM rebound
REM sleep deprivation results in a _______
nicotine
which of the following drugs is classified as a stimulant?
a. marijuana
b. morphine
c. alcohol
d. nicotine
e. LSD
cocaine
a brief 15-30 minute rush of euphoria followed by a crash of agitated depression is most closely associated with the use of:
Ecstasy
which of the following is an amphetamine derivative that acts as a mild hallucinogen?
a. marijuana
b. Nembutal
c. Ecstasy
d. heroin
e. LSD
LSD
an altered state of consciousness in which people experience fantastic images and often feel separated from their bodies is most closely associated with the use of:
marijuana; hallucinogen
THC, the active ingredient in _____, is classified as a ________
peer influence
which of the following is usually the most powerful determinant of whether teenagers begin using drugs?
a. family strength
b. religiosity
c. school adjustment
d. peer influence
frontal lobe, cerebellum, medulla
what is the chronological sequence in which brain centers are affected by alcohol?
hypothalamus
part of the brain that contains our biological clock, reward center, monitors body temp and hormonal levels is the ______
meditation, yoga, exercise, and adequate sleep
without taking drugs, humans are able to modify body chemistry and enhance moods through______
dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine
euphoric rush of cocaine blocks the reuptake at the synapses of what neurotransmitters?
cannon-bard theory
which theory of emotion emphasizes the simultaneous experience of body response and emotional feeling?
physical arousal and cognitive label
schachter's two factory theory emphasizes that emotion involves both:
two factory theory
after hitting a grand slam home run mike noticed that his heart was bounding. Later that evening, after nearly having a collision while driving on the freeway, mike again noticed that his heart was bounding. That he interpreted this reaction as fear rather than ecstasy can best be explained by:
parasympathetic division
after brenda scolded her brother for forgetting to pick her up from school the physical arousal that had accompanied her anger diminished. which division of her nervous system mediated her physical relaxation?
epinephrine and norepinephrine; adrenal
the body's response to danger is triggered by a release of _____ by the _____ gland
amygdala
observers watching fearful faces show more brain activity in the ______ than do those watching angry faces.
amygdala
our most rapid and automatic emotional responses may result from the routing of sensory input through the thalamus directly to the:
eyes; mouth
by exposing different parts of emotion-laden faces researchers found that we detect anger mostly from the ____ and happiness from the _____
facial expressions
universally understood way to express emotion:
emotion
A response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience
James Lange theory
The theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
Cannon Bard Theory
The theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion
two factor theory
Schachter's theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal
polygraph
A machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion
catharsis
Emotional release - in psychology, the catharsis hypothesis maintains that "releasing" aggressive energy relieves aggressive urges
feel-good, do-good phenomenon
People's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
subjective well being
Self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life (used along with measures of objective well-being to evaluate people's quality of life)
adaptation level phenomenon
Our tendency to form judgments relative to a "neutral" level defined by our prior experience
relative deprivation
The perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
Hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all along phenomenon.)
Critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
Theory
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations.
Hypothesis
a testable prediction
Operational definitions
precise statements of the procedures (operations) used to define independent and dependent variables.
Replication
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
Case study
a descriptive research strategy in which one person is studied in great depth
Survey
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.
False consensus effect
is the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
Population
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study.
Random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
Naturalistic observation
involves observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate or control the situation.
Correlation
a statistical measure that indicates the extent to which two factors vary together and thus how well one factor can be predicted from the other. Correlations can be positive or negative.
Scatterplot
a depiction of the relationship between two variables by means of a graphed cluster of dots.
Illusory correlation
the false perception of a relationship between two events when none exists.
Experiment
a research strategy in which a researcher directly manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) in order to observe their effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variables; experiments therefore make it possible to establish cause-and-effect relationships.
Placebo
an inert substance or condition that is administered as a test of whether an experimental subjects who mistakenly thinks a treatment
Double-blind procedure
a control procedure in which neither the experimenter nor the research subjects are aware of which condition is in effect. It is used to prevent experimenters' and subjects' expectations from influencing the results of an experiment.
Placebo effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.
Experimental condition
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
Control condition
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
Random assignment
the procedure of assigning subjects to the experimental and control conditions by chance in order to minimize preexisting differences between the groups.
Independent variable
the factor being manipulated and tested by the investigator.
Dependent variable
the factor being measured by the investigator.
Mode
the most frequently occurring score in a distribution; it is the simplest measure of central tendency to determine.
Mean
the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.
Medians
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.
Range
a measure of variation computed as the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
Standard deviation
the average amount by which the scores in a distribution deviate around the mean. Because it is based on every score in the distribution
Statistical significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.
Culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
psychology
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
empiricism
the view that (a) knowledge comes from experience via the senses, (b) science flourishes through observation and experiment
structuralism
an early school of psycholgy that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind
functionalism
a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish
humanistic psychology
historically signifficant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people; used personalized methods to study personality in hopes of fostering personal growth
nature-nurture issue
the longstanding controversy over the relative contrabutions that genes and experience make to the development or psychological traits and behaviors
natural selection
the principle that among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributong to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
levels of analysis
the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon
biopsychosocial approach
an integrated perspective that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
basic research
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
applied research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
counseling psychology
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater wellbeing
clinical psychology
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
psychiatry
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments(for example, drug) as well as psychological therapies