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BIOL1408 NCTC Exam 3
Terms in this set (57)
with bases aligned in complementary pairs across the two strands
Chargaff's observation that DNA contained equal amounts of the nitrogenous bases cytosine and guanine and equal amounts of the nitrogenous bases adenine and thymine led Watson and Crick to the conclusion that DNA is composed of two strands
A cell in a section of tissue contains 30 chromosomes. Next to this cell are two smaller cells, each with 15 chromosomes. What process formed the two smaller cells?
recognize and bind to a mRNA codon during translation
The three-dimensional structure of a tRNA molecule supports its ability to
G1 and G2 phases
The majority of cell growth and development occurs during
During meiosis, crossing over occurs during
DNA strands are always synthesized by extending the 3' end, growing from 3' toward 5'
One major difference between DNA and RNA structure is that in RNA adenine binds with
the discontinuous segments of the lagging strand
Okazaki fragments are
In what process are sister chromatids formed?
duplicate DNA once and divide twice
One difference between mitosis and meiosis is that cells entering meiosis
offspring with one complete genome
Reduction of chromosome number in diploid organisms is required to produce
In animal cells, the chromosomes line up on a plane located halfway between the two centrosomes during
shorter and single-stranded
DNA and RNA polymers differ in that RNA polymers tend to be
near the end of mitosis
In eukaryotic cells, when does cytokinesis usually begin?
The complementary strand of the DNA sequence 5'-CGATTG-3' is
Because prokaryotes do not house their DNA inside a nucleus, they divide by a process known as
During interphase, DNA is organized by proteins to form
In living cells, heritable information is stored in
The process of forming mRNA from a DNA template is
In a diploid cell containing 16 chromosomes, if only 14 can easily be matched into pairs, what term best refers to the remaining 2 chromosomes?
How many nucleotides code for an amino acid?
DNA functions to _____ information, whereas RNA _____ information
In the cells formed by the end of meiosis II, each cell contains only one copy of each type of autosome, which is haploid
The average cell in the human body spends most of its life in
a benign tumor
A group of cells that are dividing uncontrollably, but do NOT possess mutations that promote migration to other tissues form
Two strands in a double helix are complementary, rather than identical.
The insertion or deletion of a single nucleotide into the coding sequence of a gene causes a
any rapidly dividing cells
Because cancer cells arise from normal body cells, the majority of treatments for cancer target the cancerous cells by killing cells in mitosis. Therefore, treatment for cancer kills
both DNA strands contain genes, but each gene only uses one strand as its template
Controlled, intentional cell death is known as
Rosalind Franklin's work with X-ray diffraction patterns of DNA molecules helped Watson and Crick develop the DNA double helix model.
What term refers to different variants of a gene, based on minor differences in the DNA sequence within the gene?
Initial packing of DNA forms organized units of DNA wrapped around protein complexes. Each wrapped unit is called a
Vegetative propagation is a form of
A mature strand of mRNA is composed of
Which of the structures below is found in plant cells but NOT animal cells during mitosis?
The process of converting a nucleotide sequence to an amino acid sequence is
functions as a start code and codes for methionine
Roxanne views a slide of dividing cells with a microscope. She observes a cell containing a visible spindle with poles on opposite sides of the cell. The chromosomes are located between the poles, but the chromosomes are clustered in two balls, one next to each pole. Roxanne can also see a thin, dashed line halfway between the two clusters of chromosomes. What mitotic stage is Roxanne observing?
both original strands act as templates (parental strands)
During semiconservative DNA replication
The enzyme that unwinds DNA during transcription is
The enzyme that joins two Okazaki fragments together is
Which enzyme extends the replication forks outward, increasing the size of the replication bubble when DNA synthesis reaches each fork?
New DNA strands are synthesized by the enzyme
that DNA directed synthesis of proteins
Hershey and Chase worked with bacteriophage viruses to determine what hereditary material was passed into bacteria during infection. These researchers demonstrated
During mitosis, sister chromatids separate to deliver a single copy of each chromosome to the daughter cells. A similar event occurs during which phase of meiosis?
Reactions that remove introns from mRNA are catalyzed by
During which phase of mitosis does the nuclear envelope begin to break down?
When a cell fails a checkpoint and correction is not possible, the cell usually
interphase and the M phase
What two phases make up a complete cell cycle?
a point mutation
A single base is mismatched during transcription and becomes a permanent change in the DNA sequence. This nucleotide change is called
protect linear chromosomes from gene loss
When looking through a microscope, which structure below may be observed in an animal cell during cytokinesis?
The population is primarily composed of clones.
Which of the following would you expect to find when investigating a patch of cyanobacteria cells living in together in a region of the ocean?
A DNA molecule containing sequences from more than one organism is
two sister chromatids connected at the centromere
After meiosis I, which of the following could be together in the same cell?
recombinant DNA inserted into plant cloning vectors
Agricultural scientists have improved crop production through the use of
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