103 terms

Physical Geography final-2

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2 ways wind erodes
abrasion and deflation
wind abrasion
erodes by drying out the skin of the earth, esp. areas without vegetation
wind deflation
erodes by picking things up and carrying them somewhere
dust storms
carry particles thousands of feet in the air and thousands of miles across, deflation
sand storms
takes place below your head b/c of the density of sand
saltation
sand particles hop ->movement
effects of dust storms
black lung, day looks like night
blowout
erosion, wind causes whole areas to pick up sand, etc., hop, blow it out, makes a little depression about ten feet deep and four miles wide
desert pavement
erosion, wind takes away sand and dust, leaves the rock, looks like a giant slab of concrete
2 types of sand dunes
crescentic and parabolic
crescentic/barchan
gentle slope on the outside of the dune, steep slope on the inside
parabolic
wind hits the open end of the horse shoe, steep slope on the outside, gentle slope on the inside
loess
in the U.S. and China, high quality soil from everywhere else is blown there and builds up
Rowlan Era
could take a horse across the Sahara, deserts are growing and choking off vegetation
sea of sand
individual barchans that have grown together
2 kinds of glaciers
continental and alpine
alpine glacier
mountain ranges
continental glacier
ice cap, Antarctica and Greenland
zone of accumulation
top of an a. glacier
zone of ablation
bottom of an a. glacier, where the g. is being destroyed
ablation
melting and evaporatin
cirque
snow builds in the V valley, builds ice, ice moves b/c of slope, plucks and is abrasive on the way down,plucking creates the cirque, is bowl-shaped
rock step
over time, more snow builds up and plucks more post-cirque, forms r.s.
crevasse
the bottom of a glacier cracks
ice erosion
cirque, rock step
moraine
mound of debris left when a glacier stops moving
terminal moraine
at the end of a glacier
lateral moraine
debirs pushed in front of a glacier and gets moved to the sides of it
till
layer of sand, rock, and gravel left when the glacier melts, ice deposition
horn
3+ cirques coming from different sides of the mountain that eventually destroy the horn as they continue to grow
col
2 cirques coming together on opposite sides of a mountain, ice erosion
arete
cirques that are parallel to each other, forms a razored edge in between them, the edge is the arete
trough
what's left when a glacier ablates
hanging troughs
small end away from the top end, creates mountain waterfalls
tarns
glacier goes up and over the rock step, water gets trapped behind it or under the cirque floor, ice erosion
recessional moraine
behind the terminal and lateral moraine, glacier moves back and forth and pulsates
finger lakes
water that is trapped and forms lakes in the moraines when a glacier melts
esker
pile of sand and gravel left when a glacier melts, tiny little pile or ridge vs. the whole layer of till, location of many gravel pits
Vostok
coldest place on earth
ice at south pole
14,000 ft. thick, highest % of freshwater in the world
Northern European plains
best agriculture in Europe, created by glaciers
order of the four ice ages
nebraskan, illinoian, kansan, wisconsin
causes of the ice age
tremendous volcanization/eruptions on earth at the same time, earth's axis may have wobbled, earth out of orbit
soil
uppermost layer of the land surface plants use
mineral matter
organic matter, soil, liquid, and gas, all the components of soil
humus
finely divided, partially decomposed organic matter in soils
pedology
soil science
parent material
all forms of mineral matter that are suitable for transformation into soil
bedrock
solid rock below the soil layer
regolith
layer of material on top of bedrock
soil texture
3 sizes of particles
colloids
finest of all soil textures
loam
mix containing a substantial proportion of all three grades
soil colloids
particles smaller than one hundred thousandth of a millimeter
bases
ions in soil water and essential plant nutrients
acidity
lower the ph, the higher the acidity, cold climates
alkalinity
the higher the ph, the lower the acidity, arid climates
soil structure
the way that soil grains are grouped together into larger masses
peds
form when colloid rich soils shrink in volume as they dry out
primary minerals
compounds present in unaltered rock
mineral alteration
when primary minerals change due to air and water exposure
capillary tension
water drops like to stay together
evapotranspiration
soil water lost thorugh evaporation and plant transpiration
4 requirements for minerals
naturally occurring, inorganic, definite chemical composition, definite crystalline structure
crystology
the study of crystals
rock
an aggregate of minerals
granite is composed of...
feldspar, quartz, mica, hornblende
ore
mineral that has metal in it
gem
mineral that is rare, beautiful, luster, high on the hardness scale
chemical composition of minerals
oxygen and silicon-2 major, aluminum, iron, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and sodium-6 minor ones
silicates
92% of the earth's crust, feldspar, quartz, mica, hornblende, granite
Russia
most minerals in the world, most are still in the ground
South Africa
small country that has the most minerals in the world, #1 in diamonds, gold, platinum, chromium
soil
our number one resource
magma
molten rock material in the interior of the earth
igneous
intrusive and extrusive
metamorphism
extreme temperature and pressure
erosional agents
water, wind, and ice
lithification
apply pressure, increase temperature, weld pieces together
intrusive igneous examples
granite, syenite, diorite, gabbro
i. igneous characteristics
crystalize on the interior, large grained
e. igneous examples
rhyolite, trachyite, andesite, basalt
e. igneous characteristics
crystalize on the exterior, fine grained
granite
rhyolite
syenite
trachyite
diorite
andesite
gabbro
basalt
leaching
seeping water dissolves soil materials
decalcification
soils that have lost their calcium
transolcation
materials are moved within the soil body
salinization
when salts precipitate and create a salt
transformation
changing from one soil material to another
humification
decomposition of organic matter to form humus
dip
angle between a rock plane and a horizontal plane
strike
horizontal line with respect to the compass
cliff
sheer rock wall
consequent stream
stream that flows directly seaward
cuestas
broad belt of hills
subsequent stream
streams that develop along the trend of the lowlands parallel with the shore
fault scarp
surface break produced by normal faulting
radial drainage pattern
d.p. of a volcano
monadnocks
intrusive igneous rocks that stand up above a plain of weaker rocks
volcanic neck
the remains of lava that solidified in the pipe of a volcano