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9_TCP/IP Transport Layer Protocols
Terms in this set (113)
UDP runs up to ___ percent faster than TCP, under some conditions because it does next to nothing!
Are TCP/IP Transport layer protocols.
TCP and UDP
This protocol provides identification of source and destination port addresses.
The Next Header field in the last extension header points to ___, in an IPv6 header with five extension headers and a ___. (same term for both blanks)
Well-known port addresses range.
Is the range of addresses that corresponds to the registered port numbers. [0-1023, 1024-49151, 49152-65535, 1028-2555]
Dynamic port numbers range of addresses. [0-1023, 1024-49151, 49152-65535]
These identical port numbers do not always map to the same TCP/IP protocol or service.
TCP and UDP
When the UDP checksum is calculated for IPv6 the ___ is changed to the FFFF hex value and placed in the UDP header.
TCP uses this to track the transfer of data AND its successful delivery.
sequence numbers and acknowledgments
___ to ___ ___ TCP preferable for reliable delivery requirements.
The TCP process used to maintain an active connection between peers.
___ steps occur in the TCP handshake process.
Handshake process that does not end with a final ACK.
Field value where the IPv6 pseudo-header acquires the information for the Upper-Layer Packet Length field when using TCP as the transport protocol.
Host 1 returns this response, which is a proper response to a TCP connection termination.
Makes up the value in the UDP Length field of the IPv6 pseudo-header, when using UDP for the transport protocol.
UDP header plus the data
Mechanism that is part of TCP's error-detection and error-recovery capabilities.
Is always greater than what the network and the receiver can handle at any given moment.
current TCP window size
Is where TCP data is stored when it is received.
Is the initial size of the TCP congestion window. (HINT: ___ __ ___ M__)
Signals the TCP fast recovery process.
three sets of duplicate ACKs
Acknowledged data plus the receiver's window size and all data that was acknowledged define the edges of this TCP mechanism.
Six valid TCP Flag settings. (HINT: UAPRSF - ABBRVs)
URG, ACK, PSH, Reset, SYN, FIN
The difference between IPv6 header size and the IPv4 header size, when calculating the maximum segment size (MSS) for TCP.
20 octets larger
Provide the simplest kind of transport services because they simply package messages, taken as is from the TCP/IP Application layer, into datagrams.
Is a simple protocol used by applications that contain their own connection-oriented timeout values and retry counters, similar to those provided by TCP.
UDP (User Datagram Protocol)
TCP hosts create a virtual connection with each other using this.
Once the TCP connection is established, this process can maintain the connection when there is no data sent across the wire.
The number of packets used in a TCP connection termination process.
Process that guarantees packets are ordered properly and protects against missing segments.
sequence and acknowledgement
Is the overloading of the network or a receiver.
Overloading a receiver occurs when the number of data bytes is greater than this.
Supported TCP process, which sends numerous data packets in sequence without waiting for an intervening acknowledgment.
Is detected whenever three or more duplicate ACK packets (known as a triple-ACK) or timeout events occur, and timeout events are considered more serious than duplicate acknowledgements.
When an out-of-order data segment is received, the Fast Retransmit process requires the receiver to immediately send ____.
The Fast Recovery process dictates that when a host receives three duplicate ACKs, it must immediately start retransmitting the ____, without waiting for the retransmission timer to expire.
TCP supported mechanism; management method for data transmission used to determine the amount of unacknowledged data that can go out on the wire from any sender.
When enough data is sent to a TCP host to fill its receiver buffer, thereby putting the receiver in a zero-window state.
silly window syndrome
Are what dynamic ports are used as for specific communications while they are underway.
The ___ field defines the ___ of the packet from the UDP header to the end of valid data (not including any data link padding, if padding is required). (same term for both blanks)
This defines the initial sequence number used in a TCP connection and, for security purposes, should be randomly assigned.
[host, port, packet, segment]
TCP flag setting used to indicate that the host completed a transaction. (ABBRV)
Must announce that they wish to receive multicast traffic bound for a particular multicast address.
___ running over IPv6 is little or no different than a protocol running over IPv4.
Used in IPv6 (requiring a longer than standard payload) needs to have both UDP and TCP adapted to meet this requirement.
TCP connection-oriented service mechanisms. (HINT: SES)
sequencing, error recovery, sliding window
The maximum TCP segment size in bytes. [65,495 or 5000]
___ ___ over IPv6 is more accurate to say rather than referring to "TCPv6."
maximum segment size
RFC that defines UDP.
The only four fields contained in a UDP header. (HINT: SpnDpnLC)
source port number, destination port number, length, and checksum
By default, Windows Vista, Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 support this port range.
49152 to 65535
Port range supported by default in previous versions of Windows.
Displays sequence numbers relative to their orientation within the stream under examination.
Is the amount of data that can fit in a packet after the TCP header.
Is the amount of data that can fit inside a MAC header.
DoS attack that uses a two-way handshake with the incrementing source port to overload the destination. (ABBRV)
Except during these TCP sequences, the Acknowledgement Number field increments only when data is received.
start-up and teardown
The first error-detection and error-recovery mechanism.
The value specified by retransmission timer. (Abbrv)
Insecure implementations may increment the initial sequence number used for new connections by a static, predictable count.
This flag is set when the Urgent Pointer field tells the receiver where it should start reading bytes contained in the data portion of the packet.
TCP flag setting that indicates the next expected sequence number from the other TCP peer. (ABBRV)
TCP flag setting used for time-critical or single-stroke applications. (ABBRV)
TCP flag setting used to shut down the connection entirely. It is also used to refuse a connection (for whatever reason).
TCP flag setting used during the handshake process to indicate that the sender is notifying the TCP peer of its Sequence Number field value. (ABBRV)
Is the amount of data that receiver states it can handle in its TCP buffer space.
Is the measurement of the amount of information that can cross a network.
Network transport mechanism that relies on the underlying Network, Data Link, and Physical layer facilities available to handle delivery of PDUs from sender to receiver without adding additional robustness or reliability features.
Is a continuous stream of data that contains no boundaries.
To avoid congesting a receiver, the receiver advertises a window size of ___.
This algorithm mechanism is used to slowly and incrementally increase the window size of communications.
Sends datagrams without establishing, managing, or otherwise handling a connection between sender and receiver.
Is a connectionless Transport layer protocol.
Is a transport mechanism Transport layer protocol that establishes a session between two computers, provides error checking, and guarantees delivery.
Primary and key services used in TCP/IP networking.
Are considered core services. (HINT (ABBRVs): _ _P, _ _S, _ _ _P)
FTP, DNS, DHCP
A sender determines this size by using the receiver's advertised window and the network congestion window (what the network can handle).
Upon receipt, the sender retransmits the data without waiting for the retransmission timer to expire.
Are cleared after the connection is closed and a four-minute wait time.
dynamic port number
Characteristic offered by connection-oriented services.
Type of connections that may be a indication of a TCP SYN attack.
TCP peers exchange the receiver window size and an MSS value during this process.
If the Application layer protocol offers this process, the TCP layer should not perform the same.
The TCP handshake is used to set up this type of connection between TCP peers (sometimes referred to as a circuit).
When this is detected, a TCP sender must decrease the congestion window to one-half of the previous window size.
Is relevant on a network that supports numerous small packets because of its support of interactive applications, such as Telnet.
When a TCP host receives these, that host sends duplicate ACKs that indicate how the packets arrived.
A false header structure used to calculate a checksum. The UDP and TCP checksums are based on the this.
If a TCP packet has the Push (PSH) flag set, the packet should not be held in either TCP area incoming or outgoing.
TCP buffer area
A process used by NetWare servers to determine whether the NetWare clients are still active and maintaining the connection between the two devices.
The process of acknowledging multiple packets with a single acknowledgement.
A situation in which a TCP peer advertises a window value of 0.
Are service characteristics of a connection-oriented protocol. (HINT: _H, _G, _&R, _T)
connection handling, delivery guarantees, segmentation and reassembly, explicit transmission
An amount of time that a TCP host must not use connection parameters after closing down that connection.
time wait delay
Consists of a retry timer and a maximum number of retries.
Transport layer protocol type which are lightweight, unreliable, and provide only best-effort delivery service.
Transport layer protocol connection that provides robust, reliable end-to-end delivery services, including explicit acknowledgement, segmentation, and reassembly of arbitrary-sized messages, connection negotiation and management mechanisms, and retransmission of missing or erroneous segments.
They outperform connection-oriented protocols due to lower internal message overhead and have no need for control and management of message traffic.
user datagram protocol
Is the connectionless protocol associated with the TCP/IP protocol suite.
It is commonly associated with Application layer protocols and services, such as BOOTP, DHCP, SNMP, NFS, and RIP, that either provide their own reliability mechanisms or do without such mechanisms.
In keep with its simple capabilities, this header is short and simple, consisting primarily of a protocol identifier in the IP header, an optional checksum value, and source and destination port addresses for the Application layer protocols or processes on the sending and receiving ends of a transmission.
Is the heavyweight, connection-oriented protocol. It remains associated with the majority of TCP/IP Application layer protocols, especially those such as Telnet, FTP, and SMTP.
In keeping with its more diverse, more robust capabilities, this header is longer and more complex, including a variety of flags, values, and message types used to deliver acknowledgements, manage traffic flow, request retransmissions, and negotiate connections between hosts.
Appropriate (and historical) uses for UDP concentrate on ___ ___ ___ that manage their own reliability and connections, such as NFS, and on chatty protocols and services, such as DHCP, SNMP, or RIP. (HINT:ALS)
application layer services
Chatty protocols and services rely on simple controls and fail-safes and on broadcast of ___ to handle potential reliability, deliverability, or reachability problems.
Appropriate (and historical) uses for TCP concentrate on providing reliable delivery of user services, such as ___, file transfer (FTP), e-mail (SMTP), and news (NNTP), where potentially important data must be delivered whole and intact or not at all (and flagged with an error message).
The functions of these transport layer protocols are treated differently when used by IPv4 or IPv6.
TCP and UDP
TCP and UDP are incorporated as ___ with the IPv6 header for calculating checksums, and they must be modified to accommodate the larger IPv6 address space.
TCP and UDP ___ are incorporated structurally, between the IPv6 header and any IPv6 extension headers that may be present.
If you want access to all AWS Trusted Advisor checks, which of these support plans will provide that?
What term is used to indicate the 48-bit unique identifier associated with each NIC?
14. Investment in customer service technologies should be made only after customer data has been collected and customer segments and their needs identified.
In AWS, which security aspects are the customer's responsibility? Choose 4 answers
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