18 terms

Topic 2 Rocks and Minerals

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rock
a substance made of one or more minerals
mineral
a naturally occurring, inorganic crystalline material with unique chemical composition
crystal
the outside appearance of a mineral that is determined by the mineral's internal arrangement of atoms
cleavage
physical property of a mineral that shows how a mineral breaks along flat, even and sometimes parallel surfaces
fracture
physical property of a mineral that shows how a mineral breaks along uneven and irregular surfaces
hardness
physical property of a mineral that shows a mineral's resistance to being scratched
streak
physical property of a mineral that shows the mineral in its powered form
luster
physical property of a mineral that describes how light reflects off the surface of a mineral
sedimentary rock
rocks that form from the compression and cementation of weathered fragments of rocks or other particles
compression
process of squeezing layers of sediments together, which is an important process in the formation of sedimentary rocks
cementation
the act of "gluing" sediments together by the hardening of minerals like calcite in between sediments
chemical sedimentary rocks
sedimentary rocks formed from the precipitation of minerals
igneous rocks
rocks formed from molten rock through solidification and/or crystalization
solidification
the process of becoming solid, which is happens during the formation of igneous rock
lava
molten or liquid rock that is located on Earth's surface
magma
molten or liquid rock that is located below the Earth's surface
metamorphic rock
rocks formed from heat and pressure
recrystalization
Substance crystallizes again, which is common in metamorphic rocks