Martin Luther
He wrote 95 Theses which launched the Protestant Reformation
John Locke
He believed that people were born naturally good and equal; fostered the Enlightenment attitude of "optimism"
John Calvin
A religious leader whose teachings the Puritans followed
Henry VIII
He abolished Catholicism in England in order to get a divorce in hopes of having a male heir; married six times and had three children
Elizabeth I
She attempted to compromise between England's Protestants and Catholics; ruled over a great age in England; produced no heirs to the throne
A philosophe who believed in a balance of power in government
He compiled the Encyclopedie
His Principia Mathematica was hailed universally as a work of genius; proposed a new view of the universe; discovered the law of gravity
A philosophe who believed in a constitutional limitation of monarchic power
Mary I
She fueled the conflict in England between the Protestants and Catholics; nicknamed "bloody"
A philosophe who influenced educational philosophy and pedagogy
Known for developing deductive reasoning
Julius II
A Renaissance Pope known as the "Warrior" Pope; corrupted the papacy
Put forth the belief in Heliocentrism in the year of his death
Improved the telescope; committed heresy in the eyes of the Catholic Church
Developed inductive reasoning
Believed in equal rights for women
Considered to be the "father of Economics"
Leo X
From the Medici family; bankrupted the papacy leading to further corruption
Put forth the theory that heavenly bodies move in ellipses
Paul III
Reformed the papacy during the Counter- Reformation
Spanish Conquistador who discovered and conquered the Aztecs
Tomas de Torquemada
First grand inquisitor of the Spanish Inquisition
Olaudah Equino
Captured and sent into slavery at age 11; earned his freedom and wrote a memoir
Sixtus IV
Pope who issued a Papal bull authorizing the Spanish Inquisition
Queen Isabella
Supported Columbus's exploration and gave Torquemada his political power
Juana Ines de la Cruz
Catholic nun in the New World who strongly voiced her opinions
Spanish Conquistador who discovered and conquered the Incas
Enlightenment thinker that believed in Absolutism
Louis XIV
Embodied the concept of Absolute Monarchy
Enlightenment thinker that believed in Parliamentary Monarchy
Anne I
Ruled after her sister; her only child would not succeed her
William III
Ascension to throne occurred with the Glorious Revolution
James I
Believed in Absolutism; avoided calling Parliament together
James II
Was removed from throne due to having a male Catholic heir late in life
Charles I
Was tried for treason at the end of the English Civil War; executed
Charles II
Ascended to the throne with the Restoration
Oliver Cromwell
Ruled for five years as Lord Protector after the English Civil War
Mary II
Shared power with her husband
Cardinal Richelieu
Created the concept of Absolutism
Considered the "sword" of his movement
A fervent nationalist; chancellor of Prussia
Unified northern Italy; considered the father of Italian Unification
Abdul Hamid II
Introduced reforms to a crumbling Ottoman Empire
Rulers that took over the last Han Chinese Dynasty
Region of Italy that unified the rest of the peninsula
Wilhelm I
King of Prussia and later a unified Germany
Victoria I
Queen of England at the high point of the British Empire