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Martin Luther

He wrote 95 Theses which launched the Protestant Reformation

John Locke

He believed that people were born naturally good and equal; fostered the Enlightenment attitude of "optimism"

John Calvin

A religious leader whose teachings the Puritans followed

Henry VIII

He abolished Catholicism in England in order to get a divorce in hopes of having a male heir; married six times and had three children

Elizabeth I

She attempted to compromise between England's Protestants and Catholics; ruled over a great age in England; produced no heirs to the throne


A philosophe who believed in a balance of power in government


He compiled the Encyclopedie


His Principia Mathematica was hailed universally as a work of genius; proposed a new view of the universe; discovered the law of gravity


A philosophe who believed in a constitutional limitation of monarchic power

Mary I

She fueled the conflict in England between the Protestants and Catholics; nicknamed "bloody"


A philosophe who influenced educational philosophy and pedagogy


Known for developing deductive reasoning

Julius II

A Renaissance Pope known as the "Warrior" Pope; corrupted the papacy


Put forth the belief in Heliocentrism in the year of his death


Improved the telescope; committed heresy in the eyes of the Catholic Church


Developed inductive reasoning


Believed in equal rights for women


Considered to be the "father of Economics"

Leo X

From the Medici family; bankrupted the papacy leading to further corruption


Put forth the theory that heavenly bodies move in ellipses

Paul III

Reformed the papacy during the Counter- Reformation


Spanish Conquistador who discovered and conquered the Aztecs

Tomas de Torquemada

First grand inquisitor of the Spanish Inquisition

Olaudah Equino

Captured and sent into slavery at age 11; earned his freedom and wrote a memoir

Sixtus IV

Pope who issued a Papal bull authorizing the Spanish Inquisition

Queen Isabella

Supported Columbus's exploration and gave Torquemada his political power

Juana Ines de la Cruz

Catholic nun in the New World who strongly voiced her opinions


Spanish Conquistador who discovered and conquered the Incas


Enlightenment thinker that believed in Absolutism

Louis XIV

Embodied the concept of Absolute Monarchy


Enlightenment thinker that believed in Parliamentary Monarchy

Anne I

Ruled after her sister; her only child would not succeed her

William III

Ascension to throne occurred with the Glorious Revolution

James I

Believed in Absolutism; avoided calling Parliament together

James II

Was removed from throne due to having a male Catholic heir late in life

Charles I

Was tried for treason at the end of the English Civil War; executed

Charles II

Ascended to the throne with the Restoration

Oliver Cromwell

Ruled for five years as Lord Protector after the English Civil War

Mary II

Shared power with her husband

Cardinal Richelieu

Created the concept of Absolutism


Considered the "sword" of his movement


A fervent nationalist; chancellor of Prussia


Unified northern Italy; considered the father of Italian Unification

Abdul Hamid II

Introduced reforms to a crumbling Ottoman Empire


Rulers that took over the last Han Chinese Dynasty


Region of Italy that unified the rest of the peninsula

Wilhelm I

King of Prussia and later a unified Germany

Victoria I

Queen of England at the high point of the British Empire

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