424 terms

Ch 6 study guide

Ch.6 Study Guide
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an officer's response to a noncriminal call for service is similar to:
the way he or she responds to criminal calls for service
request for assistance that are noncriminal in nature do not neccessarily require:
lights and sirens
noncriminal incidents can turn criminal at any time therefore,
always maintain a proper mind-set, situational awareness, and officer safety.
upon arriving to a noncriminal response locate the
complainant and introduce yourself in a professional manner
while listening to the complainant, gather information about the
who, what, where, when, why, and how in order to determine what course of action to take.
keep in mind that the complainant may not understand that the situationdoe not:
require law enforcement intervention
situations where LEO intervention may not be needed
power outages, parenting assistance, and keys locked in a vehicle.
in situations where LEO is unable to adequately resolve the issue refer to the complainant to an appropriate reaource
by providing pamphlets, website addresses, or other agency contact information.
Despite all the options availble to officers and complainants
there are occasions when the officer is unable to provide the expected levels of service.
when officers are unable to provide the expected levels of service
use interpersonal skills to express understanding and empathy of the situation and communicate why you cannot resolve the issue.
officers assist the
public
officers assist the public, but there may be occasions when assistance is needed from
bystanders
situations where bystanders are needed:
emegencies such as: victim rescue, first aid, or overcoming resistance from a suspect
by evaluating the scene you can determine
the level of assistance needed
when responding to the scene of a disabled vehicle
an officer may ask bystanders for assistance pushing the vehicle off the road
Section 843.06 and 901.18 (F.S.)
authorizes officers to command assistance from the public during these types of incidents
officers should consider a persons____________ to perform the task safely
capability
Identify someone with the physical strength to overcome a
subject's resistance, or assist in apprehending a fleeing suspect.
someone with less physical strength may be able to provide
1.cervical spine stabilization,
2.assist with CPR,
3. or apply pressure to control bleeding.
give _____ and _____ instrucions to people who are providing assistance.
1. clear 2.specific
under no circumstances should an officer instruct the public to assist in a way that
1. violates the law
2. exceeds their knowledge
3. compromises safety
when recieving assistance from the public
you should supervise the actions of the people providing assistance to ensure their
1 safety
2 minimize liability
3 and make sure they operate within the law
if a person is assisting with traffic control
you should ensure they adhere to the same standards as an officer by providing clear concise directions and remaining highly visible on the roadway.
occasions where a well-being check may be required
1 newspapers or mail piled on the doorstep
2 or very high grass or weeds in the yard
a person with medical issues may request an officer to routinely conduct a well-being check to their
home, or dispatch may recieve a request from an individual's neighbor or relative to conduct a well-being check
(well being check) dispatch should be able to research and identify if the resident
1 has a medical alarm service
2 has an emergency contact in DAVID
3 or a call history at the location
(well being check) the officer should try to determine if the subject of the check has been
1 transported to a medical facility
2 or has been arrested
(well being check) Dispatch should be able to determine if the person owns a vehicle which should normally be present if:
the individual is home
upon to the arrival at the location of the well-being check
relay to dispatch if any vehicles are present and conduct a brief search of the premises for signs of breaking and entering or inactivity.
officer should attempt to contact
the subject of the well-being check to determine his or her status by 1 knocking on the door 2 or calling him/her on the phone.
(well being check) if appropriate:
contact the property owner, or management to gain information about the individual and access to the location.
(well being check) look into windows
to determine the status of the person or indicators of distress
(well being check) if unable to make contact with the subject and there are no immediate signs of distress
contact dispatch and notify the chain of command
(well being check) you may consider lookin for:
1 a spare key and/or interiew any neighbor to determine the whereabouts of the person or if the neighbor has a key.
(well being check) in an exigent circumstance when an officer has (reasonable belief) the subject of a well being check is in immediately danger
a forced entry and search of the premises may be conducted
(well being check) if you determine that immediate access to the subject is required:
backup, or additional resources may be necessary to assist with a forced entry
(well being check) maintain situational awareness and officer safety
when conducting a forced entry
(well being check) if necessary, provide first aid to the subject
contact dispatch to relay the status of the individual, and/or request additional emergency resources.
(well being check) when appropriate, contact the
complainant, relative, or neighbor who initiated the well being check to update them on the OUTCOME of the check and make any recommendation for future action.
(well being check) if the officer initiated the check
interview the subject to determine who to contact for follow-up
(security check) while patrolling an assigned area, officers conduct security checks of
dwellings, buildings, or grounds
security checks may be initiated by
citizen request, dispatch, or by the officer
(security check) upon arrival officers should notify dispatch
and park their vehicle in a tactically sound location while observing the area
(security check) officers can use equipment such as:
vehicle spotlights, flashlights, and their radio to aid in conductug security checks
(security check) maintain situational awareness while looking for
susspicious indicators as you approach the scene
(security check) suspicious indicator examples
be aware of open or unlocked doors, broken windows, damaged security equipment, or barking dogs. -damaged vegetation, or items such as outdoor furniture or planters that have been knocked over or rearranged.
(security check) check suspicious vehicles and interview people
in the immediater area regarding the criminal activity
(security check) walk through the perimeter looking through windows
and ensuring all points of entry are secure with no signs of tampering.
(security check) if you observe suspicious circumstances
identify contact information for the owner of the dwelling, building or grounds.
(security check) how to identify the owner of the dwelling, building, or grounds?
you may do so by locating any posted contact information, interviewing witnesses and neighbors, or requesting dispatch to check for a property representative
(security check) once contact with the property owner or representative has been established
inquire about circumstances at the property in relation to the observations you have made. if there are indications of criminal activity, property damage, or loss, initiate the appropriate investigative action.
(security check) if the property owner or represenative is UNAVAILABLE and there is NO indication of a crime-
secure the premise and leave written notice of LEO action
upon completion of a security check officers should
communicate necessary information to dispatch
Officers will respond to various types of alarms: such as-
burglary, robbery, panic, fire, medical
the type and location of an alarm will dictate the officer's
response and tactics
(alarms) factors to consider:
life-threatening situations, danger to public, or a significant loss of property.
Who may tell dispatch the cause of the alarm
alarm company
some alarms may be
audible, some may be silent
adjust you resoponse to an alarm call base upon
the type of alarm (lights and sirens versus a stealthy approach)
whatever the alarm type or purpose,
be aware of your surroundings and anticipate unknown risks
some agency policies require at least two officers to respond to
alarm calls
other agencies make the second officer available under certain _______ or at the _____ of the initial responding officer.
1circumstances
2 request
(alarms) officers should park their patrol vehicle an appropriate distance from
the building or residence
(alarms) the location you should park/ choose depends on
the situation
if you inadvertently drive past the address
keep driving and stop farther down the street or around the corner.
upon arrival the officer should
attempt to identify the cause of the alarm
you will use investigative techniques to identify the cause of the alarm, such as:
observing the location and environment, interviewing people present, and getting information provided throught dispatch
information provided by dispactch during an alarm that will help with the officers investigative techniques
suspect discription, false alarm notification, and "key holder" response.
False alarms can be caused by:
weather conditions, power outages, unitentional activation, open doors, or unknown causes.
(alarms) if you arrive on the scene and determine suspects are present,
develop a tactical plan to apprehend the suspects.
(alarm, suspect present) factors to consider:
establishing a perimeter, the suspect's knowledge of the police presence, if you need to conduct a building search, and if you should call for additional resources. (canine, tactical team)
(alarms) if a crime has occured with NO SUSPECTS present and a significant amount of time has lapsed
secure the scene and begin a investigaton
officers may respond to noncriminal or unknown alarms such as:
fire or medical alarms
(alarms- noncriminal or unknown)
officers job in this situation is to
identify the issue and notify the proper agency to resolve the incident. (you should assist the other agencies as needed)
an officer may observe, recieve a resident report, or be assigned to an incident that presents an
enviromental hazard
(environmental hazards) to ensure the safety of life and property,
the officer may need to evacuate residents from the incident area or building quickly and professionally.
possible environmental hazards can include:
hurricane, gas leak, spill on the roadway, waterlift station malfunction, sink hole, flash flood, and fire
officers need to understand that they cannot force individuals to evacuate
except under emergency circumstances
(evacuations) upon arrival, immediately asses the scene and determine the
hazard level
(evacuations) take into consideration any environmental factors such as:
wind direction and topography of area
flash flood would require an evacuation of the buildings or areas
in the path of the flood
proper scene assesment
helps when selecting the appropriate protective equipment
if there is a gas leak:
refrain from using potential ignition sources such as: road flares or open flames
immediately identify the safest and most efficient route to
evacuate
evacuating residents may have __ or other ______ of value they wish to take with them
pets, animals
establish a perimeter for the building or area based on the
type of environmental hazard
the perimeter in a environmental hazard may______ or contract as environmental factors change:
expand
you should locate and notify any property owners or residents within the vicinity of the environmental hazard by making
door-to-door contact, or by initiating media alerts and other public notification system
door-to-door contact, initiating media alerts, and other public notification system are made to
communicate specific information regarding the hazard.
do not allow evacuated occupants to re-enter until
the situation has returned back to normal
(evacuations) communicate to dispatch any information regarding persons with
special needs
(evacuations) request and use resources from other organzations and agencies as needed, such as:
utilities, civic volunteer organizations, and police reserve units.
clear directions and supervision should be given in order to
safely and effectively evacuate residents or animals.
(evactuations) individuals should be advised to bring personal items such as:
medication, medical aids, or mobility devices
incidents involving environmental hazards can turn into a
rescue situation
while arriving at a scene involving a trapped person:
survey the scene to determine the degree of danger, the number of involved parties, and the need for additional resources.
situations that involve a trapped person may pose significant hazards such as:
fire, smoke inhalation, risk of drowning, falling debris, unstable ground, or electrical wires
(evacuate) you should ensure the safety of any bystanders by
estimating the perimeter of the scene and restricting bystander access into the area
restricting bystanders may require additional emergency responders such as:
fire department, EMS, hazmat team, city utilities
critical emergency: "that require immediate action by the officer"
someone trapped in a house on fire, a vehicle in the water and sinking, or a collapsed building.
if a critical emerrgency exist, immediately:
contact dispatch to request additional resources
prior to taking action reponding to a trapped person, consider:
your level of training, experience, available equipment, and physical ability
(evacuations) Officers may consider requesting assistance from the:
public
when taking immediate action, an officer must balance the:
duty to act with officer safety
you can't help the victim if you
become a victim
depending on the SCOPE of the incident,
ICS may need to be implemented
(Evacuations) when additonal resources have arrived, relay incident information to include any
known hazards, location and number of victims, injuries to victims, and any action you have taken
noncustodial transport
is when an officer provides transportation to an individual that is not under arrest (when an individual has voluntarily accepted or requested transport to a specified location
while noncustodial transports are not always legally required:
agencies may conduct them to strenghten community relationships
noncustodial transports are performed for a variety of reasons such as:
assisting endangered people, aiding people with disabled vehicles, or investigating a situation
evaluate the urgency of the need when considering
a noncustodial transport
officers may not be legally required to provide noncustodial transports in situations such as:
a ride to the gas station, or to a bus stop
prioritize request for transport based on
circumstances such as legal duty, call volume, availabilty of resources, and agency policies and procedures.
in order to provide the appropriate noncustodial transport services
you should have a working knowledge of local resources and service providers.
an officer may be legally required to conduct noncustodial transport for victims of certain crimes such as:
domestic violence, sexual battery, or child abuse.
special circumstances for transporting
juveniles, members of the opposite sex, and victims
prior to placing a person in a patrol vehicle
verify the individuals identity and conduct a patdown for weapons
ensure the person's seatbelt is ssecurely fastened, notify dispatch of the person's identity
beginning and ending vehicle mileage, starting location and the intended destination. (advise dispatch of any delays or changes during the noncustodial transport
(animal complaints) officers may respond to calls involving
wild, domestic, and exotic animals
domestic animals
livestock as well as family pets such as: dogs and cats
common calls involving wildlife include
alligators, snakes, bears, raccoons, and birds
exotic animals
pythons, parrots, and monitor lizards; are animals that are not native to Florida
(animal complaints) identify any immediate threat and
any injury to people requiring first aid.
determine if the animal if the animal is
running free, contained, injured, or aggressive
consider your officers level of experience and training before attempting to capture
or handle any animal
officer and public safety are the
highest priority
(animal) consider additional resources if needed including
EMS, emergency animal clinics, animal control, FWC, wildllife rehabilitators, and nuisance animal trappers.
(animal) if personal or public safety is threatened
officers MAY use appropriate equipment and force
two common ways offices recieve an assignment to make a death notification:
when the officer's agency conducts a death investigation, and when request from other jurisditions are recieved through teletype
(notifiying next of kin) the officer should obtain the name:
address and telephone number of the deceased person's next of kin using the criminal justice database
if the next of kin lives in the same local area as the deceased person
the officer should notify them in person
(notifying next of kin) youo should be aware of
cultural and religioius issues involved in handling this delicate situation
Before attempting to deliver a death notification
try to identify any languauge or cultural barriers
a victim advocate, religious leader, or interpreter
may prove very helpful when you must notify family memeber or significant other of the death of a loved one
on scene if you can determine the family's religious prefence
you may contact their religious leader to aid in the grieving process.
(NNOK) when responding in person
request a backup officer
Notifying the next of kin is a
nonconfrontatioinal situation
If relatives live out of state or town
contact the local law enforcement agency in that area and reguest that one of their officers make the notification
how do you obtain another agency's telephone number?
by contacting dispatch
when you make contact with the next of kin it is your responsibility to
answer their questions concerning the deceased person's location and the circumstances surrounding the death (this will assist the family with their loss)
if the investigation does not permit you to provide answers about the circumstances surrounding the death
explain this to the family
Be careful to avoid typical cliches (') such as:
"I know how you feel" of "God never gives us more than we can handel"
recommendations when making a death notification:
1 be absolutely certain of the identity of the deceased
2 make a clear statement that the death has occured
3 allow time for venting of feelings
4 obtain medical help if needed
5 assist in notifying significant others
6 make referrals for follow-up support service
7 Describe the procedure for identifying the deceased
special events may include
security for the event facility, attendees, and employees
officers may also be required to provide security in escorting a
money courier at the event
sporting events, concerts, fairs, and political rallies
are some examples of events you may be assigned to cover
during special events first report to the
command post for the event and check in for a pre-detail briefing.
the briefing information may include
level of enforcement, procedures for arrest or ejection, prohibited items, and other areas of concern
information, equipment, and assignments
will also be provided in the briefing
special events may be assigned a
specific radio channel
safety requirements and concerns for these events are important due to a large
number of attendees in a small area
special events - high concentration of people requires
traffic flow for both vehicles and pedestrians
be aware of other officers at the event and
entrances as well as exits.
due to the nature of large gatherings
certain enforcement protocol should be followed when making arrest decisions
once the event is concluded
you may attend a debriefing.
After the event, return
any equipment issued for the event and document any significant incidents, Discussion may invlove strategies to improve event security for the safety of officers and the public
officers should be aware that the United States Constitution's First Amendment allows people to
peaceably assemble
statues that could aid an officer in a crowd control situation:
877.03, Breach of the peace; disorderly conduct
870.02 unlawful assemblies
870.01 Affray
870.03 Riots
856.011 Disorderly intoxication
officers may respond to incidents involving a large gathering of people,
resident complaints of a large gathering of people, or assigned to monitor a special event with a large crowd.
individuals may gather as long as they
cause no disturbance and act within the scope of state laws and city or county ordinances.
in a large gathering an officer's DUTY is to
determine if the demonstration or gathering is lawful based on state statue.
In Florida permits may be required
for planned events which anticipate a large crowd
LEO may have to respond to complaints about sudden crowds such as:
late night bar closings or crowd leaving a venue
officers should determine the THREAT LEVEL of the crowd, demonstration, or riot
by observing the mood, location, direction of travel, and size of the crowd.
several things may affect the crowd's mood such as:
the results of sporting events(win or lose) or controversial court ruling
identify if a crowd is ORGANIZED and if anyone is leading or agitating the crowd... some crowds may involve
gang members-colors, symbols, weapons
Monitor the large crowd from the best VANTAGE POINT for collecting information such as:
a patrol car, rooftop, or using a video monitor system
Critical information should be related back to dispatch such as:
crowd size/movement, observed weapons (broken bottles) and any property damage.
Determine if the large crowd needs specialized assistance such as:
supervisor's deployment of the riot squad, swat, k-9, mounted patrol, fire department, public information office, or contacting the local event manager.
a large gathering has potential for
danger and must be approached cautiously
if an officer determines he/she will engage the participants of a crowd or demonstration
officers safety is the first consideration
calling for assistance and waiting for back up is
critical when engaging a crowd or demonstration
while nonhostile crowds are more passive
you should never become complacent when dealing with large groups as things can quickly change
anonymity of a crowd may
provoke the violent behavior of aggressive individuals
in large crowds, attacks may
come from any direction, so you should always have an EXIT STRATEGY and PREVENT CROWDS from concerning you or limiting your ability to exit a scene.
a show of force or presence in numbers
can be extremely persuasive in CALMING a crowd down
why a group has assembled helps an
officer better understand group goals and possible solutions for a peaceful dispersal
looking for signs and symbols on clothing or listening to words or phrases yelled or chanted by the crowd will help you
understand the gathering
an important part of dispersing crowds and resolving group incidents is
determining the leader or instigator
Identify the instigator by
observing how the crowd interacts. whom does it rally behind? who does all the talking? who seems to stand out most, talking the loudest and prompting activity?
Isolation
allows you to speak to the leader w/o the influence of the group
Effective communication skills
are essential in resolving conflicts involving MANY people
the leader's willingness to communicate is a MAJOR FACTOR:
in SUBDUNIG a threatening situation
Independent criminal violation may occur in a crowd such as:
underage drinking or illegal narcotics usage.
Incident CIVIL in NATURE such as:
landlord-tenant dispute, or child custody issue (can become highly volatile)
civil- use FCIC/NCIC queries to determine
if any injunctions or warrants exist
injunction
is a practical remedy, in the form of a court order, which requires a person to do or refrain from doing specific acts
once you have determined the disturbance is civil in nature
provide the parties with information and resources to aid in conflict resolution. landlord-tenant dispute: provide information and refer them to civil court or mediation
officers may be called to maintain the PEACE through officer presence while serving a judicial order or responding to a call for service
civil standby
civil standbys may be conducted in situations such as:
executing a writ of replevin, child custody exchange, or pretrial release order.
typically civil standbys require no
action by officers, their presence is sufficient to keep the incident from escalating.
when making contact with the disorderly or irate person,
separate the individual from any obvious sources of agitation
disorderly or irate person
determine a DIALOGUE with the subject
an individual may not be arrested and charged with disorderly conduct for only
yelling and cursing at officers.
capias (arrest warrant)
a legal order for an arrest issued by the clerk of courts at the request of the state attorney's office
pick up order
a court order to take a juvenile into custody.
an officer may use criminal justice databases and other law enforcement intelligence resources to
confirm the subject's identity and possible location
901.16 F.s
requires officers to relay the charges of the arrest warrant.
officers must include a signature,
date, and time on all copies of the court orders
civil process examples:
witness subpoena, protective injunctions, or eviction notice
civil processes are noncriminal in nature and
are issued by the court.
civil processes are SERVED by the
sheriff, but can also be served by a city police officer or a private server: exception- witness subpoenas, and evictions
officer should always review the civil process information for the
recipient's name, address, and nature of the civil process
servicing the civil process is accomplished by
providing the recipient with a copy of the civil process
officers must include a signature,
date and time on all copies of the civil process.
confirm a civil process by
completing service, providing a copy to the respondent, and returning documentation to the court through established channels.
a failure to state the facts or to include the signature as required by F.S.
invalidates the service
the execution of a search warrant can be
labor intensive and may require the coordination of multiple officers and agencies or be as simple as obtaining a DNA swab
when you are required to assist with the execution of a search warrant,
you should respond to the designated briefing location and make contact with the operation officer in charge.
execution of search warrant briefing includes;
type and scope of the search warrant, suspect information, the location, and safety concerns.
each officer assigned to assist will be given a specific task to complete such as:
security perimeter, entry, search, crowd control, or transport
additional contraband or evidence notify
the operation officer in charge immediately (execution of search warrants)
additional issues which must be communicated such as:
crowd control, children present, suspects fleeing from the scene, aggressive animals, weapons and booby traps.
officer responding to a vehicle fire should
survey the scene for victims, hazards and other threats to public safety
vehicle fire hazards may include:
hazardous materials, downed power lines, fire intensity, and any other materials that may present and immediate threat
highly flammable or combustible items in the vicinity must be
evaluated and moved if practical
park patrol vehicles
at a safe distance based on the circumstances
some factors to consider when parking are
wind directions, speed, traffic conditions, and providing safe access for other responders
fire resources should be requested as
necessary
extracted victims should be
moved to a safe location and be provided with first aid as needed
if victims are trapped beyond your rescue ability
every reasonable effort should be made to immediately extinguish the fire
fire: you may be asked to provide details of the
incident, control traffic, or maintain a perimeter.
fire: if the incident is criminal in nature
secure the scene as appropriate
the officer responding to the vehicle fire should
survey the scene for: victims, hazards and other threats to public safety.
threats to public safety may include
hazardous materials, downed power lines, fire intensity, and any other materials that may present an immediate threat
highly flammable or combustible items in the vicinity must be
evaluated and moved if practical
consider the PROXIMITY of the vehicle on fire
to potential victims or other property
(fire) factors to consider when parking are:
wind direction and speed, traffic conditions, and providing safe access for other responders
fire and rescue resources should be requested as
necessary
If victims are present (occupied vehicle)
begin rescue efforts to extract the victims while evaluating personal officer safety.
officer need to be aware of the capabilities and limitations of fire extinguishers
-they could be used to gain access to trapped victims.
extracted victims
should be moved to a safe location and be provided with first aid as needed
if victims are trapped beyond your rescue capability
give every reasonable effort should be made to immediately extinguish the fire
if the incident is determined to be criminal in nature
secure the scene as appropriate
abandoned vehicle
is a vehicle w/o a known driver or person responsible for the vehicle
abandoned vehicle may be
disabled, illegally parked, or a potential crime scene
when responding to an abandoned vehicle complaint
the initial concern is to identify public safety hazards which may include BOMBS
approaching abandoned vehicle the same way you would
a traffic stop
the most common sources of vehicle and owner information are the
license tag, and the VIN (vehicle identification number)
roadway obstruction or damage such as:
tires, animals, tree limbs, flooding, and downed power lines
use emergency equipment and traffic warning devices to
warn approaching motorists of the hazard and reroute traffic as necessary.
Immediately remove obstruction
if possible and safe to
damaged guardrails, missing traffic, control devices, potholes
type of obstruction or damage
upon arrival of a responding roadway obstruction
park the vehicle in a location to protect yourself and the public
ask your agency to contact the media (road obstruction)
to issue a public safety bulletin regarding road closures
once the obstruction has been cleared or damage has been repaired
clear all traffic warning devices to return the traffic flow to normal conditions
various parking violations
handicapped parking, blocking the fire lane, and blocking a sidewalk.
UTC
uniform traffic citation
A UTC is used to
enforce violation of Florida Statue
County or municipal citations
may be issued to enforce local ordinances
The officer can complete and attach the summons to the
vehicle in violation
the statue specifies that an officer must attach a citation
or a parking summons, in a safe, conspicuous place (usually under the windshield wiper)
There are (Three ways) to identify whether a driver violates
stop, stand, park
stop or stopping
when prohibited, any halting, even momentarily, of a vehicle, whether occupied or not, EXPECT when NECESSARY TO AVOID CONFLICT with other traffic or to comply with the directions of a law enforcement officer or traffic control sign or signal
Stand or Standing
the halting of a vehicle, whether occupied or not, otherwise than temporarily, for the purpose of, and while actually engaged in, Receiving or Discharging passengers. as may be permitted.
park or parking
the STANDING of a vehicle, whether occupied or not, otherwise than temporarily, for the purpose of, and while actually engaged in loading, unloading, merchandise or passengers.
anyone who parks in a designated handicapped space
must have the proper permit
A permit must display by either a
placard or an issued specialty license plate.
Drivers who do not have permits and park in handicapped spaces violate 316.1955, f.s. and
can be issued a citation
if a vehicle is to be impounded as part of a criminal investigation, traffic crashes, or when a vehicle is disabled, abandoned or unattended
requires the officer to conduct an INVENTORY SEARCH of the vehicle and document all its content
vehicles may also be SIEZED to facilitate forfeiture under
chapter 932 contraband forfeiture act
Impounded
when it is towed at the direction of law enforcement
if the vehicle is disabled and an owner is PRESENT
they may request that a specific tow company respond. in this case the owner will make arrangements with the company about location and fees
request wrecker to transport
the vehicle to a secured lot
if the vehicle is EVIDENCE and needs to be held under the control of the investigating agency
a wrecker service would transport the vehicle to a designated secure location
treat the evidence vehicle as a
crime scene until it is processed by the proper personnel
a secured storage facility
will be used to maintain the chain of custody and ensure evidence is free from tampering.
vehicles that are seized because of the Contraband Forfeiture Act will be
thoroughly inventoried and taken to a secure location
the authority to search a vehicle is based on
probable cause, consent, or vehicle inventory.
the authority to search a vehicle's trunk is
determined by the purpose of the search
when searching a vehicle you should ensure all
compartments are checked
when searching, avoid unnecessary damage
to the vehicle
officers should search a vehicle using a specific pattern,
which allows an officer to be consistent and thorough
wear gloves to
protect against discarded needles, weapons, or other hazards which could jeopardize officer safety
suspicious buttons or switches may indicate
hidden compartments
the inventory should
document the vehicle's overall condition, mileage if available, damage, contents and equipment
an inventory is conducted
to protect the agency and the officer from false claims of lost, stolen, or damaged property.
an inventory of a vehicle is a recognized exception of the
fourth amendment
an officer does not need probable cause to inventory a vehicle because
the purpose of an inventory is to document items in or on a vehicle, not to search for evidence of a crime.
courts have upheld the legality of an inventory when the agency has an
established written policy regarding inventories and agency employees follow that policy
after the decision is made to impound
remove the vehicle from the scene
an inventory should not be used in
lieu of a lawful search
evidence located during an inventory search
can used to further a criminal investigation
when conducting an inventory or a search of a vehicle
you must complete the appropriate form and attach it to the related report
the reasons why officers may be called to direct traffic
roadway obstruction, traffic crashes, special events, utility repairs, or broken traffic signals
roadway obstruction may include
traffic crashes, debris, disabled vehicles, downed power lines, and special events
depending on the volume of traffic and traffic patterns
you may need to request additional help
when encountering a traffic situation
safely park the patrol vehicle on the SHOULDER or another location that does not obstruct traffic.
vehicle traffic, activate the vehicle's emergency lights to instruct motorist's to
slow down
if the damage is severe enough to pose a danger to vehicle traffic
officers must direct traffic around the damage and request assistance from the appropriate department to respond and provide BARRICADES or ROAD SIGNS
whether it is day or night
officers should wear reflective safety vest to ensure they are visible to motorist.
to direct traffic you may use
hand signals, whistles, a flashlight direction wands, reflective vests and gloves and a traffic box if necessary.
spoken commands
confuse drivers and are ineffective
officers should determine what options are available for re-routing traffic based on
roadway obstruction, knowledge of the area, and environmental factors
officers must determine whether traffic can be safely routed
through or around the immediate area.
through or around the immediate area is better than
routing away from the area
if the traffic must be routed away from the obstruction
identify alternate routes such as alleyways, side streets, or parking lots
when choosing an alternate route consider factors such as
school zones, time of day, local business hours and any community events.
the selected route must also be able to
handle and sustain the level of traffic flow for the duration of the roadway obstruction
when handling traffic flow from more than one direction
officers should attempt to give equal time to each direction of traffic flow....... however HEAVIER LANES of traffic should be allowed to flow for longer periods of time
if directing in an intersection
follow typical traffic signal patterns which will reduce confusion and expedite traffic flow
when directing traffic, determine the best location to
stand, as well as the appropriate equipment to ensure high visibility and officer safety
the center of an intersection
provides the greatest visibility of the officers but is the MOST HAZARDOUS
if you are not at an intersection
find the safest possible location from which to direct traffic
avoid standing between two vehicles on the roadside or
directly in front of or behind a vehicle
if additional emergency vehicles are responding
stop traffic and allow these vehicles access
visibility
is the highest priority for an officer when directing traffic
an officers safety equipment is designed
for maximum visibility to other s
examples of safety equipment
reflective vest, flashlights and wands, reflective cones, or flares
Cones and Flares
may be placed around the roadway obstruction to increase its visibility
to get attention and direct vehicle movement
make eye contact with drivers, use a whistle, and make clear hand movements
when using a flashlight direction wand at night or during bad weather
make slower and more exaggerated motions because drivers may have difficulty interpreting short, sharp motions.
the orange flashlight cone should be used to
enhance signals given with a flashlight.
flashlight signals
can mirror those hand signals
to stop traffic
point and make direct eye contact with the driver you want to stop, raise one hand with your palm toward the driver until they stop, you may point with the other hand to the exact location where the driver is stop. when stopping vehicles on open high-speed highways, you should face the traffic to be stopped and extend both hands above your head.
to start and maintain traffic flow
point at the driver being directed to start and make eye contact, rotate your hand up and over your chin, bending at the elbow
to turn traffic flow
turns will be directed only when they can be accomplished safely, turns will be directed by pointing at the driver until eye contact is made, then pointing in the direction of the turn
audible signals
whistles can be used along with hand signals...
ONE long blast- signal motorist to stop
TWO SHORT blast signal motorist to proceed
MULTIPLE short blast may be used to get the attention of drivers not responding to your signal
normal traffic patterns may RESUME once an
officer confirms the obstruction has been removed and the roadway issue has been resolved.
the officer should stop all lanes of traffic
remove and deactivate all traffic warning equipment and signal drivers to continue normal traffic patterns
whenever a pedestrian is crossing or attempting to cross, a public street or highway, guided by a service animal or carrying a cane that is white or white with a red tip, all drivers approaching the place where the blind or partially blind pedestrian is attempting to cross must stop
section 316.1301 F.S.
all pedestrians should be afforded the same rights when crossing a public street or highway
as the blind or partially blind pedestrian
officers should be aware that It is unlawful
for any person not partially or totally blind otherwise incapacitated to carry a white cane in a raised or extended way
officers may be called to direct PEDESTRIAN traffic for COORDINATED EVENTS or UNPLANNED INCIDENTS such as
sporting events, festivals, natural disasters, critical incidents, parades, or a disabled traffic signal
pedestrian traffic officers should wear
reflective safety vest and use high-visibility equipment
coordinated events
are typically planned in advanced with established pedestrian pedestrian route
pedestrian traffic; officers may attend a pre-event briefing to obtain their
duty location, responsibilities, and duration of assignment
signals used to direct vehicle traffic can also be used to direct
pedestrian traffic
when directing pedestrian traffic
you should ensure all vehicle traffic has stopped prior to allowing the pedestrian traffic to flow, pedestrian walkways are not blocked, and you are positioned between pedestrian and vehicles while maintaining visibility at all times.
when establishing a plan to re-route pedestrians consider the following:
traffic volume and speed, number of pedestrians present, how long the traffic congestion may last, whether there are any traffic control devices available, geographic area, nature of event, most efficient and safest route
during an unplanned event people may:
become emotionally charged or panicked; therefore, officers should use command presence and clear instructions to establish and maintain order
calls for service involving a person in crisis may include:
suicide, person distraught over a divorce, or financial problems
crises calls may be
dispatched or an officer may observe a crisis situation
crises calls may also be developed out of
another call
the goal in a crisis situation is to
safely restore or maintain order
inconspicuous arrival is also known as
invisible deployment
an inconspicuous arrival will
maximize officer safety
when using inconspicuous arrival (invisible deployment)
you should proceed quickly and safely as possible, if emergency equipment is used (lights and sirens), consider turning them off when nearing the scene
crisis situation officers to be aware of potential
ambush: approach scene with caution and look for cover and concealment, and survey entrances, exits and surroundings
crisis situation, do not stand
directly in front of the door when making contact
many people may be present upon your arrival, but
the person in crisis may not be immediately obvious
identify the person In crisis by
observation and asking questions
when determining the NATURE of the crisis
asses the subject's physical, intellectual, and emotional well-being, and how likely they are to be violent
person in crisis: determine if the person is
sick, injured, under the influence of drugs or alcohol, or has committed or been the victim of a crime
person in crisis may appear
disoriented, incoherent, unfocused, or exhibit abnormal behavior and may not respond to the officer.
any immediate threats should be
dealt with first.
the officer must manage all people involved during a crisis situation and
remove the individual in crisis from the crowd if necessary
an officers demeanor can
impact the situation, either helping to defuse or elevate the crisis.
crises may become more unstable if an officer
interjects their personal mood, bias, or prejudice
in managing a crisis situation,
use various techniques to stabilize and maintain control
make eye contact when interviewing a person in crisis while
maintaining an awareness of your surroundings
in crises situations it is essential to maintain eye contact with other officers and
know the location of each backup officer
managing the scene in a crisis situation: separating the involved parties
breaks eye contact, refocuses their attention on the officer, and can reduce tension and calm the situation
you can separate people by using
partitions or a doorway
encouraging a person in crisis to SIT can
reduce physical tension and calm the situation
direct people to specific seats ONLY
after assessing the area for weapons
directing people to sit reduces
their mobility and limits their access to weapons, exits, or other people
separating people reduces
the potential for verbal insults, and physical threats
crisis; keep in mind the concepts of
proximity and personal space
each individual will have different boundaries regarding personal space and may
become uncooperative or violent if an officer stands too close
people prone to violence or abuse
may require additional person space
loud sounds
can elevate the tension of the situation and make it difficult to communicate
officers should be aware that lowering the noise level
reduces tension and relaxes people.
to reduce distractions
turn down noise sources such as: music systems and televisions, and ask bystanders to step away - allows officers and people involved to effectively communicate
gathering information about the crisis
by interviewing witnesses separately
during the interview of the person in crisis the officer should
empathize, and avoid making light of the situation
establish rapport with the person in crisis by
expressing genuine interest and concern
interviewing crisis: ask one question at a time
using simple vocabulary and sentences structure
interviewing: follow-up questions will help
clear up vagueness or inconsistencies
different types on intervention
1relocating the person to a safe environment
2taking the person into custody if he or she has committed a crime
3inintiating an involuntary treatment referral via the Baker or Marchman acts
4making a referral for services
5arranging for or providing transportation as necessary
when dealing with people in crises you must answer these questions:
can the people in crisis care for themselves? are they a threat to themselves or others?
a criminal investigation will be initiated
in situations where the officer has evidence that someone has been abused
crisis situations that involve
domestic violence, child abuse, disabled adult or elder abuse, and suicide risks all require referral by law
in certain cases of abuse
the law mandates the removal of the endangered person and custodial arrest of the abuser
an elderly neighbor living alone may be a concern to others, a referral to the SENIOR CENTER could provide
daytime activities, companionship, and daily meals
people with suicidal intentions have a
diminished value of life and may be more inclined to use deadly force on others
a person with suicidal intentions may
talk about committing suicide, attempt intentional self injury, write suicide notes, or sketch death related drawings
an existing suicidal situation may be aggravated
through inappropriate handling of a mentally distraught subject
suicidal threat calls are
life-threatening situations for all parties involved
prior to arriving to a suicidal call the officer should:
1 request assistance such as additional officers, EMS, or CIT
2 coordinate responsibilities and tactics with other responding officers and EMS
3request information from dispatch information about:
-weapons on scene
-subject's intended method of suicide
-location and subject's call history
suicidal scene, once on scene you must first determine if
subject has a WEAPON
suicidal; person might initiate a
sudden attack on the police or others
suicide by cop
some individuals may ATTEMPT to end their lives by INTENTIONALLY provoking officers to use deadly force.
suicidal person is not to be left
alone
If there is no immediate threat to the officer or others
attempt to establish dialogue, clear the scene of bystanders and any weapons or potential weapons, render first aid and request EMS as necessary
communicating with a suicidal person is
a vital part of the intervention process
officer should try to speak to a suicidal person
behind cover and keep the person talking
through active listening you may learn
how serious and immediate the suicide threat is and possibly what method the person plans to use
through careful listening
an officer may also learn about the person's openness to available resources,
show support, interest, and empathy to a suicidal person by
talking DIRECTLY to the person w/o being judgmental
LEO can provide a suicidal person assistance through
intervention or referral
a suicidal person needs evaluation from a
medical or mental health service provider.
The National Suicide Prevention Lifeline
is a service available to anyone and may be contacted at any time by calling 1-800-273 TALK (8255)
Available resources to Suicidal person:
community resources, family, friends, religious leaders.
the baker act provides
for emergency service and temporary detention for evaluation and voluntary or involuntary short-term community inpatient treatment for those experiencing mental health problems.
baker act: assess the person's mental status by evaluating the following factors:
the subject's environment
behavior of and statements made by the subject
any self-inflicted injury of the subject
complainant or witnesses statements
baker acting someone, you must deliver the subject to the nearest
receiving or mental health facility
Marchman act
provides for the involuntary or voluntary assessment and stabilization of a person allegedly abusing substances such as drugs or alcohol and provides for treatment of substance abuse
baker act calls initiated by
SUBJECT, family or household member, member of the public, or observation by officer
marchman act initiated by
a family or household member, member of the public, or because of observations made by the officer
situations involving the ______ __ the potential for being unpredictable; therefore, backup is highly recommended
Marchman act
Marchman act assess the person's physical condition through
observation and by checking their vital signs.
Marchman act several options for an officer to take a person into protective custody or deliver them to a treatment facility; such as:
securing voluntary submission, petitioning for an ex parte order, or initiating an involuntary admission for alcohol or substance abuse
( marchman act) MERE REFUSAL to receive such services
is not evidence of a lack of judgment with regard to the subject's need for such services.
responding to calls that involve a person with autism will challenge the
training, instincts, and professional conduct of the officer
once you have made the determination that an individual is or may be autistic,
speak clearly, use direct phrases, avoid quick movements, and maintain a calm presence. Be patient, allow extra time for responses, give praise and encouragement when appropriate, and be alert for possible verbal or behavioral outburst
people with autism are
unique and may act or react differently
persons with autism may become
AGITATED, maintain a calm presence w/o touching the individual, unless he or she is an immediate danger to self or others.
attempting to stop regulating behaviors
may only cause the situation to escalate
kept isolated until a care giver or a responsible person who is familiar with the individual is located
Autistic person should be
some autistic individuals are hypersensitive to sensory input such as
touch, smell and sounds- turning off lights and sirens may greatly improve their immediate environment and ultimately their response
if there is a need for service
refer a person with autism to the:
-DEPARTMENT OF CHILDREN AND FAMILIES
-THE LOCAL MENTAL HEALTH FACILITY
-THE CENTER FOR AUTISM AND RELATED DISORDERS (CARD)
-THE AUTISM SOCIETY OF FLORIDA
people with mental illness have the same rights
as anyone else without a mental illness
(Florida statue-394.459)
people with mental illness have the right to be treated with DIGNITY
to communicate with persons who are mentally ill employ the following techniques:
1CALMING
2ASSESSING THE SITUATION
3TAKE INTO ACCOUNT THE ENVIRONMENT'S EFFECT AND THE CURRENT CIRCUMSTANCES
Calming
defuse the intensity of the situation. treat people with courtesy and speak politely to create a comfortable atmosphere for conversation. Employ active listening skills. Beware of your body language to avoid a threatening and intimidating posture. use a calm, low voice, intermittent eye contact, and maintain an appropriate reactionary gap
Assessing the situation
be aware of behaviors, statements, and the possible role of medications (or missed medications) if a person is "hearing voices" you may want to ask the (WHAT ARE THE VOICES SAYING) rather than what do you hear
take into account the environment's effect and the current circumstances including:
the presence of injuries, or signs of substance abuse
FACILITATING RESOLUTIONS- you have the following response options available when dealing with a person in a mental health crisis:
release, voluntary examination, involuntary examination under the Baker or Marchman Acts, arrest
identify and eliminate any stimuli that is aggravating to the person with developmental disabilities or special needs... examples of aggravating stimuli:
agitating caretakers, family members, object, noise, or animals
respect the personal space a intellectually disabled or special needs peoples are often
sensitive to physical contact, lights and sound
if there is a person in need of protective services the officer may need to arrange or provide for special transport to any of the following locations:
-mental health facility
-hospital
-substance abuse treatment facility
-jail facility
-shelter/safe house
crisis must be documented. the required forms may include:
-Baker Act form CF-MH 3052a
-Transportation Form CF-MH 3100
-Agency specific Marchman Act Form(s)
documenting crisis report should be
detailed as possible and include the victim's and subject's statements, actions, reactions, physical condition, and appearance. witness statement, known medication, weapons involved, and the disposition of the incident