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Terms in this set (28)
What is a gland of mixed function?
ovaries and testes produce...
women- progesterone and estrogen
Placenta is developed in the ___ month. ("pockets")
Endocrine cells are found throughout the body. Examples?
adipose cells, thymus, small intestine, stomach, kidney, heart
The right atrium makes ___.
fluid for balance
The thymus makes ___.
T cells. (gain maturity of T lymphocytes)
What are the 3 secreted signaling factors?
Paracrine signaling ___.
goes from one to another, telling what to do
Autocrine signaling ___.
gives itself instructions
What 3 things does cholesterol do?
creates rigidity, accumulation of plaque, and building block for steroid hormones
All steroids are derived from ___.
Most hormones are ___.
What is a hormone?
chemical substances that travel through the bloodstream to regulate metabolism
What are the two hormone bases?
What are the types amino acids?
What are eicosanoids?
lipids, signaling molecules, archadonic acid
What 5 things can hormones do?
change plasma membrane permeability
stimulate or inhibit protein synthesis
The amino acid hormone structure is based on ___.
An amino acid hormone ___.
cannot pass through the plasma membrane (EXEPTION: Thyroid)
Amino acids bind to ___.
transmembrane protein receptors
Amino acids bind to transmembrane protein receptors which bind to ___.
Amino acids bind to transmembrane protein receptors which bind to G protein which becomes active and ___.
GDP is replaced by GTP.
Gs activates ___.
Gi inhibits ___.
If G protein is activated (after becoming inactive) then is produces ___.
second messenger (cycle AMP)
Mechanism of action of amino-acid based hormones:
1) hormone binds to receptor (1st messenger)
2) receptor activates G protein (Gs)
3) G protein activates adenylate cyclase
4) adenylate cyclase converts ATP to cAMP (2nd mess.)
5) cAMP activates protein kinase
6) kinase triggers response of target cell
What can target cells do?
stimulate cellular secretions
open ion channels
Mechanism of action of steroid hormone:
1) Steroid diffuses across plasma membrane and binds to receptor
2) Receptor enters the nucleus
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