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Gravity
Terms in this set (30)
Hindsight bias
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome,that one would have foreseen it
Critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. rather it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
theory
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
hypothesis
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
operational definition
a statement of the procedures used to define research variables.
replication
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
case study
an observation technique in which one person is studided in depth in the hope of revealing universal principals
survey
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
correlation
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
correlation coefficient
a statistical index of the relationship between two things
scatterplot
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. the slope of the points suggest the direction of the relationship between the two variables. the amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation.
illusory correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists
random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
double blind procedure
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. commonly used in drug evaluation studies.
placebo effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by administration of an inert substance,which the participant assumes is an active agent
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
confounding variable
a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment
dependent variable
the outcome factor, the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
mode
the most frequently occurring scores in a distribution
mean
the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and dividing by the number of scores
median
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.
range
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
standard deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
normal curve
a symmetrical, bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the meanand fewer and fewer near the extremes.
statistical significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
informed consent
an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate
debriefing
the postexperimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants.
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