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Psych vocab 1
Terms in this set (30)
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome,that one would have foreseen it
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. rather it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
a statement of the procedures used to define research variables.
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
an observation technique in which one person is studided in depth in the hope of revealing universal principals
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
a statistical index of the relationship between two things
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. the slope of the points suggest the direction of the relationship between the two variables. the amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation.
the perception of a relationship where none exists
assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
double blind procedure
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. commonly used in drug evaluation studies.
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by administration of an inert substance,which the participant assumes is an active agent
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment
the outcome factor, the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
the most frequently occurring scores in a distribution
the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and dividing by the number of scores
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
a symmetrical, bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the meanand fewer and fewer near the extremes.
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate
the postexperimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants.